Browsing Masters Degrees (Sociology and Social Anthropology) by browse.metadata.advisor "Bekker, S. B."
Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
Results Per Page
- ItemAssessing corporate social responsibility in terms of its impact on sustainable community development : Anglo American PLC programmes as case study(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-03) Marais, Anel; Bekker, S. B.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mining industries significantly influence the societies within which they operate. They have been responsible for causing a wide range of negative environmental and social impacts at local, regional and global levels. Disruption of river flows, degradation of land and forest resources, negative impacts on the livelihoods of local communities near mines and disturbance of traditional lifestyles of indigenous people are some examples. Historically, the mining industry has taken a ‘devil may care’ attitude toward the impacts of its operations, inter alia by operating in areas without social legitimacy, by causing local devastation, and by leaving when an area has been exhausted of its economically valuable resources. Cost benefit language has often been used to justify damage caused in one place by arguing that it is outweighed by overall financial benefits. In recent years however the global mining industry has started to address its social and environmental responsibilities, visible in current debates about social and environmental sustainability. As a result, various mining companies have launched corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes that tend to focus on local community initiatives as their impact in economic, social and environmental terms, they believe, is felt most at local level. Yet the question remains, can CSR on its own make a substantial contribution to local sustainable community development? The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) defined CSR as “…the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large...” (WBCSD, 2003). Despite this clear definition, there is still great diversity within the mining sector in perceptions of what CSR constitutes and what its key tenets should be. Without a consistent definition or understanding of CSR and sustainable community development, planned efforts and programmes will do little to contribute to the overall improvement and well-being of the intended beneficiaries. The research focuses on defining sustainable community development and how it relates CSR. It identifies three characteristics of sustainable community development and uses these to assess the CSR programmes of Anglo American Plc, as case study company, to determine whether the company’s programmes have the potential to contribute to the sustainability of the communities associated with its operations. The research results in three main conclusions drawn from the case study – in a phrase that CSR is able under certain conditions to contribute positively to community sustainability. The conclusion also offers a few suggestions regarding ways companies can increase the contribution their CSR programmes make to local sustainable development.
- ItemBlack in-migration from the Eastern Cape into the Cape Metropolitan area : profile of the migrant and reasons for moving(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002) Britz, Andre Alfrieda; Bekker, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Migration is the (usually free) movement of individuals from one place to another. Migration is formally conceptualized as the movement of households from relatively poorer regions - the sending areas -- to relatively better-off regions -- the receiving areas -- thereby enhancing the households' chances of improved access to resources. The migrant can be defined as a person that has gone out of his/her own free will from one place to another. In this sample and study, a distinction will be made between household heads born in the CMA, household heads that arrived before 1994, and household heads that arrived in the CMA in 1994 and thereafter. These migrants will be called "Household Head Born CMA", "Household Head older migrants", and "Household Head recent migrants" respectively. Informal squatter settlements are mushrooming at the outskirts of the CMA and very little is known about the motivation of migrants to leave their rural areas. In explaining the occurrence of migration and of why people migrate, one has to consider the push-pull theory. In the sending areas there are certain push factors, pushing the migrant out of the area. In the receiving area, there are pull factors, pulling the migrant towards the area. Migrants are also not a random selection of people. They have specific traits and differ from non-migrants in certain respects (age, life-cycle stage, marital status, education, occupation and status, cultural attributes and traditionalist vs. innovator). It was found in this study that the CMA as opposed to the Eastern Cape has certain differences, thereby pulling and pushing the migrant into and out of the areas respectively. Also, migrants seem to have different characteristics than that of the nonmigrant.
- ItemAn evaluation of the integration of the 'white' town of Pietersburg and the 'black' township of Seshego after the local government elections of 1995(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2001-12) Mabotja, Mpheta Samuel; Bekker, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The emergence of urban systems in South Africa was from the start shaped by racial bias. The black people of this country were refused any form of participation in town planning. To aggravate the situation, urban space was manipulated in a manner that each racial group had its own residential space. The manipulation of urban space gave rise to what is called "the Apartheid City." This "Apartheid city" is characterised by stark contrast in development between a well-serviced, first world town lying side by side with underserviced third world townships. The "Apartheid City" of Pietersburg-Seshego has been undergoing restructuring since 1990. The Local Government Transitional Act (LGTA) has served as an intervention whereby the two formerly unequal areas had to integrate and become one city. The central aim of this study is to evaluate, by using a series of indicators, the integration level that has been achieved since 1995, i.e. since the first local government elections. The study will focus on three key areas to reflect the level of integration, namely, land use patterns, ward demarcation, and integration of personnel. The main conclusion is that though one council has been formed where there were previously two, spatial inequalities and racially-based ward demarcations between the former Pietersburg town and the former Seshego township persist. On the other hand, personnel drawn from the administrations of former white Pietersburg and former Lebowa civil service has not been fully integrated. The former Pietersburg municipality personnel is still white male dominated in both senior and middle management levels while the former Lebowa personnel is black male dominated found in the lowest levels of the TLC structure.
- ItemInformal housing in Cape Town : delivery, formalization and stakeholder viewpoints(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-03) Tredoux, Marius (Marius Jacobus); Bekker, S. B.; Cornelissen, Scarlett; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.The City of Cape Town is estimated to host approximately three million people. Of those three million, it is also estimated that 22 percent are living in what could be considered informal dwellings. In 2000, one of the United Nations Millennium Development Declaration goals for 2020 was ‘to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers as proposed in the Cities without slums initiative.’ The South African government took this initiative on board and has set a goal of eradicating all informal settlements in South Africa by 2014. There is thus a process of formalization currently taking place in South Africa. In Cape Town however, there is currently a backlog of between 300 000 to 400 000 households and this number is growing The issue of housing delivery, not only in Cape Town, but world-wide, is an aspect that attracts lots of discussion. The viewpoints on how to approach formal urban housing delivery vary from a state-led approach, to a more participatory process, to rental options, or even that informal settlements should be left as they are, as part of a city’s social fabric. But why do these viewpoints differ? And how do these divergent viewpoints influence approaches to housing delivery? In this study I will answer, ‘How stakeholders in the housing delivery process view informal settlements, and when there are divergent viewpoints, why do they differ’? Four groups of stakeholders in Cape Town were identified, namely government officials, contractors/developers, researchers and residents of informal settlements. Interviews were conducted with the stakeholders on an individual level except for the residents of informal settlements where focus groups where held in two informal settlements.
- ItemLanguage diversity in the public health sector in the Cape Unicity : policy and practice(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2006-04) Williams, Michellene Shannon; Bekker, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to study language diversity in the public health sector in the Cape Unicity area. The recent introduction of a multilingual policy is compared to practice in the health sector. This is done in order to draw similarities and differences regarding a gap between policy and practice. Five health facilities in the Cape Unicity were approached. Twenty-five respondents were sampled: doctors, nurses, administration or management officials, patients, and official interpreters where possible. To conclude, the findings suggest a significant gap is evident between policy and practice in each of the five health facilities. However, the gap appears to differ in scope for some health facilities due to certain factors. Subsequently, a number of recommendations are proposed.
- ItemLocal identities developing in the two Western Cape towns : Stellenbosch and Wellington(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-04) Xabendlini, Nosicelo Ruth; Bekker, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates the construction, at local level, of collective identities in two Western Cape towns: Stellenbosch and Wellington. Identities are understood to refer to residents' construction of meaning for themselves. The approach was qualitative and used interview and focus group techniques with probes that allowed participants to speak freely about their lives in these towns. Under apartheid, residents were divided by race in these towns. The study aims to identify changes in local identity after apartheid. New identities revolving around issues of security and language appear to be emerging. Simultaneously, old racial identities persist.
- ItemMaking the connection : the inclusion of information and communication technology in Western Cape Municipal integrated development plans(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2006-04) De Waal, Liezel; Bekker, S. B.; Cornelissen, Scarlett; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study examines the Western Cape municipal Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) and questions whether these IDPs include Information and Communication Technology (ICT) initiatives that promote development. IDPs are used by municipalities as multi-sectoral plans that provide situation analyses of municipal areas and determine development priorities in municipal areas. These development priorities must be met within certain budget and time constraints. Globalisation and the technological revolution have led to the rapid development and convergence of technology. Technology, such as the Internet and cellular telephones, has had various influences on society. One of these influences includes the possible application of ICT for the purpose of development. Therefore both IDPs and ICT can be applied for developmental purposes. The study thus brings together two seemingly unrelated concepts, namely Integrated Development Plans and Information and Communication Technology and aligns them with one another through the concept of development. The study includes three main objectives. Firstly, the Integrated Development Plans of the municipalities in the Western Cape were examined to ascertain whether these municipalities address ICT in their IDPs. Secondly, the nature of the ICT initiatives was determined. This refers to whether the ICT initiatives are for use in the community or for use in the municipality. Finally, a framework was developed, which includes the classification of the different types of municipalities, together with the different types of ICT initiatives. Recommendations were made based on this framework. The various theoretical issues discussed in this study include the transformation of local government in South Africa and the establishment of developmental local government. Various issues concerning the use of ICT for development are also discussed and they include the ‘Information Society’, the ‘Digital Divide’ and ICT for development. This discussion emphasises that success of ICT initiatives for development depends on the nature of the underlying policy agenda; this agenda must be demand-driven and pro-poor.
- ItemParticipation of rural communities in development policy and practice : the South African experience and its relevance for Rwanda(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12) Bangwanubusa, Theogene; Bekker, S. B.; Groenewald, C. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLIAH ABSTRACT: Several indispensable variables for effective community development include, among others: development skills, networking and partnership, and community participation in the development project life cycle. The study aimed to derive relevant lessons about these factors for Rwanda from the South African community development experience. A literature study was first undertaken on key concepts such as participation, rural community, development, and policy and practice. Literature on principles and policies guidelines for community development in both the South African and Rwandan contexts was also reviewed. Within the perspective of comparative analysis, the socio-political and historical backgrounds of both countries served as the basis of criteria for selecting four case studies. From South Africa, three case studies were selected from both the apartheid and post-apartheid periods. One postapartheid study was regarded as unsuccessful and one was successful. The third is a successful ongoing case that straddles the apartheid and post-apartheid periods. From Rwanda, a postgenocide ongoing case was selected on the grounds of its perceived success. A comparative analysis was undertaken of practical results and the South African experience provided actual relevance for Rwanda in specific ways. In complete contrast to the current view that community driven development depends on the political context, the study shows that it depends rather on a number of objective principles for active community participation. What is demonstrated is that community driven development cannot be adequately supported by the developer-centred, consultation, and blueprint approaches because they fail to inspire active community participation. Nor can community participation be seen merely as cheap labour or superficial involvement. Instead, it implies empowering the community with development skills that enable people to acquire more choices and gain control of their community life. To achieve such empowerment, the study stresses the need for a shift toward the bottom-up approach to the planning and implementing of rural-based development projects.
- ItemRural migrants and their social networks in an urban setting : the case of Joe Slovo Park, Cape Town(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-12) Mongwe, Robert; Robins, Steven; Bekker, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and purpose of migrant social in Marconi Beam Informal Settlement, and Joe Slovo Park. The study found that migrant social networks served both economic and cultural functions. Through their social networks migrants seek to maximise their remittances to their areas as well as to convey information about the availability of jobs and housing conditions in the city. Newly arrived migrants depend on their kin and village mates for food, shelter, and sense of belonging in an environment that can otherwise be hostile. Similarly in times of crisis such as redundancy, property losses migrants can call on the support within their immediate area of residence or from other members based in their rural areas of origin. Furthermore, migrants visit their rural areas of origin to partake in marriages, initiation ceremonies, and funeral service. And many of the migrants who die in the city are transported to the rural areas for burial. Migrant social networks demonstrate the complex interconnectedness of the urban and rural spheres of life in both the economic and cultural aspects of life.
- ItemThe struggle for self-determination : a comparative study of ethnicity and nationalism among the Quebecois and the Afrikaners(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1999-12) Down, Allison; Bekker, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology & Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis examines the structural factors that precipitate the emergence of ethnicity and nationalism, with a special emphasis on ethno-Iinguistic identity. Nationalist momentum leading to self-determination is also addressed. A historical comparative study of the Quebecois of Canada and the Afrikaners of South Africa is presented. The ancestors of both the Quebecois and the Afrikaners left Europe (France and the Netherlands, respectively) to establish a new colony. Having disassociated themselves from their European homeland, they each developed a new, more relevant identity for themselves, one which was also vis-a-vis the indigenous population. Both cultures were marked by a rural agrarian existence, a high degree of religiosity, and a high level of Church involvement in the state. Then both were conquered by the British and expected to conform to the English-speaking order. This double-layer of colonialism proved to be a significant contributing factor to the ethnic identity and consciousness of the Quebecois and the Afrikaners, as they perceived a threat to their language and their cultural institutions. Nationalist movements provided a forum for the expression of their ethnic identity and demands for autonomy. However, as the Afrikaners' political realm encompassed all of South Africa, and the Quebecois' was limited to the province of Quebec, their strategies for self-preservation deviated upon assuming political power. Presently, Afrikaner nationalism is reduced to a small fragment aspiring to separatism in the form of a volkstaat. Quebecois nationalism, though, is still very strong with a separatist party still in power.
- ItemTypes of explanations given by foreign African women for xenophobic violence : a De-Doorns case study(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-12) Mukwena, Dale; Bekker, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In November 2009, xenophobic violence flared up in De-Doorns, a small rural town which lies in the Breede Valley Municipality of the Western Cape where table grape production is the main economic activity. The De-Doorns violence involved local South African residents as perpetrators and a significant number of migrant workers mostly Zimbabweans as victims. The central purpose of this thesis is to compare the explanations for xenophobic violence given by female victims with explanations drawn from the research community and the mass media covering the De-Doorns incident. The major research question is to find reasons for this De-Doorns violence given by female victims, by the research community and by the print media. The results point to the following motives for xenophobic violence: frustrations that translated into xenophobic violence were driven by labour matters. South Africans believed that Zimbabweans were accepting seasonal farm work from farmers at lower wages than those for locals. The violence was also perceived to have been initiated by labour brokers and by a local ANC councillor. The current investigation indicates that the potential for xenophobia-related violence still exists in South African townships even after the widespread outburst of xenophobic violence of 2008 since refugees and vulnerable migrants remain visible targets.
- ItemThe use of survey methodology to determine residents' environmental attitudes towards a modern high-rise public housing complex(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2000) Du Toit, Jacques Louis; Bekker, S. B.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.; Jacobs, IvanENGLISH ABSTRACT: This is an applied methodological thesis about the attitudes of residents towards a modern high rise public housing complex. A definition and analysis of the theme show that this housing type is characterised by a distinctive design and style known as modernist. Therefore, modern and postmodern theory is used to formulate a general existential hypothesis as to residents attitudes towards this housing type. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to research the thesis. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and analysed in the form of a perceived environmental quality index. It was found that residents show a negative overall attitude towards the housing complex. However, there are also some indications of positive attitudes towards the complex, and significant differences were found between the attitudes of particular groups. The thesis is concluded with the suggestion that this housing type can be regarded as an option for certain groups in the context of South Africa’s current housing situation.
- ItemThe use of visual art for community development with specific reference to Kayamandi, Stellenbosch(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-03) Davidson, Michele; Bekker, S. B.; Honey, V.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The central theme of this thesis is to establish the use of visual art for community development. This is done within the context of South Africa in Kayamandi, a Black Township near Stellenbosch. This example has been chosen because one of South Africa's major developmental challenges lies in Black Townships, due to the previous government's negligence toward these areas. Since the thesis focuses on a Black Township, the history of Black visual art during the 20th century, under colonial and postcolonial regimes is analysed. Subsequently, the notion of community development and how visual art contributes to development is outlined. The important role that community arts and community arts centres play in the contribution of visual art to community development is also defined. To this end qualitative and quantitative research has been conducted in Kayamandi. Artists, visual art groups and possible community arts centres were identified. By way of the Kayamandi study, it is understood that visual art is an established practice in Kayamandi. Under specified circumstances, visual art practice in Kayamandi does lead to community development. The establishment of a community arts centre could further increase people's use of visual art for community development.