Browsing Masters Degrees (Sociology and Social Anthropology) by Title
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- ItemDie aard en omvang van werksafwesigheid by Kleurlingwerkers in Kaapse nywerhede(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1974) Briedenhann, Johann Eckhardt; Cilliers, S. P.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie verslag bevat die eerste resultate van 'n breere ondersoek · na werksafwesighei.d onder Kleurlingwerkers in Kaapse nywerhede .. Dit spruit voort uit vertoe wat deur die Kaapse Kamer van Nywerhede aan die Departement van Sosiologie van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch gerig is. Aangesien tot dusver weinig oorsigtelike navorsing oor die verskynsel van werksafwesigheid gedoen is, moet hierdie projek uiteraard as 'n verkenningstudie beskou word. Om hierdie rede word in hierdie verslag dan ook in hoofsaak aandag gegee aan die aard en omvang van die verskynsel. Teen die agtergrond van die kennis wat nou beskikbaar is, word tans aan verdere aspekte van die verskynsel aandag geskenk, en 'n omvattende verslag sal hopelik eersdaags voorberei word. Finansiele steun vir hicrdie projek is goedgunstelik deur die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing verleen. Die Raad vir Geest.eswetenskaplike Navorsing is egter nie verantwoordelik vir menings en gevolgtrekkings vervat in hierdie verslag nie.
- ItemAbove gender : doing drag, performing authentically, and defying the norms of gender through performance in Cape Town(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-03) Prince, Lindy-Lee; McDougall, Kathleen; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The thesis that is to be presented discusses the performance of drag and gender in Cape Town – namely Bubbles Bar. I argue that the performance of gender on stage through the performance of drag challenges the norms and ideas of gender in South Africa. Through the act of non-normative staged gendered performance, the participants of this study also challenge stereotypes and stigma around this in relation to the social norms and regulations that are asserted on the individual presentation and performance of gender and sexuality. I argue that the performance of gender in relation to the stage asserts the situational character of gender performance through the staged performance of drag. I assert that the staged performance of gender is made authentic by the audience who views and understands the performance as a performance of drag, and a performance of gender. The performance of drag is considered an act of transgression. Transgression in South African society is policed through acts of oppression, social and sometimes physical violence. This act of transgression is performed through drag which is viewed as an act of nonnormative gender performance. The perception of transgression places those who perform gender in a non-normative fashion upon the margins. However, that the performers are acting above gender places the performance on a higher plain. The theatrical methods, and inclusion of the audience in the performance that are used as a form of entertainment allows the participants in this research project to humanize the gendered performance of non-normativity by education through the art of their performance.
- ItemAccess to sexual and reproductive health services: perceptions and experiences of Zimbabwean migrant women in Kayamandi (Stellenbosch, South Africa)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Mukutiri, Tinaye; Prah, Efua; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This qualitative study explores Zimbabwean migrant women’s experiences when accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services at the Kayamandi clinic. The national migrancy environment in South Africa is characterized by xenophobic attitudes that cascade down to communities like Kayamandi and is evident at Kayamandi clinic as Zimbabwean migrant women experience subtle xenophobic attitudes from health personnel. Through intersectionality, this study examines how migration status or nationality, gender, location, and language intersect and shape the experiences of Zimbabwean migrant women when accessing SRH services at the Kayamandi clinic. Compromising access to SRH services and indirectly increasing their body’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections, revealing how the Zimbabwean woman’s body is a site where exclusion and marginalization are evident. Communication inequality at the Kayamandi clinic affects Zimbabwean migrant women’s access to comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education; additionally, language is one of the major social determinants of accessing SRH service. Communication inequality and social determinants of SRH services compromise the achievement of Zimbabwean women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). To address their challenges, Zimbabwean migrant women are devising strategies that include seeking SRH services at private institutions and at the Cleotesville clinic. However, even though Zimbabwean migrant women devise strategies to access SRH services, the strategies are not sustainable because SRH services need to be conveniently accessible at the Kayamandi clinic for all. There is a need for the inclusion, engagement, and active participation of Zimbabwean migrant women at the Kayamandi clinic, allowing them to be involved in all SRHR initiatives implemented at the clinic. Drawing on qualitative research methods that include in-depth telephone interviews and the analysis of grey literature, this study only included six Zimbabwean migrant women. The research participants were specifically identified and recruited by utilizing purpose sampling and snowball sampling. The data obtained was thematically analyzed.
- ItemThe accomplishment of effective community development : a case study of methods applied in the community of Zwelihle(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2005-04) Bouwer, Anton Christian; Groenewald, C. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to determine, which of two development approaches, i.e., the "bottom-up approach" or the "top-down" approach (or social development and social engineering, respectively) have been successful in determining the felt needs of the community of Zwelihle. For this purpose a needs assessment was executed in Zwelihle community, close to Hermanus, in September 2001. The assessment procedure was done according to the Priority index and Community profile method (P+C-index), applying the Schutte scale during semi-structured focus group interviews. "Qualiquantitative" data (quantifies a qualitative response) was gathered from five different neighbourhoods in Zwelihle, each with different priority needs. Previously to this study, another community development project, the "housing project", was conducted in 1998 in the community of Zwelihle and more specifically in Thambo Square, presently named Airfield, fulfilling a housing need. The present study only considered the first three phases of the development process (needs assessment, problem identification and planning) to be relevant, of which all these phases have been executed and completed by the "housing project". However, no further follow-up phases of the community development process have been executed since the completion of the P+C index needs assessment. Each of these two involvements in the Zwelihle community had a different approach to development. The former, the P+C index needs assessment, had a social development approach (bottom-up), and the latter, the "housing project", had a social engineering approach (top-down). By applying a measuring tool, the principles and features of effective community development (Swanepoel, 1997:3) during the initial, needs assessment phase, an attempt was made to determine which of the two approaches have been successful in determining the community's "felt" needs and in so doing have managed an effective community development process. The finding was that the P+C-index method, as far as the first phase of community development was concerned, applied all the community development principles and reflected the features of effective community development. Although the outcome or characteristics of these applied "principles and features" may not be recognised or measured, this present study has realised these principles and features during the needs assessment phase. The "housing project" has fallen short in applying any of these principles and did therefore fail to reflect any characteristics of an effective development process. The differences between the two approaches essentially are that the P+C index empowered the community, by allowing the members at "grassroots" level participation in order for them to personally express their "felt" needs during focus group interviews. The 'housing project' on the contrary has allowed the community at "grassroots" level participation but only to a certain extent, by filling out questionnaires identifying a "real" need ("top" down need identification). The community leaders, though, were allowed to speak on their behalf. In conclusion, it may be possible to determine which of the two mentioned approaches have been successful in determining the "felt" needs of the community of Zwelihle and in doing so have been effective, by socially developing the people.
- ItemThe achievement gap between learners who are assessed in a primary language and those assessed in a non-primary language in the natural sciences learning area(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-03) Sedibe, Godwin Konotia Bully; Le Grange, L. L.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.In the TIMMS-R report, which compared the performance of a South African cohort of learners with international peers in Science (and Mathematics), Howie (1999) highlighted that: • The biographical information of the South African cohort who performed below par in comparison with international peers indicated that they wrote the TIMMS literacy test in a second or third language. • Non-primary language learners spend considerably more time on homework compared to primary language learners. • There is no linear relationship between the amount of time spent on homework in Science and the average literacy level in the learning area amongst South African learners. Leveraging on the TIMMS report cited above, this study sought to establish the interrelationship between learning and being assessed in a non-primary language on one the hand and related performance on the other. Specifically, this study sought to establish the performance of non-primary language learners compared to primary language learners in the Natural Sciences Common Task for Assessment (CTA). There is a groundswell of evidence mounting that tends to suggest that primary language learners outperform their non-primary language counterparts in batteries of assessment instruments. This, however, is always clouded by other extraneous factors, chief amongst which, in the South African context at least, is the strong correlation between studying in a non-primary language and family socio-economic status (SES). SES has been identified elsewhere as a determinant of scholastic achievements(Blignaut, 1981; HCDS –WC, 2006).
- Item"Acts of disclosing" : an enthnographic investigation of HIV/AIDS disclosure grounded in the experiences of those living with HIV/AIDS accessing Paarl Hospice House seeking treatment(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-10) Le Roux, Rhonddie; Robins, S. L.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Paarl, in the Western Cape, has been identified as one of the 15 national sites where antiretroviral treatment (ARVs) would be made available to people living with HIV/AIDS. Paarl Hospice initiated a support group for people to deal with this disease in 2003. Since February 2004 Paarl Hospice has been recruiting people from the surrounding informal settlements for ARVs. By means of participant observation I explored how HIV/AIDS-related disclosure experiences unfolded in places, spaces and events associated with the support group in the context of factors enabling and preventing people from accessing Hospice House. I did this by considering the insights drawn from an anthropological approach. I found the meanings of disclosure in the majority of studies to be limited and restricted. Available studies approached disclosure in a top-down fashion by regarding the definition of disclosure as the announcement of HIV-positivity at the time of diagnosis only. These studies have not considered social differences relating to disclosure neither did they focus on the actual process of disclosure. By means of a constructivist approach to grounded theory I seek to broaden the definition of disclosure to account for the range of ways in which disclosure practices take place. I found that disclosure could not be separated from the situational context in which it occurs and that it can only be understood in relation to the circumstances and relationships in which it takes place. In this study, disclosure was an ongoing process, situated somewhere between active, public announcement of an HIV-status and complete secrecy and somewhere between voluntary and involuntary revealing of the disease.
- ItemThe Adam Tas student association and the tension between Afrikaans identity and transformation at Stellenbosch University(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-03) Kriel, Berenice Gwendoline; Van der Waal, C. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: After 1994, transformation interventions in all sectors of South African society were needed to adequately address socio-economic disparities caused by apartheid policies. The objective of equalising conditions between 'racially' divided categories within the education sector was thus a high priority for the newly elected democratic government. Higher education institutions, including Stellenbosch University (SU) also recognised the need for transformation to eradicate 'racial' inequalities at formerly white Afrikaans institutions. However, given these inequalities, the interventions at SU led to disagreements over language policy that resulted in a fiery taaldebat (language debate). This in turn, also gave rise to tensions between maintaining an Afrikaans identity for the university versus transforming it into a multicultural one in which English as medium of instruction would be increasingly used. It is precisely because SU was still grappling with the above that I decided to embark on a study that investigated the complexities emerging in the nexus between transformation, language and identity, by focusing on a student initiative, the Adam Tas association. This study seeks to understand how the process of transformation is unfolding at a historically Afrikaans university (HAU) where identity politics plays a major role in terms of linguistic and 'racial' matters. The second objective is to provide a better understanding of what the Adam Tas student association entails as well as to investigate its goals and actions in a broader contextual perspective. My research is also geared towards discovering what the future of teaching in Afrikaans might be on university and national level. Lastly, this anthropological study attempts to provide the reader with an alternative understanding of the challenges that are associated with the transformation process of a HAU, within the larger context of higher education transformation in South Africa. The uncertainty surrounding the 'higher functions' of Afrikaans, brought about by the implementation of a more inclusive language policy at SU, resulted in the establishment of Adam Tas by a group of students. The association's motto of 'Transformation through Afrikaans‟ is indicative of Adam Tas's strong association with only one language, Afrikaans. This emphasis on Afrikaans is thus contradictory to its claim of supporting the inclusion and integration of all diverse 'racial' categories. Despite Adam Tas's claim that it is in agreement with university management regarding SU being in need of transformation, the vision of this association is also contradictory to one of the goals of university management: transforming Stellenbosch University into a non-ethnic university. In drawing conclusions on the discourse of identity, my research showed that Adam Tas is still viewed by many non-white, non-Afrikaans-speakers at SU as a white, Afrikaner association with a right-wing agenda, despite its numerous efforts to rid the association of this exclusive image. Another finding regarding Adam Tas is that it is promoting Afrikaner culture through its numerous activities and social events which have strong links to white, Afrikaner culture. The fact that the majority of its membership is white and Afrikaans-speaking, contributes to the association‟s white, Afrikaner identity, in a concrete and visible manner.
- ItemAdolescent girls living in Rustenburg : gender roles, gender relations and future expectations as women(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2005-04) Paxton, Rae-Julie; Kritzinger, A. S.; Van Aswegen, W. F.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Arguing from a social constructionist perspective and using a qualitative methodology the aim of the present study was to explore different dimensions of gender amongst a group of adolescent girls between the ages of 14 and 18 years living in Rustenburg, South Africa. More specifically it explores and describes the following aspects of gender amongst these girls: (a) how young adolescent girls living in Rustenburg perceive gender roles in general and how they perceive their own roles in particular (b) their gender relations with other adolescents and (c) their views on and expectations of the future as women. The rationale for selecting Rustenburg as the geographical area of research is due to its semi-rural location. While rural communities are generally perceived to be more conservative than urban areas they do not escape modernizing influences such as the mass media. An underlying theme of the present study is thus to ascertain whether or not the girls in Rustenburg still have relatively conservative perceptions regarding gender. The fmdings of the present study reveal that the participants have broken away from conforming to traditional roles assigned to women and would like to combine new modem roles with existing traditional roles. It is also clear that the mass media has a considerable influence in this regard. According to the respondents society values .a woman that can succeed in being a good mother, wife and home-keeper as well as being a career woman. Most of the participants want to fulfil these multiple roles. The advantages of being career women, according to these participants, are that such women are independent and fmancially self-reliant. Regarding gender relations, friendships with girls and boys are of equal importance to the respondents. On the one hand sufficient common ground exists to interact comfortably with boys, while on the other hand interacting with boys is seen as useful in obtaining insight into the life world of boys. However, a general opinion held by the girls is that they feel more comfortable to discuss more personal and intimate topics with their girl friends. Relationships with younger girls and factors influencing popularity among girls were also explored as themes. Future expectations that are shared by participants are that they would like to complete their school education and attend a technikon or university to further their education. Their future career expectations cover a wide range of occupational choices. Most of the participants want to get married in future - the ages varying between 25 and 30. They would also like to have children but only once they have established a good career. Their main concerns for the future are whether or not there will be job opportunities for them in the careers that they want to pursue.
- ItemAfrikaaps: A celebratory protest against the racialised hegemony of 'pure' Afrikaans(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-12) Van Heerden, Menan; Van der Waal, C. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology & Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT Afrikaaps is a multi-media (Becker and Oliphant, 2014) protest theatre production that has been performed locally and internationally between 2010 and 2015. Afrikaaps, also termed ‘Vernacular Spectacular’, is performed in Kaaps, a vernacular subvariety of Afrikaans. This approximately hourand-a-half production, directed by Catherine Henegan, involved eight mainly hip-hop artists from the Cape Flats. Through artistic means of expression such as hip-hop, performance poetry, jazz, dialogues, etc., Afrikaaps foregrounds issues pertaining to marginalised and stigmatised Kaaps in response to the racialised hegemony of standard/‘pure’ Afrikaans. Central to this response is the celebration of (an ethnified) Kaaps ‘coloured’ identification. This multi-sited ethnography has various foci: The 2010 South African and 2011 Dutch versions of the production, the 2010 documentary film with the same title, and a description and analysis of the various ways in which members of the Afrikaaps collective experience the hegemony, ideology, and fiction of ‘suiwer’ (pure) Afrikaans. Three sites are foregrounded: A performance poetry event in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as part of the 2011 Dutch tour; the 2015 matinee performance, part of the annual Suidoosterfees in Cape Town; and the 2015 screening of the Afrikaaps documentary by student collective Open Stellenbosch at Stellenbosch University. I discuss the ways in which each site aims to subvert the hegemony. I show that Afrikaaps is a case study of the heterogeneity of Afrikaans. I argue that the celebration of Kaaps by the production and the positive identification with Kaaps by members of the Afrikaaps collective are extremely relevant within the current climate. In the wake of the nationwide #AfrikaansMustFall protests, this climate encompasses the deliberate, renewed recognition and celebration of Afrikaans varieties other than standard Afrikaans in the public sphere. The conceptualisation of Afrikaans as an indigenous, ‘creole’ language relates to current, opposing views of the Afrikaans language as a ‘colonial’ language and an African language. Afrikaaps aims to subvert the general perception of Afrikaans as a ‘white’ language of the ‘white’ Afrikaner oppressor. I concurrently argue that the production endeavours to connect the Afrikaans language to an ethnicity other than ‘white Afrikaners’, namely ‘coloured’ Kaaps-speakers. I demonstrate that the use of Kaaps is a decolonising political tool (Erasmus, 2006) in response to the general perception of Afrikaans as a ‘colonial’ language. A concurrent aim of the production includes the encouragement of ‘coloured’ Kaaps-speakers from the Cape Flats to be proud of their mother-tongue and their claimed indigenous (Khoi and San) and slave (‘Malay’) cultural heritage. I regard the emphasis on the symbolic value of Kaaps by the production as imperative to the reclaiming of a positive identification with Kaaps. I accordingly argue that Afrikaaps ‘re-imagines’ negative notions of ‘coloured’ by celebrating ‘creolised’ ‘coloured’ identification iv ‘re-imagines’ negative notions of ‘coloured’ by celebrating ‘creolised’ ‘coloured’ identification (Erasmus, 2001). I emphasise that the encouragement by Afrikaaps to ‘reclaim’ Afrikaans ‘for all who speak it’ links with the topical debate ‘to whom does Afrikaans belong’. The production encourages all Afrikaans-speakers to ‘reclaim’ the ‘creole’ language formed in the early, cosmopolitan Cape in response to the hegemony. Afrikaans is thereby conceptualised as inclusive and ‘liberated’; the racialised divide within the Afrikaans speech community can therefore be bridged. I argue that these claims express a current hope for Afrikaans to be viewed as a language of ‘transformation’.
- ItemAn analysis of the implementation of a diversion programme for juvenile offenders(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004-02) Cupido, Miltoinette Antonia; Kritzinger, A. S.; Van Aswegen, W. F.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the implementation of, as well as identifying problem areas associated with the YES-programme offered by NICRO. This specific programme was chosen because most of the young offenders referred to NICRO complete this programme. Young offenders are referred to the programme by the magistrates' court. These are youth that have been arrested for petty crimes such as shoplifting, damage to property and possession of drugs. This programme is also aimed at first time offenders but it became evident throughout the study that these youths might have been arrested once but seems to have been involved in crime at some level prior to being arrested. Youth between the ages of thirteen and eighteen years are accepted into the programme, with exceptions sometimes made for nineteen year olds who are still attending school. Participation in the programme is strictly voluntary, but there must be an admission of guilt on the part of the youth before he/she will be considered for this kind of diversionary alternative. The programme attempts to involve both parent and child in the process of learning and therefore parents are required to attend the first and last sessions with their children. Sessions attended by parents. focus on the improving relationships and communication between parent and child. The programme is viewed as an alternative sanction, and will enable youth to be punished for their crimes whilst at the same time learning new skills, and most importantly, not gaining a criminal record. The programme stretches over eight weeks with weekly sessions that focus on self-concept, decision-making, children's rights and respecting both themselves and those around them. The researcher formed part of the process through both facilitating sessions as well as observing sessions. For these reasons the research methodology focussed primarily on participant observation and interviews.
- ItemThe anthropology of art and the art of anthropology : a complex relationship(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2008-03) Allen, Rika; Robins, Steven; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.It has been said that anthropology operates in “liminal spaces” which can be defined as “spaces between disciplines”. This study will explore the space where the fields of art and anthropology meet in order to discover the epistemological and representational challenges that arise from this encounter. The common ground on which art and anthropology engage can be defined in terms of their observational and knowledge producing practices. Both art and anthropology rely on observational skills and varying forms of visual literacy to collect and represent data. Anthropologists represent their data mostly in written form by means of ethnographic accounts, and artists represent their findings by means of imaginative artistic mediums such as painting, sculpture, filmmaking and music. Following the so-called ‘ethnographic turn’, contemporary artists have adopted an ‘anthropological’ gaze, including methodologies, such as fieldwork, in their appropriation of other cultures. Anthropologists, on the other hand, in the wake of the ‘writing culture’ critique of the 1980s, are starting to explore new forms of visual research and representational practices that go beyond written texts.
- ItemThe appreciation and understanding of value diversity' : an evaluation of a value diversity intervention at the University of Stellenbosch(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-12) Dittmar, Vera; Mouton, J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South Africa has made a remarkable transformation from an openly racist to a tolerant and democratic nation. The transformation process removed the legal barriers between subgroups that formerly postulated separate development for the various racial groups and restricted the contact between individuals to a major extent. In present day society, one can observe the transformation process in that South African citizens from different backgrounds have to develop new patterns of communication and interaction. This process was mirrored in the student culture of Stellenbosch. The first objective of this study was to research how individual students experienced their social and academic environment. Since student relations do not always conform to the University norm of mutual respect for human diversity, the University felt the need to facilitate an intervention for valuing human diversity. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the process of the intervention, focusing on the programme context, the programme activities and the program theory. In addition, the impressions of workshop participants were studied. In order to conceptualise the research objectives, the theoretical principles of valuing diversity were discussed in the form of a purposive literature review on the social psychology and sociology of stereotyping and related processes, which were examined as barriers to valuing diversity. The Value Diversity Intervention was implemented in August 2001. The intervention aimed to heighten students' awareness of the diversity of the student body and to improve the interaction among the various student subgroups. The intervention was designed as a workshop and included 50 students from various backgrounds who were living in the University residences. Two evaluation types were utilised in this study, i.e. the evaluation of perceived needs and the evaluation of the intervention process. The research questions were clarified and the specific methods for gathering and analysing the data were specified. In addition, the aspect of validity and the quality of the obtained data were reviewed. The evaluation of perceived needs showed that individual students perceived the student population to be divided into minority ('coloured', 'black') and majority ('white') groups. Even though group membership did not affect specific instances of intergroup relations (e.g. individual friendships), it had implications for the social atmosphere on campus, which was characterised by a lack of intergroup contact and a domination by the majority group. Accordingly, minority group members interpreted the social atmosphere more negatively than majority group members. Hence, minority group members perceived a need to improve intergroup interaction. This analysis indicates that a value diversity intervention may be beneficial. This corresponded to the view of the Department of Student Affairs, which arranged the Value Diversity Intervention. The evaluation of the intervention highlighted both negative and positive aspects. Firstly, the intervention design did not include the promotion of the intervention itself, which might have been essential making students interested in the diversity topic and in motivating students to participate. Secondly, the intervention did not address the specific diversity challenges as experienced by students of the University of Stellenbosch. Students expressed concerns regarding the applicability of the provided information in their daily life. Thirdly, the workshop focused mainly on stereotypes. Yet, the possible effects of stereotypes were not sufficiently discussed. In addition, a large number of stereotypes were listed, but these were often biased due to the lack of participants from diverse groups. Further, no workshop technique which questioned the presented lists of biased stereotypes was applied or generated. Besides these technical considerations, it should be noted that stereotypes in general perpetuate the division between subgroups. Thus, the workshop focused to a large extent on past and present aspects, which divide the student population, instead of focusing on uniting issues. The described negative aspects might have been balanced by one of the four observed workshops. This specific workshop was characterised by a small amount of participants and a positive presentation of one of the main facilitators. This resulted in a productive discussion, where the participants used the possibility to reflect on the current situation out of their perspective and reflected upon the contributions of the facilitator. Students might have been motivated to take positive impulses of this workshop in their daily life. Based upon this research, recommendations can be determined. Firstly, the promotion of the intervention should emphasize the desirability of diversity values and highlight the personal potential benefits to participants. Secondly, it might be useful to acknowledge differences between students, but to place a greater emphasis on similarities, i.e. on aspects that connect students. Thirdly, the curriculum of the intervention should be modified to cater especially for student needs. Fourthly, the selected workshop components should achieve an equal balance between lecture parts and interactive elements. Participants should have the possibility to take an active part in the intervention if they are interested in doing so. The final recommendation entails that future interventions should be based on a comprehensive, sustained strategy with long-term goals. These strategies should be integrated in the already existing infrastructure of an institution. This intervention has to be understood as a contribution to the transformation process that South Africa is currently undergoing. Based on the recent discussion at the University of Stellenbosch about the adoption of a comprehensive diversity strategy, it is hoped that this singular intervention will be linked to further contributions in this transformation process.
- ItemAre you man enough? : a case study of how masculinity is represented and experienced in the South African Police Service(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-03) Potgieter, Lario; Walker, Cherryl; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The occupation of policing is one that is traditionally associated with men and regarded as a masculine sphere. The South African Police Service (SAPS) is no exception. My thesis seeks to investigate how masculinity is experienced by male and female officers in the SAPS in one specific police station in the Western Cape. Connell’s (1995) three-fold model of the structure of gender in society is used to understand masculinity, along with her distinction between hegemonic and subordinated forms of masculinity. According to this model, gender is structured through power relations, production relations and cathexis. Through an analysis of organisational police culture operating at three levels - formal, institutional and ‘canteen’ (or informal) – I explore the experiences of police officers in this regard. Each of these levels offers a different arena of analysis for understanding the culture of policing in the South African context. In my discussion, I highlight that although Connell’s model of how masculinity is constructed is useful for understanding the dynamics of police culture across these different levels, the experience of masculinity by both male and female police officers has to be understood as a complex process. The idea of a simple hegemonic masculinity is too limiting in understanding gender dynamics and relationships within the institution. My thesis also argues that, within the confines of the SAPS, there is a need to value certain traits perceived as ‘masculine’, such as physical strength, while also taking into consideration the value of other attributes generally perceived as ‘feminine’, such as compassion. The acceptance of a more androgynous police service, with more space for personnel to move between socially accepted gender roles and expectations, is needed. The valuing of these traits should not be gender-specific, but should create opportunities for officers to be able to display both ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ traits and engage in ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ duties, regardless of their gender. The field research was located at a single police station, referred to as The Dorp Police Station. A qualitative, case study methodology was employed, drawing extensively on in-depth interviews with individual officers along with limited informal and participant observation at the police station. Content analysis of the online version of the official police journal provided an additional source of data for the study. The study also involved an engagement with general and South African literature on masculinity, policing and police culture.
- ItemThe art of making young genders and sexualities in South Africa(2021-03) Kuhl, Kylie; Francis, Dennis A.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis is a visual arts-based exploration of young genders and sexualities in South Africa. The data presented here was generated by a uniquely designed participatory online visual arts course conducted with four young women aged 16-17 years who attend a co-educational high school in KwaZulu-Natal. This research set out to centre young people’s perspectives and experiences in understanding the making of young genders and sexualities, but also to provide a space where participants were able to explore, question and unpack these ideas that they hold. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was used to bring together the artworks that participants made with the broader systems of power within which they operate to understand the simultaneous forms of conformity, compliance, agency, and resistance that young people enact. The analysis showed how multiple versions of gender and sexuality are constructed, performed and experienced over various temporal and spatial contexts. The ways in which femininities and young women’s bodies become sexualised through the gaze of the heterosexual matrix was shown to be a product of the intersection of age with gender and sexuality. This study also showed what happens when participatory arts-based methods are used not to explore a particular social issue or identity, but rather the making of gender and sexuality more broadly – the four young women raised significantly under-researched topics such as divorce and asexuality. Furthermore, the analysis revealed the inescapability of race in research focusing on gender and sexuality. In post-apartheid South Africa these identities and systems of power are deeply and unmistakably intertwined. It is in reflecting on the insights that a participatory visual arts-based approach to engaging young people about gender and sexuality generates, that I argue for the value – analytically, methodologically, and pedagogically – that this study holds.
- ItemThe aspirations and life goals of youth offenders at Lindelani Place of Safety(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-12) Treptow, Reinhold; Heinecken, L. P. T.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.Rising crime rates among the youth in South Africa is a major problem. In the Western Cape this concern is particularly urgent and is compounded by issues relating to gangsterism and drugs. This study analyses why youth offenders, based at Lindelani become involved in crime and how they subsequently see their future. The first part of the study reviews theories of crime and deviance, such as the classical school of criminology, psychological, biological and sociological explanations of crime. The usefulness of the criminological developmentalist approach toward identifying risk factors statistically correlated to the perpetration of crime is discussed. Common factors associated with crime in the South African context are identified including family, peers, gang, drug, school, media and neighbourhood related factors as well as the absence of spirituality. Thereafter the literature associated with the development of aspirations, life goals and the concept of possible selves is explained. The relationship between possible selves, aspirations and life goals are discussed and details regarding how possible selves influence delinquency are presented. Following the theoretical analysis, the problem of crime in South Africa with reference to the youths interviewed is outlined. The strategies pursued by government to combat crime are discussed and the effective potential of these approaches are evaluated. An overview of government’s policy toward youth in South Africa is given followed by specific reference to the issues surrounding youth and crime in the Western Cape, with explicit reference to the Cape Flats and gangs. This provides the background to the Lindelani case study. An overview of the operations and challenges facing Lindelani Place of Safety and the profile of offences typically committed by youth are given. Hereafter the findings are presented. The findings are divided into two sections; the first explores the life world of youth at Lindelani by discussing why youth in the Western Cape perpetrate crime and identifies factors that are associated with their involvement. The findings report on the influence of family and household structure, peers, neighbourhood environment, gangs, drugs, school, media, perceived aptitude of youth offenders, role models and spirituality. Section two presents the findings regarding the possible selves, life goals and aspirations of the youth. The general aspirations, possible selves, family aspirations, friendship, neighbourhood, spiritual, educational and occupational aspirations are explored. The study thereby presents the voices of these young offenders.
- ItemAssessing corporate social responsibility in terms of its impact on sustainable community development : Anglo American PLC programmes as case study(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-03) Marais, Anel; Bekker, S. B.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mining industries significantly influence the societies within which they operate. They have been responsible for causing a wide range of negative environmental and social impacts at local, regional and global levels. Disruption of river flows, degradation of land and forest resources, negative impacts on the livelihoods of local communities near mines and disturbance of traditional lifestyles of indigenous people are some examples. Historically, the mining industry has taken a ‘devil may care’ attitude toward the impacts of its operations, inter alia by operating in areas without social legitimacy, by causing local devastation, and by leaving when an area has been exhausted of its economically valuable resources. Cost benefit language has often been used to justify damage caused in one place by arguing that it is outweighed by overall financial benefits. In recent years however the global mining industry has started to address its social and environmental responsibilities, visible in current debates about social and environmental sustainability. As a result, various mining companies have launched corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes that tend to focus on local community initiatives as their impact in economic, social and environmental terms, they believe, is felt most at local level. Yet the question remains, can CSR on its own make a substantial contribution to local sustainable community development? The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) defined CSR as “…the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large...” (WBCSD, 2003). Despite this clear definition, there is still great diversity within the mining sector in perceptions of what CSR constitutes and what its key tenets should be. Without a consistent definition or understanding of CSR and sustainable community development, planned efforts and programmes will do little to contribute to the overall improvement and well-being of the intended beneficiaries. The research focuses on defining sustainable community development and how it relates CSR. It identifies three characteristics of sustainable community development and uses these to assess the CSR programmes of Anglo American Plc, as case study company, to determine whether the company’s programmes have the potential to contribute to the sustainability of the communities associated with its operations. The research results in three main conclusions drawn from the case study – in a phrase that CSR is able under certain conditions to contribute positively to community sustainability. The conclusion also offers a few suggestions regarding ways companies can increase the contribution their CSR programmes make to local sustainable development.
- ItemAn assessment of the health channel broadcasting multimedia for communication and dissemination of information in the health sector(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2006-12) Dikweni, Lulama; Groenewald, C. J.; Mbananga, N. D.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study reported on here was conducted between December 2003 and April 2004. The aim of the study was to assess the use of Health Channel Broadcast Multimedia (HCBM) in order to maximise its success. The HCBM is an Information Technology method that was used to disseminate health information in public health facilities. HCBM was installed in health facilities and was used as an education tool. This was done by further developing the clinical skills of the health care workers (HCWs) and to inform the patients, including the community members on HIV/AIDS and related communicable diseases. The study was conducted in eight health facilities in seven provinces where HCBM was piloted. Facilities and forty-nine health professionals (HCWs) were selected conveniently and one hundred and twenty-eight patients were sampled using a systematic random method. The convenient sampling method was relevant since these were key facilities with HCBM. There were very few HCWs who did view HCBM and they were drawn into the study. HCBM used programmes disseminating messages in Afrikaans, English, sePedi, seSotho, siSwati, isiXhosa and isiZulu. The Rapid Assessment Response (RAR) approach was used to give a quick appraisal of the study. The report focuses on the cross-sectional reporting of the quantitative technique of the RAR. Of the HCWs, 86% had viewed the broadcast content, 70% were satisfied with the broadcast mode of service delivery; 56% indicated that the messages were good and added educational value to their professional work, while 52% chose to use the IP box content with HIV/AIDS topics. Ninety-two percent of HCWs stated that HCBM targeted patients and young people, 48% said HCBM had the ability to convey information and 48% said it was capable of addressing health problem. When HCBM was being set up, 62% HCWs engaged in decision making. Patients mentioned that HCBM as a method of information dissemination was educative (62%) and informative (52%). They reported that they did hear messages on HIV/AIDS telling them that medication was available for free to treat within 72 hours after being raped (72%); they had the right to say no to unsafe sex (92%); and 76% said the broadcast had the ability to change people’s behaviour. Respondents reported that the messages were easily understood (44%). The conclusion is that the findings will be useful to inform the government and managers of HCBM programmes on how to maximise the success of HCBM, especially at the implementation phase.
- ItemThe attitudes of managers and students towards adult basic education and training : a case study of the Grindrod group(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-12) Van Zyl, Daniel Johannes Rossouw; Kritzinger, A. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore the effective and efficient implementation of Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) within a specific group of companies. A central argument underlying the study is that the attitudes of managers and students who participate in these programmes play a critical role in the successful implementation of such programmes. The specific objective of the study is to identify those factors that influence managers' and students' attitudes towards ABET within the Grindrod Group. A literature review traces the origin of ABET and its historical development within other countries as well as in the South African context. The role of ABET within the context of Human Resources Development is identified and explored. The research entails a case study of the implementation of ABET within the Grindrod Group of Companies. Quantative as well as qualitative information regarding managers' and students' attitudes were obtained. The attitudes of both the managers and students at Grindrod's were identified by using structured questionnaires during 1998-1999. The questionnaire included closed as well as open questions. In-depth interviews were also conducted with a selected group of managers and students. The aim of the interviews was to facilitate a deeper understanding of managers' and students' attitude towards ABET and the variables that might influence these attitudes. In the case of students interviews were conducted with those who had dropped out of ABET programmes. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to explore the effective and efficient implementation of Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) within a specific group of companies. A central argument underlying the study is that the attitudes of managers and students who participate in these programmes play a critical role in the successful implementation of such programmes. The specific objective of the study is to identify those factors that influence managers' and students' attitudes towards ABET within the Grindrod Group. While the attitude of both managers and students could be described as positive, the study suggests that the following variables can be seen to influence managers' attitudes towards ABET: seniority of managers, their political orientation, their educational qualifications and the number of years that ABET has been in operation in a specific company. As far as students are concerned, the following variables seem to play a role: the length of their employment, their occupational status, the level of the ABET module that they participate in as well as their formal educational level. The problem that was most commonly cited by managers was that the ABET programme resulted in operational disruptions because the programme was run in working hours. The most regularly identified benefits included improved communication between managers and employees, improved motivation of employees and identification of development potential of employees. The vast majority of all the employees that partook in ABET stated that they believed that they had benefited from the programme. The most commonly cited benefits included being able to write, speak, read and understand English. While the study focuses on a specific group of companies within a specific industrial sector and does not allow generalisations to be made, it nevertheless attempts to lay a foundation for further research to be undertaken regarding the implementation of these programmes in different sectors of the economy.
- ItemAttitudes of rural men towards the advancement of rural women : a study of Thandanani and Umngazi maize producing projects(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2007-12) Neno, Thembisile Wiseman; Groenewald, C. J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.The South African woman, due to political and social change, has a totally new role to play in the workplace. The study focused on attitudes by men towards black rural women who are participating in the upper echelons of rural economic development and have to display their full potential in positions previously and traditionally reserved for rural men. The research was conducted in the Port St John’s irrigation maize producing projects of Thandanani and Umngazi. The study develops and investigates the hypothesis that rural men have negative attitudes to the advancement of rural women. The researcher uses the theory of social closure, that originated from Max Weber, within which rural women’s upward mobility and resistance of men thereto can be placed. Social closure refers to the phenomenon that a hierarchical or stratified social system tends to develop in which an elite group seeks to maximize rewards by restricting access to resources to a limited circle of the eligible. In this a top-down process of exclusion and the limitation of opportunities, originating from rural men, is assumed. In contrast, rural women may attempt to gain access to opportunities enjoyed by rural men through a process of usurpation. In order to investigate these possibilities a social attitude survey was conducted among 45 male members of the Thandanani and Umngazi maize producing projects. Questionnaires in Xhosa language and based on summated rating scales were used. The rural men’s attitudes towards women were found to be differentiated. On the one hand, positive attitudes were found that support the advancement of women, accept equal opportunities and their creativity and helpfulness. On the other hand, sexist attitudes were observed that perceive women to be less capable and inherently inferior to men. Men, as the resourceful in-group, believe and think themselves as superior to women as the inferior out-group who as a result occupies lower positions of wealth and power. Men perpetuate their advantageous position and pass it to their offspring. These findings are borne out by literature where it is stated that men undermine cooperation between men and women in decision-making (Colclough 1999), regard women as minors (Cross et al 1988; Lessing 1994), and do not see them as relevant and worthy (Epstein 1970). Men are seen to have a desire to protect their advantage and create rules of distribution of resources to their own favour (Nel 2003). Development projects towards the advancement of women, who are believed to be inferior and incapable, are therefore deemed to fail. It is recommended that all agencies should adopt and implement equal opportunity programmes, feminists need to explore possibilities and give attention to how and in what areas men can be approached to enlist support in the struggle for women’s opportunities and rights; and cooperatives be established to break gender stereotypes through training and removal of boundaries that created occupational segregation between the genders.
- ItemThe badge, the blazer and those who came before us: a sociological study on hazing in former model C all-boys schools in the Eastern Cape(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Gobodo, Bapiwe; Francis, Dennis; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology and Social Anthropology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study seeks to explore how seven black men, 18-25 years of age, who have attended all-boys ex-model C schools talk about their understanding and experiences of hazing and what their understanding and experiences reveal about masculinities and cultural heteronormativity in South Africa. This study aims to understand the institutional culture of boys’ high schools and the factors that inform, produce, and reproduce heteronormative culture. This study used a retrospective ethnographic method of inquiry to explore participants’ memories of their experiences and perceptions about the initiation/hazing they were subjected to during their school years. As points of entry into the extensive and broad theoretical discussions, I discuss hazing in sports, the institutional culture of the schools, heteronormative ideals that have shaped the narratives around hazing in boys schools, dynamics of schools, as well as the racial issues that exist within these institutions. This demonstrates how the issue of hazing is a systematic issue that relies heavily on the reproduction of systems based on values and ideals passed down in the schooling system. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The findings highlight the ambivalent feelings many participants felt towards their respective institutions and how they spoke about these environments and their experiences while attending them. It was clear that while the participants had viewed some of their experiences as positive, they remained critical of the abuse and marginalisation experienced. The ambivalent responses helped the participants become cognisant of the deeper underlying issues within some of their experiences. The danger inherent in these hazing practices is that they often go unquestioned – participants seemed to pass on the tradition without reflecting on why they participated in such practices and their effects. This study concludes by arguing that a combination of hegemonic masculinity ideals and attending a single-sex school with unchallenged traditions make young men who are new members of these schools more susceptible to the pressures of taking part in hazing practices. This study also contends that such practices are toxic to educational settings and detrimental to social cohesion and social justice. They create an environment of fear and hostility, in addition to fostering unbalanced scales of peer-to-peer “authority” and control.