Masters Degrees (Security and Africa Studies)

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    Rwanda and South Africa’s anti-corruption programmes: A comparative study
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-04) Snyman, Frans Jacobus; Theletsane, K. I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Security and Africa Studies: Military History.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite South Africa’s written commitment to fight corruption, its anti-corruption programme has failed to reduce the level of corruption as confirmed by Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index and the World Bank’s Control of Corruption Indicator. Failure to improve South Africa’s success in combating corruption will have a negative effect on the achievement of sustainable social and economic development and the reduction of poverty and inequality. In order to determine which areas of South Africa’s anti-corruption programme must be addressed to improve its success in fighting corruption, a comparative analysis of Rwanda and South Africa’s anti-corruption programmes was done. Rwanda was chosen due to its perceived successful anti-corruption programme and the fact that scholars suggest that it can be used for peer learning. The strengths and weaknesses of the two programmes were analysed against the extent of corruption, anti-corruption legislative and institutional frameworks, compliance with the mandatory articles of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) Chapters II and III with a focus on Articles 5 and 6, as well as the level of political will to fight corruption using Brinkerhoff’s (2010) seven factors. The study was conducted using the document analysis method. The study found that South Africa complies with the mandatory articles of UNCAC, has the best anti-corruption legislation in Africa and a comprehensive decentralised institutional framework. However, in reality the country’s anti-corruption institutions are not sufficiently independent and free from political interference and are not adequately resourced in terms of material needs and skilled staff. There are serious concerns over the poor co-ordination of South Africa’s anti-corruption programme, the overlapping mandates of anti-corruption institutions and poor public awareness of the anti-corruption programme. Accountability and civil participation were also identified as weaknesses. The study also quantifiably proved that South Africa has a low level of political will to fight corruption. The application of credible sanctions, continuity of effort, public commitment and allocation of resources and the learning and adaptation factors of political will were identified as serious weaknesses in South Africa’s fight against corruption. If South Africa implements the recommendations of this study, corruption will decrease, the National Development Plan Vision 2030’s goals will become more attainable which will lead to lower levels of poverty and inequality. The end result will be that South Africa will be able achieve its envisioned goals of sustainable social and economic development. The contributions of the findings of this study are twofold regarding the existing literature on successfully combating corruption. Firstly, it provided proof of the importance of the implementation of UNCAC through principles such as proper coordination, participation of civil society, integrity, independence, transparency, accountability and the sufficient allocation of material and human resources. Secondly, South Africa’s level of political will to combat corruption was quantifiably measured for the first time.
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    Armoured warfare : the South African experience in East Africa 1940-1941
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Kleynhans, Evert Philippus; Van der Waag, Ian J.; Esterhuyse, A. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Security and Africa Studies: Military History.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Following South African entry into the Second World War on 6 September 1939, the Union Defence Force (UDF) transformed from an ageing peacetime defence force into a modern armed force capable of projecting offensive power. During the interwar period a certain state of melancholia had existed in the UDF in terms of military innovation, which resulted in muddled thinking in the UDF in terms of armoured warfare and mechanisation. The offensive potential of armoured forces was simply not understood by the South African defence planners, with the result that there was only a token armoured force in the UDF in September 1939. The South African entry into the war was the impetus for the development of a viable armoured force within the UDF, and the South African Tank Corps (SATC) was established in May 1940. Changes in both the nature and organisational structure of the South African defence establishment followed. The Italian presence in Abyssinia and Italian Somaliland was seen as a direct threat to the neighbouring British East African territories, and South Africa deployed to Kenya during June 1940, soon after the Italian declaration of war. The South African deployment to East Africa was the first deployment of the UDF in a situation of regular war since the First World War. Despite the doctrine that underpinned the South African deployment of armoured forces in East Africa, the SATC units soon learned that the accepted doctrine, borrowed from the British War Office during the interwar period, was but a mere guide to offensive employment. The story of the South African deployment to East Africa during the war is used as a lens through which to investigate the role and employment of both the UDF armoured cars and light tanks. By separately discussing the Allied offensives through Italian Somaliland and southern Abyssinia during 1940-1941, the tactical and operational employment of the South African armour during this time becomes paramount when evaluated against their successes and failures. The nature of the opposing Italian forces in East Africa, the ever-changing topography and climate of the theatre of operations, and the nature of the South African offensive operations throughout the campaign, all combined to shape the novel way in which the armoured cars and tanks of the SATC were employed throughout 1940-1941. The operational experiences that the UDF gained during the campaign in East Africa shaped the further deployments of South African armour to North Africa, Madagascar and Italy during the remainder of the war.