- ItemSocial and organisational identification and student commitment : the mediating roles of trust and shared values(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Cupido, Amber; Theron, Edwin; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in South Africa face numerous social and economic challenges. Some of these challenges are a decline in national state funding, a reduction in transformational mobility policies (Cassim, 2005), a lack of suitable resource and infrastructural educational facilities (Walker, 2018), the privatisation and marketisation of the Higher Education Institutional (HEI) environment (Altbach, 2007) and technological development in HEIs (Jongbloed, 2015). To add to the complexity of these challenges, there appears to be a general lack in commitment on the side of some students at HEIs (Chen, 2017). It is therefore not unexpected to find that only 4.1 percent of South Africans above the age of 20 years have attained a Bachelor’s degree (Statistics South Africa, 2016). However, managing student commitment amongst HEIs in South Africa is a relatively under-researched topic that warrants further research (Wilkins, Butt, Kratochvil & Balakrishnan, 2016). Although there is a significant body of knowledge in terms of the antecedents of student commitment (Yousaf, Mishra & Bashir, 2018; Chen, 2017; Love, 2013 Morgan & Hunt, 1994), the role of identification in creating student commitment appears to be under-researc hed (Yousaf et al. 2018; Thomas, 2015, Van Knippenberg & Sleebos, 2006). This apparent gap comes against the background that learning should be both social and individual, as research suggests that employing a social identity perspective in the classroom allows educators to understand how a student’s social identity influences his/her university learning (Bliuc, Ellis, Goodyear, Hendres, 2011). Furthermore, the possible mediating roles of and shared values (Yousaf et al. 2018; Wilkins et al. 2016; Thomas, 2015) and trust (Chen, 2017: Boateng & Narteh, 2016) in the identification-student commitment relationship need clarification. A theoretical model was developed, based on marketing theories of identification, student commitment, shared values and trust to address the primary objective of the study. Boland College and Stellenbosch University were identified in order to provide a comprehensive view of the HE landscape in South Africa. Furthermore, a quantitative research design (more specifically a self-administered electronic survey) was employed on the SUNSurveys platform to assess the identification-commitment relationship of South African students. A data analysis was conducted by way of the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) on the SmartPLS software programme and a multi-group analysis based on the realised sample of 510 Boland College students and 1494 Stellenbosch University students. Statistically significant positive relationships related to social identification were confirmed for the social identification-shared values, social identification-goal commitment, social identification-extra mural commitment and social identification-trust relationships for Boland College and Stellenbosch University. With regard to organisational identification, the organisational identification-shared values, organisational identification-institutional commitment and organisational identification-trust relationships are statistically significantly positive relationships for both Boland College and Stellenbosch University. However, only the organisational identification-goal commitment and organisational identification-extra mural commitment relationships are significant for Stellenbosch University. Additionally, trust was found to be a stronger mediator of the identification-commitment relationship than shared values for College and University students. As far as could be ascertained, the study is the first of its kind to investigate the identification-student commitment relationship, given the contextual background of South African higher education.
- ItemSegmenting the South African wine market : a focus on involvement, motive/lifestyle and purchase behaviour(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Myburgh, Carna; Pentz, Christian Donald; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Wine is a complex product that comprises many intrinsic and extrinsic product attributes, ranging from grape variety to brand. Wine consumer behaviour is also intricate. First, consumers have different levels of involvement with the wine product, ranging from no or low involvement to ultra-high involvement. Moreover, consumers have different lifestyle motives to consume wine, ranging from drinking wine for self-expression to enjoying the intellectual challenge associated with wine consumption. Varying levels of involvement and motives to consume wine could lead different wine consumers to consider alternative wine product purchase criteria. Wine consumers pay attention to different aspects of wine when buying wine, from price to the wine producer. Therefore, many factors play a role in a consumer product purchase decision. The South African wine industry is in dire need of an increase in domestic wine sales. Therefore, information is needed by wine marketers to better understand the South African wine market. Market segmentation is, therefore, necessary to divide the total wine market into distinct consumer groups to better satisfy the needs and wants of these consumers. Because of the limited knowledge of different South African wine segments, the purpose of this study was to explore involvement, motive/lifestyle, and purchase behaviour of South African wine consumers. The purpose was to segment the South African wine market according to the involvement, motive/lifestyle, and purchase behaviour of its consumers. Based on the results of the study, wine marketers can effectively target South African wine market segments according to characteristics. This study was semi-replicated from a Swiss market segmentation study conducted by Brunner and Siegrist (2011). The present study was two-phased. First, a qualitative phase entailed a focus-group discussion to establish whether the proposed questionnaire, semi-replicated from the Swiss study, was valid for use in studying South African wine consumers, as the instrument would be used in the second research phase. In the second (quantitative) phase of the study, a survey strategy was implemented. Data were gathered from 400 respondents (South African wine consumers) through a questionnaire, with the assistance of an external research company. Analysis of the gathered data assisted the researcher in segmenting the South African wine market according to involvement, motive/lifestyle, and purchase behaviour. A specific research design and methodology plan was implemented to segment the South African wine market. First, a cluster analysis was conducted, whereby the 400 respondents were grouped into five respective clusters (segments). The clusters were formed based on their similarity according to Involvement, Motive/Lifestyle, and Purchase behaviour sub-variables and behavioural variables. Hence, hierarchical clustering was employed using Ward’s method and Euclidean distances. In the next step, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with an F-test and Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test was computed for each sub-variable and variable. The purpose of the one-way ANOVA was to establish whether the identified clusters differed significantly according to each sub-variable and behavioural variable. The clusters (segments) were profiled accordingly the identified significant differences and means. The five South African wine market segments identified in this study are: the bargain-hunting wine consumer, the wine traditionalist, the wine enthusiast, the wine intellectual, and the basic wine consumer.
- ItemService delivery in a physically restricted service environment : the case of airline flight attendants(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) van Blommestein, Claudia Bernice; Boshoff, Christo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: International flight attendants’ main responsibilities during a commercial flight are safety, security, and service delivery. This study focussed on the service delivery (which included the service-delivery performance and service-recovery performance) of international flight attendants who are or were formerly employed by four- and five-star full-service airlines. The point of departure was the notion that factors influencing international flight attendants’ service-delivery and service-recovery performance are unique compared to the factors that influence other frontline employees’ service-delivery and service-recovery performance, such as hotel front desk staff, frontline banking employees, nurses and/or receptionists. Against this background, two theoretical models are proposed illustrating the unique factors that might influence international flight attendants’ service-delivery and service-recovery performance. The two theoretical models were empirically assessed by collecting data from 228 international flight attendants representing 46 countries and 16 four- and five-star full-service airlines. The data was collected using online surveys and the results indicated that customer service training and teamwork significantly influence the service-delivery and service-recovery performance of international flight attendants. In addition, the role of fatigue was particularly important in this study. Working conditions, (which included company service delivery expectations, limited physical space, and limited time/time pressure) and unreasonably demanding passengers increased the levels of fatigue among flight attendants, whereas job experience reduced their levels of fatigue. In conclusion, four- and five-star full-service airlines can improve the working environment of international flight attendants by providing adequate customer service training, promoting teamwork among the crew, decreasing flying hours, increasing resting times, facilitating support workshops, reducing certain in-flight services, and exerting their best efforts to retain experienced crew members. Finally, by enhancing the overall health and well-being of international flight attendants, airlines can not only increase the crew’s performance but also increase the performance and profitability of the airline itself.
- ItemTOWARDS ENHANCED INDEPENDENCE: INVESTIGATING SHAREHOLDER VOTING ON DIRECTOR ELECTION PROPOSALS(2022-12) Janse van Vuuren, Michael Ross; Viviers, Suzette; Mans-Kemp, NadiaSeveral high-profile corporate scandals, globally and in South Africa, highlight the importance of corporate governance monitoring mechanisms in constraining managerial self-serving behaviour. Corporate governance frameworks, many of which are based on the agency theory, advocate for appointing a majority independent non-executive directors, an independent chairperson and a lead independent director to monitor managerial behaviour. Furthermore, there are various external monitoring mechanisms available to ensure that companies act as good corporate citizens. These include the market for corporate control, the legal system, cross-listings and external auditors. Ordinary shareholders occupy the important middle ground between internal and external monitoring mechanisms. Ordinary shareholders can monitor managerial behaviour by electing or re-electing directors to a company’s board of directors by casting their votes on such resolutions at shareholder meetings. This type of shareholder monitoring has largely been unexplored in South Africa. This study was hence conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge. A comprehensive and unique dataset comprising of shareholder votes cast on director re/election resolutions at selected companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange was compiled over the period 2014 to 2020. Voting data were gathered from Proxy Insight, with additional board- and financial-related data collected from Bloomberg. Trends regarding the dependent, seven independent and three control variables were investigated over time. Given the nature of the period under investigation and the data, a mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted to test the hypothesised relationships. Shareholder opposition to director re/election resolutions (the dependent variable) increased significantly over the research period. Yet, on average, less than four percent of shareholders opposed director re/election resolutions. This result confirms a previously identified preference among shareholders of locally listed companies to privately engage with representatives of investee companies. The low percentage against-votes cast on director re/election resolutions at the sampled companies may also indicate that shareholders place a great deal of trust in the nominated directors, or that shareholders are simply apathetic as far as monitoring is concerned. The percentage of INED representation on the sampled companies’ boards increased significantly, which may be a result of the shift from factual to perceptual independence proposed by King IV. Significant positive relationships were discovered between shareholder opposition and two independent variables, namely, board size and average directorate tenure. These relationships suggest that shareholders tend to vote against the re/election of directors when the board is quite large, and the average directorate tenure has been relatively long. Based on the results, ordinary shareholders are encouraged to vote more actively on director re/elections as they have the power to enhance the independence of investee companies’ boards. Nomination committees should furthermore ensure that their director selection criteria are robust enough to nominate suitable candidates to ordinary shareholders. Recommendations are also made to the Institute of Directors South Africa and other private sector role players in the country.
- ItemCrisis communication, ethical beliefs, and consumer responses in the case of a product-harm crisis(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Botes, Janice; Ehlers, Lene; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Well-publicised product-harm crises, such as the 2018 listeriosis scandal, have proved to South African fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) firms that product-harm crises could have devastating consequences for a firm’s reputation as well as its financial stability. Owing to the highly publicised nature of a product-harm crisis, a firm’s crisis communication efforts in responding to the crisis may significantly affect its efforts to survive reputational damage. Hence, it is important for FMCG firms to understand how the South African public may respond in terms of perceived severity, attribution of blame, feelings of anger, word of mouth and purchase intention. The role of ethical beliefs, and more importantly, how to respond appropriately to the public in times of crisis is also important. The Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) is often used as a framework in crisis situations to assist firms in identifying the correct response strategy to use given their crisis responsibility. The purpose of this research is to contribute to existing knowledge on the use of SCCT, by investigating the influence of SCCT crisis clusters, crisis communication response strategies and ethical beliefs on attribution of blame, perceived severity, feelings of anger, word of mouth (WOM) and purchase intention in the case of a South African product-harm crisis. This was done by means of a 2 (SCCT crisis cluster) x 4 (SCCT response strategy) x 2 (ethical beliefs), between subject experimental design involving 392 respondents. A three-way ANOVA was employed testing the main effects as well as the three-way and two-way interaction effects. Possible mediating and moderating effects of the response variables and ethical beliefs in the relationship between the SCCT crisis communication response strategies (per crisis cluster) and purchase intention were also tested by means of a moderated serial multiple mediation model. Useful strategic insights were derived from the results. This study that will assist FMCG firms to better predict consumer cognitive, affective, and behavioural responses, the role consumers ethical beliefs will play, and which SCCT response strategy would be the most effective given the different crisis clusters. The results of this study confirmed that perceived severity, attribution of blame, feelings of anger, WOM, and purchase intent are all prominent and interconnected, negative consumer responses. It was evident that a few of the SCCT response strategies did somewhat positively influence the consumer-response variables and the relationships between them, however not to the extent that it would completely reverse the reputational damage caused. Ethical beliefs moderated a few relationships between the SCCT crisis clusters and strategies and consumer-response variables, however, future research is needed to further investigate these in the South African context.