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- ItemComplexity leadership theory : an exploratory study in the South African context(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-12) Swart, Maret; Human, Gert; Maree, Lelani; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: In the contemporary landscape of organisational dynamics, the understanding of leadership within complex adaptive systems (CAS) has become paramount. This qualitative study investigates the intricate interplay between CAS, complexity leadership theory (CLT), and conditional influences as suggested by the the Cynefin framework. The literature review synthesises the foundational concepts of complexity theory, highlighting its non-linear, interconnected, and emergent nature. CLT is examined, emphasizing the need for adaptive and context-sensitive leadership approaches within dynamic environments. Additionally, the Cynefin framework, known for categorising knowledge and contexts into the simple, complicated, complex, and chaotic subdomains, is explored for its applicability in guiding decision-making and leadership action and approach. Employing a qualitative research design, this study utilised semi-structured interviews as the primary data collection method. Participants from diverse organisations, were approached and interviewed regarding the organisational context and the leadership approaches they are exposed to. The qualitative approach allowed for an in-depth exploration of nuances and complexities inherent in the leadership approaches of respondents or their experience of such approaches, as well as the role of the context and uncertainty of their environments. The findings of this study shed light on current organisational context faced by leaders. The integration of CLT and the Cynefin framework provides a comprehensive lens to understand the multifaceted nature of leadership within CAS. The research underscores the importance of context-aware leadership approaches that acknowledge the fluidity of systems and the necessity of flexible responses. Consistent with the changing landscape of organisational dynamics, this research indicated that in the organisational investigated it was found that the context is considered to be complicated or complex in nature. As expected, trace elements of CAS and CLT were identified, along with the recognition from leaders and employees of the importance and ever presence of complexity. In conclusion, this research contributed to the discourse of leadership by unveiling the intricate dynamics of leadership within CAS. The insights garnered from the interviews and analysed through the lens of complexity, CLT, and the Cynefin framework offer practical implications for leaders navigating uncertainty in today’s rapidly evolving organisational landscape.
- ItemBoard intellectual capital components for nonprofit board role fulfilment(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-12) Mulholland, Hanli; Human Van Eck, Debbie; Human, Gert; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Humankind is suffering. Globally, but specifically so in South Africa. The social and economic needs of society are ever-increasing, with limited focus on solutions. The nonprofit sector (of South Africa) carries an enourmous responsibility to assist in addressing the social and economic shortfalls that the government and the private sector cannot address. Unfortunately, the nonprofit sector of South Africa is fighting an endless struggle towards growth and maturity as research to support this almost R10 billion sector remains scarce. The board of directors of nonprofit organisations is said to be the group responsible for the long-term success of such organisations. Without long-term, sustained operations of nonprofit organisations, the needs of disadvantaged and at-risk members of society cannot be adequately addressed. However, research about nonprofit organisations' boards of directors is extremely limited worldwide and even more so in South Africa. The limited research furthermore focuses on individual characteristics and demographic factors of individual members of the board of directors instead of the collective, holistic group. Research suggests that the board of directors of nonprofit organisations, as a group, are responsible for managing the complexities of the highly heterogeneous environment and keeping the more extensive operational system of the organisation in equilibrium through fulfilling three board roles, namely the monitoring, resource provision and advisory role. The current study proposed that board intellectual capital (human capital, social capital, structural capital and cultural capital) at a group and individual level could be sufficient for board role fulfilment. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis was used for the first time in the context of the board of directors to explore the board intellectual capital of the group with board role fulfilment. Through comparing the board of directors of 16 nonprofit organisations in the Western Cape of South Africa at a case level, the research showed that social capital was sufficient for nonprofit board role fulfilment, specifically for fulfilling the advisory role. The research further showed that structural capital was sufficient in enabling the monitoring role of the board of directors. Finally, social capital, together with structural capital, was found to be sufficient for the role of the board of directors of nonprofit organisations that are concerned with the provision of resources. The fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis as a research approach to a resource scare sector, such as the nonprofit sector, proved invaluable. Solutions obtained through qualitative comparative methods set out to uncover the simplest solution to the problem more so than the often impractical, unattainable optimum solutions previously used research methods are concerned with.
- ItemSocial and organisational identification and student commitment : the mediating roles of trust and shared values(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Cupido, Amber; Theron, Edwin; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in South Africa face numerous social and economic challenges. Some of these challenges are a decline in national state funding, a reduction in transformational mobility policies (Cassim, 2005), a lack of suitable resource and infrastructural educational facilities (Walker, 2018), the privatisation and marketisation of the Higher Education Institutional (HEI) environment (Altbach, 2007) and technological development in HEIs (Jongbloed, 2015). To add to the complexity of these challenges, there appears to be a general lack in commitment on the side of some students at HEIs (Chen, 2017). It is therefore not unexpected to find that only 4.1 percent of South Africans above the age of 20 years have attained a Bachelor’s degree (Statistics South Africa, 2016). However, managing student commitment amongst HEIs in South Africa is a relatively under-researched topic that warrants further research (Wilkins, Butt, Kratochvil & Balakrishnan, 2016). Although there is a significant body of knowledge in terms of the antecedents of student commitment (Yousaf, Mishra & Bashir, 2018; Chen, 2017; Love, 2013 Morgan & Hunt, 1994), the role of identification in creating student commitment appears to be under-researc hed (Yousaf et al. 2018; Thomas, 2015, Van Knippenberg & Sleebos, 2006). This apparent gap comes against the background that learning should be both social and individual, as research suggests that employing a social identity perspective in the classroom allows educators to understand how a student’s social identity influences his/her university learning (Bliuc, Ellis, Goodyear, Hendres, 2011). Furthermore, the possible mediating roles of and shared values (Yousaf et al. 2018; Wilkins et al. 2016; Thomas, 2015) and trust (Chen, 2017: Boateng & Narteh, 2016) in the identification-student commitment relationship need clarification. A theoretical model was developed, based on marketing theories of identification, student commitment, shared values and trust to address the primary objective of the study. Boland College and Stellenbosch University were identified in order to provide a comprehensive view of the HE landscape in South Africa. Furthermore, a quantitative research design (more specifically a self-administered electronic survey) was employed on the SUNSurveys platform to assess the identification-commitment relationship of South African students. A data analysis was conducted by way of the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) on the SmartPLS software programme and a multi-group analysis based on the realised sample of 510 Boland College students and 1494 Stellenbosch University students. Statistically significant positive relationships related to social identification were confirmed for the social identification-shared values, social identification-goal commitment, social identification-extra mural commitment and social identification-trust relationships for Boland College and Stellenbosch University. With regard to organisational identification, the organisational identification-shared values, organisational identification-institutional commitment and organisational identification-trust relationships are statistically significantly positive relationships for both Boland College and Stellenbosch University. However, only the organisational identification-goal commitment and organisational identification-extra mural commitment relationships are significant for Stellenbosch University. Additionally, trust was found to be a stronger mediator of the identification-commitment relationship than shared values for College and University students. As far as could be ascertained, the study is the first of its kind to investigate the identification-student commitment relationship, given the contextual background of South African higher education.
- ItemSegmenting the South African wine market : a focus on involvement, motive/lifestyle and purchase behaviour(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Myburgh, Carna; Pentz, Christian Donald; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Wine is a complex product that comprises many intrinsic and extrinsic product attributes, ranging from grape variety to brand. Wine consumer behaviour is also intricate. First, consumers have different levels of involvement with the wine product, ranging from no or low involvement to ultra-high involvement. Moreover, consumers have different lifestyle motives to consume wine, ranging from drinking wine for self-expression to enjoying the intellectual challenge associated with wine consumption. Varying levels of involvement and motives to consume wine could lead different wine consumers to consider alternative wine product purchase criteria. Wine consumers pay attention to different aspects of wine when buying wine, from price to the wine producer. Therefore, many factors play a role in a consumer product purchase decision. The South African wine industry is in dire need of an increase in domestic wine sales. Therefore, information is needed by wine marketers to better understand the South African wine market. Market segmentation is, therefore, necessary to divide the total wine market into distinct consumer groups to better satisfy the needs and wants of these consumers. Because of the limited knowledge of different South African wine segments, the purpose of this study was to explore involvement, motive/lifestyle, and purchase behaviour of South African wine consumers. The purpose was to segment the South African wine market according to the involvement, motive/lifestyle, and purchase behaviour of its consumers. Based on the results of the study, wine marketers can effectively target South African wine market segments according to characteristics. This study was semi-replicated from a Swiss market segmentation study conducted by Brunner and Siegrist (2011). The present study was two-phased. First, a qualitative phase entailed a focus-group discussion to establish whether the proposed questionnaire, semi-replicated from the Swiss study, was valid for use in studying South African wine consumers, as the instrument would be used in the second research phase. In the second (quantitative) phase of the study, a survey strategy was implemented. Data were gathered from 400 respondents (South African wine consumers) through a questionnaire, with the assistance of an external research company. Analysis of the gathered data assisted the researcher in segmenting the South African wine market according to involvement, motive/lifestyle, and purchase behaviour. A specific research design and methodology plan was implemented to segment the South African wine market. First, a cluster analysis was conducted, whereby the 400 respondents were grouped into five respective clusters (segments). The clusters were formed based on their similarity according to Involvement, Motive/Lifestyle, and Purchase behaviour sub-variables and behavioural variables. Hence, hierarchical clustering was employed using Ward’s method and Euclidean distances. In the next step, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with an F-test and Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test was computed for each sub-variable and variable. The purpose of the one-way ANOVA was to establish whether the identified clusters differed significantly according to each sub-variable and behavioural variable. The clusters (segments) were profiled accordingly the identified significant differences and means. The five South African wine market segments identified in this study are: the bargain-hunting wine consumer, the wine traditionalist, the wine enthusiast, the wine intellectual, and the basic wine consumer.
- ItemService delivery in a physically restricted service environment : the case of airline flight attendants(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) van Blommestein, Claudia Bernice; Boshoff, Christo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept of Business Management.ENGLISH SUMMARY: International flight attendants’ main responsibilities during a commercial flight are safety, security, and service delivery. This study focussed on the service delivery (which included the service-delivery performance and service-recovery performance) of international flight attendants who are or were formerly employed by four- and five-star full-service airlines. The point of departure was the notion that factors influencing international flight attendants’ service-delivery and service-recovery performance are unique compared to the factors that influence other frontline employees’ service-delivery and service-recovery performance, such as hotel front desk staff, frontline banking employees, nurses and/or receptionists. Against this background, two theoretical models are proposed illustrating the unique factors that might influence international flight attendants’ service-delivery and service-recovery performance. The two theoretical models were empirically assessed by collecting data from 228 international flight attendants representing 46 countries and 16 four- and five-star full-service airlines. The data was collected using online surveys and the results indicated that customer service training and teamwork significantly influence the service-delivery and service-recovery performance of international flight attendants. In addition, the role of fatigue was particularly important in this study. Working conditions, (which included company service delivery expectations, limited physical space, and limited time/time pressure) and unreasonably demanding passengers increased the levels of fatigue among flight attendants, whereas job experience reduced their levels of fatigue. In conclusion, four- and five-star full-service airlines can improve the working environment of international flight attendants by providing adequate customer service training, promoting teamwork among the crew, decreasing flying hours, increasing resting times, facilitating support workshops, reducing certain in-flight services, and exerting their best efforts to retain experienced crew members. Finally, by enhancing the overall health and well-being of international flight attendants, airlines can not only increase the crew’s performance but also increase the performance and profitability of the airline itself.