Browsing Research Articles (Stellenbosch University Language Centre) by Title
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- ItemThe access structure in learner's dictionaries(Bureau of the WAT, 2004) Steyn, MarizaDictionaries have to be compiled in accordance with specific target users and dictionary goals. User orientation is, however, not the only criterion for measuring the success of a dictionary. Present-day lexicography requires the evaluation of the accessibility of dictionaries. The ease with which macro- and microstructural information is located and retrieved determines the quality and accessibility of the presentation. User-orientated, accessible learner's dictionaries can contribute substantially to the improvement of communication in a multilingual South Africa with different groups of language learners. Metalexicography makes provision for guide structures that facilitate access to information in the dictionary. The outer, inner and meta-access structure are functional structure elements that increase the retrievability of information and help the user to reach, as swiftly as possible, the information he/she is looking for. During the planning of a learner's dictionary, the lexicographer must draw up, among others, a dictionary plan in which a detailed explanation of the outer and inner access structure is given. Such a dictionary plan contributes to a consistent application of lexicographical decisions. Decisions regarding the access structure must also be explained and illustrated in the front text in order to enable learners to acquire dictionary skills and become effective dictionary users.
- ItemBeinvloedt een meer of minder sympathieke protagonist de transportatie van de lezer?(Amsterdam University Press, 2019-11-01) Jansen, Carel; De Graaf, Anneke; Hustinx, Lettica; Ooms, Joelle; Schreinemakers, Merel; Zwiers, LisaThree previous studies into presenting a protagonist in a story as more or less sympathetic have not provided a clear picture of the effects that the portrayal of the protagonist may have on transportation, and via transportation on story-consistent beliefs. Results from a first study (N = 83) by De Graaf and Hustinx (2015) suggest that the way the protagonist is portrayed – as sympathetic, unsympathetic or neutral – influences the extent to which readers are transported into a story. No significant effects on beliefs of the readers were found, however. In a direct replication study (N = 79) and in a conceptual replication study (N = 81), Jansen, Nederhoff, and Ooms (2017) found results that supported the hypotheses from the original study to a limited extent. In view of the relatively small numbers of participants in these three studies and the resulting limited power of the statistical tests two new, larger-scaled replication studies were conducted. A direct replication study was performed (N = 238) with the same versions of the story as used in the original study, and also a conceptual replication study (N = 248) with three versions of a new story. Again, the hypotheses from the original study were supported to a limited extent. A meta-analysis of all five studies revealed a large indirect positive effect of story version on transportation via empathy, when comparing the versions with a sympathetic protagonist with the versions with an unsympathetic protagonist. When comparing the neutral story versions with the versions with an unsympathetic protagonist, the meta-analytic indirect effect was medium sized. Other than what the Affective Disposition Theory (Raney, 2004; Zillmann, 1994; 2006) claims, the story versions with a neutral protagonist did not lead to an absence of emotional responses. Furthermore, the outcomes add to the Transportation-Imagery Model (Green & Brock, 2002; Van Laer, De Ruyter, Visconti, & Wetzels, 2014). While this model does not include concrete suggestions of story characteristics that lead to transportation, our studies show that a protagonist who is portrayed as sympathetic may contribute to the level of transportation that readers experience, be it indirectly through empathy.
- ItemFurthering the aim of multilingualism through integrated terminology development(Bureau of the WAT, 2007) Sibula, Pumlani M.This article aims at giving a brief account of how the activities of the Unit for isiXhosa, one of the five units of the Stellenbosch University Language Centre, contributes to the development of integrated technical terminology lists for all departments of the University. After the reason for this terminology development has been explained, a description is given of the six trilingual terminology lists that have been compiled so far. On a discussion of the problem of finding suitable isiXhosa terminological equivalents follows an exposition of the methodology used in compiling these lists. Finally it is shown how the collaboration with various bodies benefits the Unit for isiXhosa. The article concludes by stating how these lists have been received and are made known.
- ItemHey, that could be me : the role of similarity in narrative persuasion(Public Library of Science, 2019) Ooms, Joelle; Hoeks, John; Jansen, CarelStories are often used in health communication because of accumulating evidence of their potential to affect people’s attitudes and health behavioral intentions. Similarity between the reader and the story’s protagonist appears to positively influence narrative persuasion, but the exact role of similarity on persuasive outcomes is debated, as some research finds clear effects of similarity manipulations whereas others do not. Possibly, these mixed results were found because the similarity manipulations were not always relevant to the topic of the story. We conducted an experiment (N = 582) in which we varied the age and gender of the protagonist, features that were of central relevance to the story’s topic, namely breast cancer versus testicular cancer. There were two groups of participants: 324 students (mean age: 21.46 years) and 258 older adults (mean age: 56.83 years). Age similarity (but not gender similarity) had an effect on identification with the protagonist, transportation (i.e. the experience of being absorbed into a story), and the intention to donate, but only for students. For older adults, age or gender of the protagonist did not seem to matter, as nearly no differences in persuasive measures were found. As far as the underlying mechanism is concerned, the results of structural equation modeling showed that the concept of ‘perceived similarity’ would be a relevant addition to models of narrative persuasion, as it was significantly related to the narrative processes of transportation and identification, which, in turn, predicted attitudes and behavioral intentions, both directly—in the case of transportation—or indirectly, via the emotion of compassion. We conclude that both manipulated and perceived similarity are important for narrative persuasion, and that it should be kept on the research agenda of health communication.
- ItemDie impak van revisie op vertaalde eksamenvraestelle in 'n hoeronderwysomgewing(LitNet Akademies, 2012-08) Van Rensburg, AltaDie onakkurate vertaling van eksamenvraestelle in ’n hoëronderwysomgewing kan studentesukses benadeel, byvoorbeeld as die vertaling dubbelsinnig is of as onbekende terminologie gebruik word. Een van die metodes om vertalings van hoë gehalte te verseker, is om die konsepvertaling wat deur ’n eerste vertaler geskep is deur ’n tweede vertaler te laat nagaan. Hierdie prosedure word revisie genoem en die doel daarvan is om moontlike foute uit te skakel en die gehalte van die konsepvertaling te verbeter. Empiriese studies (Arthern 1983; Künzli 2006 en 2007) toon egter dat die tweede vertaler (reviseur) nie net soms van die eerste vertaler se foute oorsien nie, maar nuwe foute maak en selfs die gehalte van die vertaling kan verlaag. Die tweeledige doel van die loodsstudie wat in hierdie artikel beskryf word, is om te bepaal watter impak revisie op die gehalte van vertaalde eksamenvraestelle in ’n hoëronderwysomgewing het en om die kostedoeltreffendheid van revisie te bepaal. Twee konsepvertalings is deur vier reviseurs nagegaan met die opdrag om enige foute uit te skakel en die gehalte van die konsepvertalings te verbeter. Hierdie “verbeterde” weergawes en die konsepvertalings (sonder revisie) is aan drie evalueerders gestuur. Die evalueerders het die vertalings geëvalueer met behulp van ’n assesseringsinstrument (Colina 2009) wat op grond van die funksionalistiese vertaalbenadering (Nord 1997, 2002 en 2005) ontwikkel is. Die resultate toon dat revisie ’n groter impak op ’n swak konsepvertaling as op ’n goeie konsepvertaling het, maar dat ’n ervare reviseur nie noodwendig ’n beter vertaalproduk lewer as ’n onervare reviseur nie. Dit is ook duidelik dat revisie nie altyd kostedoeltreffend is nie, aangesien reviseurs tyd aan revisie afstaan, selfs al verbeter dit geensins die gehalte van die vertalings nie. Die artikel bevestig die behoefte aan duideliker riglyne vir revisie, asook verdere navorsing oor verskillende revisiemetodes.
- ItemThe influence of conversational content on college students’ safe sex intentions : a mixed method approach(Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2018-02-19) Donne, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, JohnEven though health campaign designers are advised to specifically focus on triggering conversations between people about health issues, there is still a lot unknown about what aspects of a conversation may contribute to safe sex behavior and intentions. Empirical research in this field so far has mainly focused on conversational occurrence rather than conversational content, and where content is taken into account, this mostly concerns self-reports. In this mixed method study, we looked into the quantitative effects of real-life conversations about safe sex, triggered by a safe sex message, on college students’ intentions related to safe sex. We then used a qualitative analysis to try and identify content-related aspects that may be related to the quantitative effects. Two weeks after filling in a questionnaire on their safe sex-related intentions, participants (N = 24) were instructed to watch and talk about a safe sex video with a conversation partner of choice, followed by filling in a questionnaire. The conversational data were analyzed qualitatively. The results suggest that the conversations increased safe sex-related intentions compared to pretest scores, and that content-related aspects such as conversational valence, type of communication behavior and behavioral determinants were related to these effects. Thus, our findings provide enhanced insight into the social norms and behavioral patterns related to safe sex, and indicate that it is important to look at conversational content in detail rather than to focus on mere conversational occurrence or quantitative effects.
- ItemSome challenges of collaboration between academic literacies specialists and subject specialists : framing the difference(Stellenbosch University, 2019) Coetsee, YdaleneCollaboration between academic literacies (AcLits) specialists and subject specialists is still a significant issue in student support because AcLits practitioners now need to negotiate the advantages of both stand-alone and embedded courses. This paper focuses on some challenges of one such a collaboration between the provider of AcLits courses (the Language Centre) and the Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science at an institution of higher education. The theory of framing (as in Scheufele, 2013) is used to explain some of the frustration experienced during this collaboration. The study also draws on New Literacies Studies in suggesting that student autonomy in constructing knowledge is negated when focus is placed on academic skills that students lack instead of the contribution students can make towards their own learning. Where previous AcLits collaborations have sometimes used the deficit model (Smit, 2012) to measure the impact of interventions, this study attempts to show that the collaboration itself aids deep learning. However, some challenges have to be overcome, of which an important one is the measurement of impact when the deficit model is not used. Whereas ATLAS.ti has often been used to analyse data sets, this investigation opts for open coding to explicate the frames relevant to this kind of collaboration. Analysis of the findings shows that students perceived this collaboration as a valuable learning experience despite all the challenges experienced. The paper concludes by suggesting that identification, explication and management of the challenges of collaboration thus proved well worth the effort.
- ItemSpace, place, and power in South African writing centres : special issue in honour of Sharifa Daniels(University of Stellenbosch, Department of General Linguistics, 2019) Richards, Rose; Lackay, Anne-Mari; Delport, SeleneA writing center cannot define itself as a space—we’re often kicked out of our spaces. It’s not a pedagogy. We’re always re-articulating our pedagogy. It’s certainly not an academic department. It crosses all disciplines. A writing center does not produce a text—the texts in writing centers are unfinished. And we don’t own the texts our students create; those texts are cross-curricular, cross-linguistic, cross-discursive.
- ItemThe story against smoking : an exploratory study into the processing and perceived effectiveness of narrative visual smoking warnings(SAGE Publications, 2019-08) Ooms, Joelle A; Jansen, Carel J. M.; Hoeks, John C. J.Objectives: This study compared the effects of two types of health warnings on cigarette packages: ‘narrative visual warnings’, showing an image portraying people plus a corresponding slogan that could evoke a story-like interpretation, and ‘non-narrative visual warnings’ with non-narrative content (i.e. body parts). Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the effects of these health warnings were explored. Design: A within-participants experiment was conducted comparing narrative and non-narrative visual warnings. Path analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the narrative concepts transportation and identification, the emotions evoked by the health warning and the perceived effectiveness of the message. Method: Participants (N = 200) were presented with one narrative warning and one non-narrative warning. After each warning, they answered questions on narrative perception, transportation, identification, emotions and perceived effectiveness. Results: The narrative warnings were seen as more story-like than the non-narrative warnings. There was a statistical trend for narrative warnings to be perceived as more effective than the non-narratives. The narrative warnings caused more transportation, fear, sadness, compassion and anger; the non-narrative warnings evoked more disgust and surprise. For the narrative warnings, both narrative concepts of transportation and identification were directly related to perceived effectiveness, and also indirectly via sadness. For the non-narrative warnings, transportation was related to perceived effectiveness, both directly and indirectly via disgust. Conclusion: Seeing a story in a still picture with a slogan helps to increase the effectiveness of the antismoking message. Both narrative and non-narrative visual warnings may persuade receivers directly, but also by the evoking of emotions, although the specific emotions responsible for the persuasive effects may differ.
- ItemSweet temptations : how does reading a fotonovela about diabetes affect Dutch adults with different levels of literacy?(Routledge, 2019) Van T Jagt, Ruth Koops; Hoeks, John; Duizer, Evelien; Baron, Melvin; Molina, Gregory B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Jansen, CarelENGLISH ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that health-related fotonovelas—booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions—may be effective health communication tools, especially for readers with a low level of literacy. In this experiment, effects on knowledge and behavioral intentions were assessed of a fotonovela originally developed for a Latin-American audience. Dutch readers from a low literacy group (N = 89) and a high literacy group (N = 113) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a fotonovela condition (all captions translated into Dutch), a traditional brochure condition (also in Dutch), and a control condition. On knowledge about diabetes, participants in the fotonovela condition outperformed participants in both other conditions. This finding was consistent across literacy levels. On behavioral intentions, however, readers of the fotonovela did not score significantly higher than participants in the other conditions. We also evaluated hypotheses proposed in the Entertainment Overcoming Resistance Model (EORM; Moyer-Gusé, 2008) on the possible mechanisms underlying persuasion through narratives. No support was found for the mechanisms proposed in the EORM. The outcomes of this study suggest that a fotonovela may be a valuable health education format for adults with varying levels of literacy, even if it was developed for a target group with a different cultural background.
- ItemUsing reflective pedagogy to improve writing consultant practice(Stellenbosch University, 2019-11-01) Januarie, VenitaENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research note considers the potential of reflective pedagogy as a means to improve writing consultants’ practice. Through the use of literature and reflective examples, I illustrate how reflective practice has enabled me to improve my pedagogy in the transition from being a novice writing consultant to becoming a senior consultant at the Stellenbosch University Writing Lab. Furthermore, I reflect on how writing consultants, as key agents in the writing centre space, can utilise reflective practice to leverage the potential of writing centres as transformative spaces in South African higher educational institutions.
- ItemValidating the performance standards set for language assessments of academic readiness : the case of Stellenbosch University(Stellenbosch University, 2019-09-12) Sebolai, KabeloTwenty-five years into the post-apartheid period, South African universities still struggle to produce the number of graduates required for the country’s socio-economic development. The reason most often cited for this challenge is the mismatch that seems to exist between the knowledge that learners leave high school with, and the kind that academic education requires them to possess for success. This gap, also known as the “articulation gap”, has been attributed to, amongst others, the levels of academic language ability among arriving students. The school-leaving English examination, and a pre-university test of academic literacy are the commonly used measures to determine these levels. The aim of this article is to investigate whether predetermined standards of performance on these assessments relate positively with academic performance. In order to determine this, Pearson Correlations and an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were carried out on the scores obtained for these assessments by a total of 836 first-year students enrolled at Stellenbosch University. The results show that the performance standards set for the standardised test of academic literacy associate positively with first-year academic performance, while the scores on the levels of performance set for the school-leaving English examination do not.