Browsing by Author "Tarp, Sven"
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- ItemAdvantages and disadvantages in the use of internet as a corpus : the case of the online dictionaries of Spanish valladolid-UVa(Bureau of the WAT, 2016) Tarp, Sven; Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.This paper initially discusses some of the consequences which the technological development has for lexicography, especially in terms of the different types of empirical basis which can be used in dictionary projects. The most important advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet as a corpus are then listed and compared to the usefulness of "traditional" corpora. As an example, the paper shows how the Internet is used as the main empirical source in order to select lemmata and meaning items in the Online Dictionaries of Spanish Valladolid-UVa. The methods and tools employed in the project are discussed together with the requirements to the lexicographers' competences, knowledge and skills. Finally, the paper provides some general conclusions as well as recommendations and hypotheses for future lexicographical work and research.
- ItemConnecting the dots : tradition and disruption in lexicography(Bureau of the WAT, 2019) Tarp, SvenThis article botanizes in the history of lexicography trying to connect the dots and get a deeper understanding of what is happening to the discipline in the framework of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The objective is to suggest possible ways out of the present deadlock. History shows that a sudden change of the technological base, like the one we are now experiencing, suggests a total revolution of the discipline in all its major dimensions. In order to be successful, such a revolution requires a mental break with past traditions and habits. As a matter of example, the article focusses on a series of bilingual writing assistants developed by the Danish company Ordbogen A/S and the new challenges posed to lexicography by these and similar tools. It argues that these challenges cannot be solved by means of traditional user research which is retrospective as it unfolds in the framework of an old paradigm. As an alternative, and without excluding other types of user research, the article recommends disruptive thinking by means of brainstorm, immersion, and contemplation and provides some examples on how to proceed. Finally, it problematizes the incipient competition between human and artificial lexicographers and gives a brief account of a possible future redistribution of tasks.
- ItemCuban school dictionaries for first-language learners : a shared experience(Bureau of the WAT, 2013) Tarp, Sven; Miyares, Leonel RuizOne of the reasons why many publishing houses hesitate when allocating resources to the development of more advanced concepts of school dictionaries for first-language learners is the relatively poor sales and corresponding profits coming from this category of dictionaries. A major challenge is therefore how to change the situation, stimulate the use and sales of school dictionaries, and guarantee the necessary investment in product development. This contribution will take up this challenge. It will give no final answer, but it will discuss an experience with a Cuban school dictionary which has reached its target users in large numbers. The contribution will particularly look at the multi-faceted relation between lexicographers and users which characterises the Cuban dictionary project. The objective is not to copy this or any other experience but to inspire lexicographers looking for alternative solutions to a problem which is affecting both school children and lexicographers in many countries and language communities.
- ItemDo we need a (new) theory of lexicography?(Bureau of the WAT, 2012) Tarp, SvenIn the current transition from printed to electronic dictionaries the question has been raised whether we need a new theory of lexicography that may guide the conception and production of lexicographical e-tools or if we can use the theories already developed in the era of printed works. In order to answer this question the article first of all discusses the question whether a lexicographical theory exists, is possible at all or even wanted. It shows that the various approaches to this question are mainly due to the fact that the very concept of theory is widely disputed within lexicographical circles. In this respect, it briefly discusses the Anglo-Saxon academic tradition according to which science is only related to natural phenomena and where all other phenomena are referred to the spheres of art and craft, and it shows that this tradition is widely opposed by the traditions in other parts of the world. Upon this basis, the article shows that a lexicographical theory is not only possible but that various highly useful theories already exist. Finally, it claims that these theories, especially the ones that are not only focusing on the printed dictionary form, should not be rejected but should be further enhanced and improved in close interaction between lexicography and other consultation disciplines within the broad area of information science.
- ItemH.A. Welker and pedagogical lexicography(Bureau of the WAT, 2010) Tarp, SvenThe lexicographer Herbert Andreas Welker's book of more than 500 pages about pedagogical lexicography provides a panoramic overview of the various types of pedagogical dictionaries as well as the corresponding theoretical literature. Welker's method is descriptive, with himself mainly an observer of lexicographical practice and a "collector" of - frequently opposed - opinions and ideas expressed by a large number of scholars. This method allows the reader to become acquainted with an important part of the most relevant literature on pedagogical lexicography which is presented in a systematic and condensed form. Written in Portuguese, the book might perhaps not be so easily accessible to many readers. This review article provides a guided tour through the main contents of this highly recommendable book and discusses some of the most important ideas reproduced in it.
- ItemL2 writing assistants and context-aware dictionaries : new challenges to lexicography(Bureau of the WAT, 2017) Tarp, Sven; Fisker, Kasper; Sepstrup, PeterDictionaries are increasingly integrated into other tools designed to assist the reading, writing and translation of texts. Write Assistant is a newly developed tool aimed at assisting people writing in a second language. It feeds on big data taken in from corpora and digital dictionaries. The paper discusses the philosophy behind the tool, the techniques applied, its empirical basis and functionality, as well as the extent to which it helps its users. It shows how the tool makes it possible to shorten and even skip some phases in the traditional information-search process and allows its user to maintain the focus on the message to be written without the need to consult external information resources. The paper shows how the underpinning technology gives birth to a new type of dictionary that is context-aware and provides a more personalised user service. But it also indicates that future dictionaries need to be conceptionally adapted to the specific tool in order to optimize the service. All this poses new challenges to lexicography.
- ItemA lexicographic approach to language policy and recommendations for future dictionaries(Bureau of the WAT, 2008) Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.Language policy prevails at different levels and its formulation typically results in a prescriptive presentation of data. In their dictionaries, lexicographers have to respond to the decisions of language policy makers. In this regard dictionaries can adhere to a strict prescriptive policy by including only the prescribed forms. Dictionaries can also give a descriptive account of language use without making any recommendations or claims of correctness. Thirdly, dictionaries can be prescriptive by recommending certain forms, even if such a recommendation goes against the prescribed forms. This article offers an overview of different levels of language policy and the principles of prescription, description and proscription. Examples are given to illustrate certain lexicographic applications of prescription. It is emphasised that access to relevant data is important to dictionary users. Consequently the lexicographic application of proscription is discussed as a viable alternative to prescription. It is suggested that proscription, in its different possible applications, can lead to a lexicographic presentation that benefits the user and that contributes to the satisfaction of the functions of a given dictionary.
- ItemLexicographical contextualization and personalization : a new perspective(Bureau of the WAT, 2019) Tarp, Sven; Gouws, RufusContextualization, i.e. to provide solutions to users' information needs directly in the situation or context where these needs occur, played a significant role in the work of the Greek scribes who inserted glosses into manuscript copies of the works of Homer and other earlier writers in order to explain obsolete and unusual words. After the invention of the glossary, a schism developed within lexicography. On the one hand, there was the new compilation of glossaries and dictionaries of a still more complex and sophisticated nature. On the other hand, there was the traditional insertion of glosses into manuscript copies of books from previous periods. Although the advent of dictionaries diminished the use of contextualization procedures they were still adhered to in some publications. This paper discusses the occurrence of contextualization and personalization procedures in different eras and environments and it is shown how these procedures also introduced a lexicographic practice to some extra-dictionary environments. The importance of contextualization and personalization in modern-day lexicography is stressed. Lexicographers often have had unfulfilled dreams of new possibilities within the digital environment. However, the lack of adequate technology has made their dreams impossible – at that stage. Today new technologies and collaboration between lexicography and information science offer numerous new challenges that can be met by lexicographers. It is shown how lexicographical products being integrated into information tools little by little are closing the more than two thousand year old schism in European lexicography, i.e. reuniting contextualization and personalization. Lexicographers, the modern-day scribes, have to endeavour to make the seemingly impossible possible.
- ItemNew insights in the design and compilation of digital bilingual lexicographical products : the case of the diccionarios valladolid-UVa(Bureau of the WAT, 2018) Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Tarp, Sven; Sepstrup, PeterThis contribution deals with a new digital English–Spanish–English lexicographical project that started as an assignment from the Danish high-tech company Ordbogen A/S which signed a contract with the University of Valladolid (Spain) for designing and compiling a digital lexicographical product that is economically and commercially feasible and can be used for various purposes in connection with its expansion into new markets and the launching of new tools and services which make use of lexicographical data. The article presents the philosophy underpinning the project, highlights some of the innovations introduced, e.g. the use of logfiles for compiling the initial lemma list and the order of compilation, and illustrates a compilation methodology which starts by assuming the relevance of new concepts, i.e. object and auxiliary languages instead of target and source languages. The contribution also defends the premise that the future of e-lexicography basically rests on a close cooperation between research centers and high-tech companies which assures the adequate use of disruptive technologies and innovations.
- ItemOld wisdom : the highly relevant lexicographical knowledge obtained from a specialized dictionary from 1774(Bureau of the WAT, 2013) Tarp, SvenThere is little doubt that lexicography has experienced important progress during the years, especially when one compare the lexicographical works from the various centuries. However, history should not be viewed as an ever-growing progress but as a process with its ups and downs. In this respect, some old lexicographical works, especially from the Age of Enlightenment, are in some aspects extremely advanced even compared with present-day dictionaries. Malachy Postlethwayt's Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce from 1774 is one such example. The article provides a general presentation of this rare and interesting dictionary which was published in various editions in the 18th century. The presentation includes a detailed description of the objective, functions, structure, and content of this impressive work. The article then focuses on its cognitive and operative functions, and the way they are integrated into one and the same reference work. Upon this basis, the article shows how modern lexicography can use past experiences in order to meet the real and practical needs of present-day users.
- ItemPedagogical lexicography : towards a new and strict typology corresponding to the present state-of-the-art(Bureau of the WAT, 2011) Tarp, SvenA frequent and well-known problem within lexicography is the use of various terms to denominate the same phenomenon as well as the use of the same term to denominate various, completely different phenomena. Such a non-systematic terminology may lead to confusion in the discipline and hamper its theoretical and practical development. The problem is especially severe within so-called pedagogical lexicography. A short panoramic review shows that especially the terms "pedagogical lexicography/dictionaries", "didactic lexicography/dictionaries", "school dictionaries" and "learners' dictionaries" are used with a lot of different meanings that vary from author to author, from country to country, from culture to culture. Although publishing houses could hardly be expected to use a strict terminology for their products, this should nevertheless be expected from theoretical lexicography. In order to overcome the present confusion, it is therefore urgent to establish a typology that can be used as reference by scholars dealing theoretically with the subfield of pedagogical lexicography. The article will first show the amazing variety of meanings addressed to the various terms in the theoretical literature. It will then approach the problem along two different lines: 1) establishing a clear definition of the terms "pedagogical", "didactic", "school" and "learner" in a lexicographical perspective, and 2) referring to the existing practice where the terms are frequently used in a much broader sense than in the theoretical literature. Based upon these considerations, a new and strict typology that corresponds to the present practice of pedagogical lexicography will be presented.
- ItemPreparing an online dictionary of business communication : from idea to design(Bureau of the WAT, 2015) Tarp, SvenThis article discusses the plan for an online English–Spanish dictionary of business communication based on the function theory. After a short overview of lexicographical traditions within this field, it focuses on the philosophy behind the overall dictionary concept, the methods applied to develop this concept, some of the requirements for the corresponding database, as well as the foreseen Internet user interface which may lead the user to ten completely different articles for each word entered in the search field.
- ItemReference skills or human-centered design : towards a new lexicographical culture(Bureau of the WAT, 2020) Tarp, Sven; Gouws, RufusThis paper deals with the design of digital lexicographical products. It introduces the philosophy of human-centered design, as explained in the work of Don Norman, and discusses central design concepts like affordances, signifiers, feedback, and other forms of good communication from lexicographer to user. The successful use of traditional dictionaries often relied on the presumed reference skills of the envisaged target user group. Especially in printed dictionaries with their space restrictions, lexicographers used condensed entries, abbreviations, and different types of structural indicators to save space. This often was to the detriment of the user who struggled to retrieve the required information from the data on offer. The digital environment has created new opportunities for lexicographers to assist their users in a far better way. Using principles of human-centered design, this paper shows the emergence of the application of some of these approaches in existing online dictionaries. Going beyond the scope of traditional online dictionaries, examples are taken from integrated e-reading dictionaries and lexicography-assisted writing assistants where even stronger user-centered design features come to the fore with regard to respectively text reception and text production assistance. Where the original concept of a dictionary culture was primarily based on the reference skills of the user, a new lexicographical culture is suggested that adheres to human-centered design principles. It places the responsibility on the shoulders of the lexicographer to design lexicographic products that enable intuitive use and ensure improved lexicographic success.
- ItemReflections on lexicographical user research(Bureau of the WAT, 2009) Tarp, SvenThe last decades have seen a growing interest in theoretical and practical problems related to lexicographical user research. Starting with a discussion of the concept of lexicographically relevant user needs, this contribution analyses, utilising the lexicographical function theory, various types of needs to be taken into account when doing this kind of research. It then discusses the positive and negative aspects of the various methods applied, i.e. questionnaires, interviews, observation, protocols, experiments, tests, and log files. With reference to both lexicographical and sociological literature, it raises a number of problems common to most of the lexicographical user research conducted until now and recommends the application of scientific methods in future research. Finally, it proposes a number of alternative methods in order to obtain more knowledge about the real user needs.
- ItemReflections on the academic status of lexicography(Bureau of the WAT, 2010) Tarp, SvenTwo main camps have been formed with regard to the philosophical and academic status of lexicography: one considering lexicography an independent scientific discipline, and the other opposing such a scientific status. This article discusses some of the arguments from the second camp and argues that lexicography should be considered an independent scientific discipline. The argumentation is based on the fact that the subject field of lexicography is different from the subject fields of any other discipline, including linguistics. In this sense, the concept of a lexicographical work is broader than the more reduced concept of a dictionary. Lexicographical works, including dictionaries, are considered cultural artefacts and utility tools produced in order to meet punctual information needs detected in society. In this way, they have during the millenniums covered almost all spheres of human activity and knowledge. The theory and science of lexicography should not focus on the differences regarding the specific content of all these works, but on aspects that unite them and are common to all of them. In this regard, some of the core characteristics of lexicography as an independent discipline are discussed together with its complex relation to other disciplines. Lexicographical theory is understood as a systematic set of statements about its subject field. Finally, the article argues that the fact that this theory may seem too abstract and difficult to some working lexicographers does not in itself invalidate its independent scientific status, although a close relation between theory and practice is recommended.
- ItemSchool dictionaries for first-language learners(Bureau of the WAT, 2012) Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.Acknowledging the ambiguity of terms like school dictionary, children's dictionary, first language, mother-tongue this article motivates a specific use of school dictionary, first language and learner and focuses on various problems in these dictionaries. The typical functions of these dictionaries are discussed with reference to the lexicographic needs of first-language learners. Looking at a few existing dictionaries, suggestions are made for the inclusion and presentation of certain data types. The importance of the use of natural language in the paraphrases of meaning is discussed. It is emphasised that lexicographers should consult teachers and curriculum experts when planning school dictionaries and that the grade and age of the target user needs to be taken into account. The aim of this article is not to give final solutions to the questions raised but merely to recommend that a number of factors — or variables — are taken into account when planning future school dictionaries. In this respect, a number of questions are formulated that need to be answered when planning the compilation of school dictionaries.
- ItemSkoolwoordeboeke vir huistaalleerders van Afrikaans(Bureau of the WAT, 2010) Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.Skoolwoordeboeke vorm 'n uitgebreide tipologiese kategorie binne die versameling woordeboeksoorte. Die uiteenlopende verskeidenheid teikengebruikers van skoolwoordeboeke vereis egter 'n duideliker tipologiese omskrywing en 'n fyner onderverdeling in subkategorieë. Hierdie artikel fokus eerstens op sommige van die verskillende interpretasies van die term skoolwoordeboek en die onduidelikheid wat met die gebruik van hierdie term saamhang. 'n Onpresiese gebruik van die term lei daartoe dat voornemende gebruikers van skoolwoordeboeke nie weet wat om in 'n betrokke woordeboek te verwag en wie die beplande teikengebruikers daarvan is nie. Die leksikografiese funksies van skoolwoordeboeke word bespreek met die klem op Afrikaanse skoolwoordeboeke vir huistaalleerders. 'n Oorsig en kontekstualisering van hierdie woordeboeke word gevolg deur 'n bespreking van verskeie woordeboeke vir laerskool- en hoërskoolleerders. Aandag word gegee aan aspekte van die funksies, struktuur en inhoud asook aan positiewe en negatiewe kenmerke van die onderskeie woordeboeke. Dit blyk dat die ontwikkeling in die teoretiese leksikografie 'n positiewe invloed op die samestelling van skoolwoordeboeke gehad het. Uiteindelik word 'n aantal aanbevelings gemaak vir die verbetering van toekomstige skoolwoordeboeke. Die belangrikheid van 'n ondubbelsinnige aanduiding van onder meer die teikengebruikers en die gebruikersituasie word benadruk. Die opname, aanbieding en bewerking van data moet met inagneming van die gebruikersprofiel geskied.
- ItemTowards Chinese learner's dictionaries for foreigners living in China : some problems related to lemma selection(Bureau of the WAT, 2018) Xue, Mei; Tarp, SvenDuring the past decades, various dictionaries for foreign learners of Chinese have seen the light. Except for one picture dictionary which is almost completely ignored in the academic literature, none of these dictionaries has taken into account the special needs which foreigners living in China and learning Chinese may have. This contribution will discuss these needs with special focus on lemma selection. We argue that foreigners living in China, in order to meet their lexicographical needs, require additional words typically occurring in social contexts in which they often find themselves, whether or not these words have a high corpus-frequency. As a solution we therefore recommend a set of selection criteria that combines corpus frequency and context relevance. Finally, we discuss how logfiles reflecting user behaviour can be used as a new and very reliable empirical source for lemma selection for an online Chinese learner's dictionary.