Acute extrapyramidal dysfunction in two HIV-infected children

Involvement of the basal ganglia is well documented in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, often with calcification. High concentrations of HIV protein have been detected in affected basal ganglia, although extrapyramidal dysfunction, in contrast to adults, is infrequently encountered in HIV-infected children. We describe the clinical course, magnetic resonance imaging appearance and outcome of two HIV-infected children who presented with acute debilitating extrapyramidal dysfunction. The cases highlight the importance of immune competence, co-existence of opportunistic infections, HIV testing of all children of HIV-infected mothers and magnetic resonance imaging when assessing the severity and anticipating outcomes of movement disorders in HIV-infected children. © The Author [2010]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Cytomegalovirus encephaliti, Human immunodeficiency virus, Movement disorders, carbidopa plus levodopa, efavirenz, lamivudine, zidovudine, article, case report, child, clinical feature, disease association, disease severity, evening dosage, extrapyramidal syndrome, female, highly active antiretroviral therapy, human, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, immunocompetence, laboratory test, male, morning dosage, neurologic examination, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, opportunistic infection, preschool child, school child, treatment response
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics