Stellenbosch University - Scopus Publications

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    Capacity for clinical research on herbal medicines in Africa
    (2012) Willcox M.; Siegfried N.; Johnson Q.
    An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.
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    Effect of chronic CPT-1 inhibition on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) in a model of diet-induced obesity
    (2012) Maarman G.; Marais E.; Lochner A.; Du Toit E.F.
    Purpose By increasing circulating free fatty acids and the rate of fatty acid oxidation, obesity decreases glucose oxidation and myocardial tolerance to ischemia. Partial inhibition of fatty acid oxidation may improve myocardial tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in obesity. We assessed the effects of oxfenicine treatment on post ischemic cardiac function and myocardial infarct size in obese rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high calorie diet which resulted in diet induced obesity (DIO) for 16 weeks. Oxfenicine (200 mg/kg/day) was administered to control and DIO rats for the last 8 weeks. Isolated hearts were perfused and infarct size and post ischemic cardiac function was assessed after regional or global ischemia and reperfusion. Cardiac mitochondrial function was assessed and myocardial expression and activity of CPT-1 (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1) and IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) was assessed using Western blot analysis. Results In the DIO rats, chronic oxfenicine treatment improved post ischemic cardiac function and reducedmyocardial infarct size after I/R but had no effect on the cardiac mitochondrial respiration. Chronic oxfenicine treatment worsened post ischemic cardiac function, myocardial infarct size and basal mitochondrial respiration in control rat hearts. Basal respiratory control index (RCI) values, state 2 and state 4 respiration rates and ADP phosphorylation rates were compromised by oxfenicine treatment. Conclusion Chronic oxfenicine treatment improved myocardial tolerance to I/R in the obese rat hearts but decreased myocardial tolerance to I/R in control rat hearts. This decreased tolerance to ischemia of oxfenicine treated controls was associated with adverse changes in basal and reoxygenation mitochondrial function. These changes were absent in oxfenicine treated hearts from obese rats. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.
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    Intralesional bleomycin for the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas
    (2012) Smit D.P.; Meyer D.
    Periocular infantile capillary hemangiomas do not always respond well to conventional treatment modalities such as systemic or intralesional corticosteroids, radiotherapy or debulking surgery. The authors describe the use of intralesional bleomycin injections (IBIs) to treat potentially amblyogenic lesions in two cases where other modalities have failed. In both cases monthly IBIs successfully cleared the visual axis of the affected eye before the age of 1 year thus preventing permanent sensory deprivation amblyopia. A total of five and nine injections, respectively, were used and no significant side effects were noted. IBI appears to be a useful alternative in the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas refractory to more conventional modalities.
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    Botswana as a 'development-oriented gate-keeping state': A response
    (2012) Taylor I.
    [No abstract available]