The diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays for drug-resistant TB detection when performed on sputum and culture isolates

Abstract
Although molecular tests for drug-resistant TB perform well on culture isolates, their accuracy using clinical samples, particularly from TB and HIV-endemic settings, requires clarification. The MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl line probe assays were evaluated in 181 sputum samples and 270 isolates from patients with culture-confirmed drug-sensitive-TB, MDR-TB, or XDR-TB. Phenotypic culture-based testing was the reference standard. Using sputum, the sensitivities for resistance was 97.7%, 95.4%, 58.9%, 61.6% for rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and amikacin, respectively, whereas the specificities were 91.8%, 89%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. MTBDRsl sensitivity differed in smear-positive vs. smear-negative samples (79.2% vs. 20%, p < 0.0001 for ofloxacin; 72.9% vs. 37%, p = 0.0023 for amikacin) but not by HIV status. If used sequentially, MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl could rule-in XDR-TB in 78.5% (22/28) and 10.5% (2/19) of smear-positive and smear-negative samples, respectively. On culture isolates, the sensitivity for resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and amikacin was 95.1%, 96.1%, 72.3% and 76.6%, respectively, whereas the specificities exceeded 96%. Using a sequential testing approach, rapid sputum-based diagnosis of fluoroquinolone or aminoglycoside-resistant TB is feasible only in smear-positive samples, where rule-in value is good. Further investigation is required in samples that test susceptible in order to rule-out second-line drug resistance.
Description
CITATION: Tomasicchio, M., et al. 2016. The diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays for drug-resistant TB detection when performed on sputum and culture isolates. Scientific Reports 6:17850, doi:10.1038/srep17850.
The original publication is available at http://www.nature.com/srep
Keywords
Tuberculosis -- Sputum -- Examination, Tuberculosis -- Diagnosis, Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Tuberculosis -- Isolated culture sample
Citation
Tomasicchio, M., et al. 2016. The diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays for drug-resistant TB detection when performed on sputum and culture isolates. Scientific Reports 6:17850, doi:10.1038/srep17850