Browsing by Author "Streicher, Elizabeth M."
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- ItemDetection of second line drug resistance among drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Botswana(MDPI, 2019-10-28) Mogashoa, Tuelo; Melamu, Pinkie; Derendinger, Brigitta; Ley, Serej D.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Iketleng, Thato; Mupfumi, Lucy; Mokomane, Margaret; Kgwaadira, Botshelo; Rankgoane-Pono, Goabaone; Tsholofelo, Thusoyaone T.; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Moyo, Sikhulile; Warren, Robin M.; Gaseitsiwe, SimaniENGLISH ABSTRACT: The emergence and transmission of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains is a threat to global tuberculosis (TB) control. The early detection of drug resistance is critical for patient management. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of isolates with additional second-line resistance among rifampicin and isoniazid resistant and MDR-TB isolates. A total of 66 M.tb isolates received at the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory between March 2012 and October 2013 with resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin or both were analyzed in this study. The genotypes of the M.tb isolates were determined by spoligotyping and second-line drug susceptibility testing was done using the Hain Genotype MTBDRsl line probe assay version 2.0. The treatment outcomes were defined according to the Botswana national and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Of the 57 isolates analyzed, 33 (58%) were MDR-TB, 4 (7%) were additionally resistant to flouroquinolones and 3 (5%) were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs. The most common fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation detected was gyrA A90V. All XDR-TB cases remained smear or culture positive throughout the treatment. Our study findings indicate the importance of monitoring drug resistant TB cases to ensure rapid detection of second-line drug resistance.
- ItemThe diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays for drug-resistant TB detection when performed on sputum and culture isolates(Springer Nature, 2016) Tomasicchio, Michele; Theron, Grant; Pietersen, Elize; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Stanley-Josephs, Danielle; Van Helden, Paul; Warren, Rob; Dheda, KeertanAlthough molecular tests for drug-resistant TB perform well on culture isolates, their accuracy using clinical samples, particularly from TB and HIV-endemic settings, requires clarification. The MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl line probe assays were evaluated in 181 sputum samples and 270 isolates from patients with culture-confirmed drug-sensitive-TB, MDR-TB, or XDR-TB. Phenotypic culture-based testing was the reference standard. Using sputum, the sensitivities for resistance was 97.7%, 95.4%, 58.9%, 61.6% for rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and amikacin, respectively, whereas the specificities were 91.8%, 89%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. MTBDRsl sensitivity differed in smear-positive vs. smear-negative samples (79.2% vs. 20%, p < 0.0001 for ofloxacin; 72.9% vs. 37%, p = 0.0023 for amikacin) but not by HIV status. If used sequentially, MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl could rule-in XDR-TB in 78.5% (22/28) and 10.5% (2/19) of smear-positive and smear-negative samples, respectively. On culture isolates, the sensitivity for resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and amikacin was 95.1%, 96.1%, 72.3% and 76.6%, respectively, whereas the specificities exceeded 96%. Using a sequential testing approach, rapid sputum-based diagnosis of fluoroquinolone or aminoglycoside-resistant TB is feasible only in smear-positive samples, where rule-in value is good. Further investigation is required in samples that test susceptible in order to rule-out second-line drug resistance.
- ItemDrug-associated adverse events and their relationship with outcomes in patients receiving treatment for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2013-05-07) Shean, Karen; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Pieterson, Elize; Symons, Greg; Van Zyl Smit, Richard; Theron, Grant; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Padanilam, Xavier; Wilcox, Paul; Victor, Tommie C.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Groubusch, Martin; Warren, Robin M.; Badri, Motasim; Dheda, KeertanBackground: Treatment-related outcomes in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are poor. However, data about the type, frequency and severity of presumed drug-associated adverse events (AEs) and their association with treatment-related outcomes in patients with XDR-TB are scarce. Methods: Case records of 115 South-African XDR-TB patients were retrospectively reviewed by a trained researcher. AEs were estimated and graded according to severity [grade 0 = none; grade 1–2 = mild to moderate; and grade 3–5 = severe (drug stopped, life-threatening or death)]. Findings: 161 AEs were experienced by 67/115(58%) patients: 23/67(34%) required modification of treatment, the offending drug was discontinued in 19/67(28%), reactions were life-threatening in 2/67(3.0%), and 6/67(9.0%) died. ∼50% of the patients were still on treatment at the time of data capture. Sputum culture-conversion was less likely in those with severe (grade 3–5) vs. grade 0–2 AEs [2/27(7%) vs. 24/88(27%); p = 0.02]. The type, frequency and severity of AEs was similar in HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Capreomycin, which was empirically administered in most cases, was withdrawn in 14/104(14%) patients, implicated in (14/34) 41% of the total drug withdrawals, and was associated with all 6 deaths in the severe AE group (renal failure in five patients and hypokalemia in one patient). Conclusion: Drug-associated AEs occur commonly with XDR-TB treatment, are often severe, frequently interrupt therapy, and negatively impact on culture conversion outcomes. These preliminary data inform on the need for standardised strategies (including pre-treatment counselling, early detection, monitoring, and follow-up) and less toxic drugs to optimally manage patients with XDR-TB.
- ItemEmergence and spread of extensively and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, South Africa(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013-03) Klopper, Marisa; Warren, Robin Mark; Hayes, Cindy; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas Claudius; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Muller, Borna; Sirgel, Frederick Adriaan; Chabula-Nxiweni, Mamisa; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Coetzee, Gerrit; Van Helden, Paul David; Victor, Thomas Calldo; Trollip, Andre PhillipENGLISH ABSTRACT: Factors driving the increase in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, are not understood. A convenience sample of 309 drug-susceptible and 342 multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB isolates, collected July 2008–July 2009, were characterized by spoligotyping, DNA fingerprinting, insertion site mapping, and targeted DNA sequencing. Analysis of molecular-based data showed diverse genetic backgrounds among drug-sensitive and MDR TB sensu stricto isolates in contrast to restricted genetic backgrounds among pre–extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) TB and XDR TB isolates. Second-line drug resistance was significantly associated with the atypical Beijing genotype. DNA fingerprinting and sequencing demonstrated that the pre-XDR and XDR atypical Beijing isolates evolved from a common progenitor; 85% and 92%, respectively, were clustered, indicating transmission. Ninety-three percent of atypical XDR Beijing isolates had mutations that confer resistance to 10 anti-TB drugs, and some isolates also were resistant to para-aminosalicylic acid. These findings suggest the emergence of totally drug-resistant TB.
- ItemGenetic diversity and potential routes of transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Mozambique(Public Library of Science, 2018) Machado, Adelina; Rito, Teresa; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Muhate, Nuelma; Maxhuza, Gabriel; Macuamule, Custodia; Moiane, Ivania; Macucule, Baltazar; Marranangumbe, Angelica Suzana; Baptista, Jorge; Manguele, Joaquim; Koivula, Tuija; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Warren, Robin Mark; Kallenius, Gunilla; Van Helden, Paul; Correia-Neves, MargaridaBovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans. A collection of 178 M. bovis isolates was obtained from cattle in Mozambique. Using spoligotyping and regions of difference analysis, we classified the isolates into clonal complexes, thus reporting the first characterisation of M. bovis strains in this region. Data from MIRU-VNTR typing was used to compare isolates from a number of African countries, revealing a deeply geographically structured diversity of M. bovis. Eastern Africa appears to show high diversity, suggesting deep evolution in that region. The diversity of M. bovis in Africa does not seem to be a function of recent importation of animals, but is probably maintained within each particular region by constant reinfection from reservoir animals. Understanding the transmission routes of M. bovis in Mozambique and elsewhere is essential in order to focus public health and veterinary resources to contain bovine tuberculosis.
- ItemGenetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains isolated from livestock workers and cattle in Nigeria(PLoS, 2019-02-20) Adesokan, Hezekiah K.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Rob M.; Cadmus, Simeon I. B.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Molecular typing techniques are useful in understanding tuberculosis epidemiology; yet, they have been under-utilised at the human-animal interface in Nigeria. Sixty-four Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates including 42 M. tuberculosis, 13 M. bovis and nine M. africanum obtained from livestock workers (LW, n = 47) and their cattle (n = 17) in three geographical zones of Nigeria were genotyped to identify and evaluate the genetic diversity of the circulating MTBC using spoligotyping. Distribution into clades of M. tuberculosis revealed; 45.3% Uganda I- [SIT46- cattle: 1; LW: 28], 14.1% Latin American Mediterranean- [SIT61, cattle: 1; LW: 8], and 1.6% T- [SIT53—LW: 1]. The M. bovis strains were 6.3% SB0944 [cattle: 4] and 1.6% each of SB0300, SB1026, SB1027 and SB1439 [cattle: 4]. Seventeen MTBC isolates [cattle: 7; LW: 10] yielded 14 new spoligotype patterns including three M. tuberculosis strains (three isolates), five M. bovis strains (five isolates) and six M. africanum strains (nine isolates), two of which belonged to MAF1. Only few families namely, the not previously described Uganda I-, LAM and SB0944 are predominant among the LW and cattle, with other types in lower prevalences. The strain population structure indicates an intriguing diversity and possible zoonotic linkage with consequences for TB control in the country. The need to employ newer molecular techniques such as Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeats and whole genome sequence to decipher circulating MTBC strains in Nigeria is advocated.
- ItemGenetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Botswana(PLoS, 2019-05-07) Mogashoa, Tuelo; Melamu, Pinkie; Ley, Serej D.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Iketleng, Thato; Kelentse, Nametso; Mupfumi, Lucy; Mokomane, Margaret; Kgwaadira, Botshelo; Novitsky, Vladimir; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Moyo, Sikhulile; Warren, Robin M.; Gaseitsiwe, SimaniBackground: Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolates can inform Tuberculosis (TB) control programs on the relative proportion of transmission driving the TB epidemic. There is limited data on the M. tb genotypes that are circulating in Botswana. The aim of this study was to generate baseline data on the genetic diversity of M.tb isolates circulating in the country. Methods: A total of 461 M.tb isolates received at the Botswana National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory between March 2012 and October 2013 were included in this study. Drug susceptibility testing was conducted using the BD BACTEC MGIT 960 System. M.tb strains were genotyped using spoligotyping and spoligotype patterns were compared with existing patterns in the SITVIT Web database. A subset of drug resistant isolates which formed spoligo clusters (n = 65) was additionally genotyped with 12-loci MIRU. Factors associated with drug resistance and clustering were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Of the 461 isolates genotyped, 458 showed 108 distinct spoligotype patterns. The predominant M.tb lineages were Lineage 4 (81.9%), Lineage 2 (9%) and Lineage 1 (7.2%). The predominant spoligotype families within Lineage 4 were LAM (33%), S (14%), T (16%), X (16%). Three hundred and ninety-two (86%) isolates could be grouped into 44 clusters (2– 46 isolates per cluster); giving a clustering rate of 76%. We identified 173 (37.8%) drug resistant isolates, 48 (10.5%) of these were multi-drug resistant. MIRU typing of the drug resistant isolates allowed grouping of 46 isolates into 14 clusters, giving a clustering rate of 49.2%. There was no association between age, sex, treatment category, region and clustering. Conclusions: This study highlights the complexity of the TB epidemic in Botswana with multiple strains contributing to disease and provides baseline data on the population structure of M.tb strains in Botswana.
- ItemGeospatial distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Africa(Public Library of Science, 2018-08-01) Chihota, Violet N.; Niehaus, Antoinette; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Wang, Xia; Sampson, Samantha L.; Mason, Peter; Kallenius, Gunilla; Mfinanga, Sayoki G.; Pillay, Marnomorney; Klopper, Marisa; Kasongo, Webster; Behr, Marcel A.; Van Pittius, Nicolaas C. Gey; Van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Warren, Robin M.Objective: To investigate the distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes across Africa. Methods: The SITVIT2 global repository and PUBMED were searched for spoligotype and published genotype data respectively, of M. tuberculosis from Africa. M. tuberculosis lineages in Africa were described and compared across regions and with those from 7 European and 6 South-Asian countries. Further analysis of the major lineages and sub-lineages using Principal Component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were done to describe clustering by geographical regions. Evolutionary relationships were assessed using phylogenetic tree analysis. Results: The SITVIT2 global repository and PUBMED were searched for spoligotype and published genotype data respectively, of M. tuberculosis from Africa. M. tuberculosis lineages in Africa were described and compared across regions and with those from 7 European and 6 South-Asian countries. Further analysis of the major lineages and sub-lineages using Principal Component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were done to describe clustering by geographical regions. Evolutionary relationships were assessed using phylogenetic tree analysis. Results: A total of 14727 isolates from 35 African countries were included in the analysis and of these 13607 were assigned to one of 10 major lineages, whilst 1120 were unknown. There were differences in geographical distribution of major lineages and their sub-lineages with regional clustering. Southern African countries were grouped based on high prevalence of LAM11-ZWE strains; strains which have an origin in Portugal. The grouping of North African countries was due to the high percentage of LAM9 strains, which have an origin in the Eastern Mediterranean region. East African countries were grouped based on Central Asian (CAS) and East-African Indian (EAI) strain lineage possibly reflecting historic sea trade with Asia, while West African Countries were grouped based on Cameroon lineage of unknown origin. A high percentage of the Haarlem lineage isolates were observed in the Central African Republic, Guinea, Gambia and Tunisia, however, a mixed distribution prevented close clustering. Conclusions: This study highlighted that the TB epidemic in Africa is driven by regional epidemics characterized by genetically distinct lineages of M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis in these regions may have been introduced from either Europe or Asia and has spread through pastoralism, mining and war. The vast array of genotypes and their associated phenotypes should be considered when designing future vaccines, diagnostics and anti-TB drugs.
- ItemA global perspective on pyrazinamide resistance: systematic review and meta-analysis(Public Library of Science, 2015) Whitfield, Michael G.; Soeters, Heidi M.; Warren, Robin M.; York, Talita; Sampson, Samantha L.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Van Rie, AnneliesBackground: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is crucial for tuberculosis (TB) treatment, given its unique ability to eradicate persister bacilli. The worldwide burden of PZA resistance remains poorly described. Methods Systematic PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus searches for articles reporting phenotypic (liquid culture drug susceptibility testing or pyrazinamidase activity assays) and/or genotypic (polymerase chain reaction or DNA sequencing) PZA resistance. Global and regional summary estimates were obtained from random-effects meta-analysis, stratified by presence or risk of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Regional summary estimates were combined with regional WHO TB incidence estimates to determine the annual burden of PZA resistance. Information on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pncA gene was aggregated to obtain a global summary. Results: Pooled PZA resistance prevalence estimate was 16.2% (95% CI 11.2-21.2) among all TB cases, 41.3% (29.0-53.7) among patients at high MDR-TB risk, and 60.5% (52.3-68.6) among MDR-TB cases. The estimated global burden is 1.4 million new PZA resistant TB cases annually, about 270,000 in MDR-TB patients. Among 1,815 phenotypically resistant isolates, 608 unique SNPs occurred at 397 distinct positions throughout the pncA gene. Interpretation: PZA resistance is ubiquitous, with an estimated one in six incident TB cases and more than half of all MDR-TB cases resistant to PZA globally. The diversity of SNPs across the pncA gene complicates the development of rapid molecular diagnostics. These findings caution against relying on PZA in current and future TB drug regimens, especially in MDR-TB patients.
- ItemHigh frequency of resistance, lack of clinical benefit, and poor outcomes in capreomycin treated South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis(Public Library of Science, 2015) Pietersen, Elize; Peter, Jonny; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sirgel, Frik; Rockwood, Neesha; Mastrapa, Barbara; Te Riele, Julian; Davids, Malika; Van Helden, Paul; Warren, Robin M.; Dheda, KeertanBackground: There are limited data about the epidemiology and treatment-related outcomes associated with capreomycin resistance in patients with XDR-TB. Capreomycin achieves high serum concentrations relative to MIC but whether capreomycin has therapeutic benefit despite microbiological resistance remains unclear. Methods We reviewed the susceptibility profiles and outcomes associated with capreomycin usage in patients diagnosed with XDR-TB between August 2002 and October 2012 in two provinces of South Africa. Patients whose isolates were genotypically tested for capreomycin resistance were included in the analysis. Results Of 178 XDR-TB patients 41% were HIV-infected. 87% (154/178) isolates contained a capreomycin resistance-conferring mutation [80% (143/178) rrs A1401G and 6% (11/178) were heteroresistant (containing both the rrs A1401G mutation and wild-type sequences)]. Previous MDR-TB treatment, prior usage of kanamycin, or strain type was not associated with capreomycin resistance. 92% (163/178) of XDR-TB patients were empirically treated with capreomycin. Capreomycin resistance decreased the odds of sputum culture conversion. In capreomycin sensitive and resistant persons combined weight at diagnosis was the only independent predictor for survival (p=<0.001). By contrast, HIV status and use of co-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were independent predictors of mortality (p=<0.05). Capreomycin usage was not associated with survival or culture conversion when the analysis was restricted to those whose isolates were resistant to capreomycin. Conclusion: In South Africa the frequency of capreomycin conferring mutations was extremely high in XDR-TB isolates. In those with capreomycin resistance there appeared to be no therapeutic benefit of using capreomycin. These data inform susceptibility testing and the design of treatment regimens for XDR-TB in TB endemic settings.
- ItemA landscape of genomic alterations at the root of a near-untreatable tuberculosis epidemic(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-02-04) Klopper, Marisa; Heupink, Tim Hermanus; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Dippenaar, Anzaan; De Vos, Margaretha; Abdallah, Abdallah Musa; Limberis, Jason; Merker, Matthias; Burns, Scott; Niemann, Stefan; Dheda, Keertan; Posey, James; Pain, Arnab; Warren, Robin MarkBackground: Atypical Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are widespread in South Africa and have acquired resistance to up to 13 drugs on multiple occasions. It is puzzling that these strains have retained fitness and transmissibility despite the potential fitness cost associated with drug resistance mutations. Methods: We conducted Illumina sequencing of 211 Beijing genotype M. tuberculosis isolates to facilitate the detection of genomic features that may promote acquisition of drug resistance and restore fitness in highly resistant atypical Beijing forms. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis was done to determine changes that are unique to the resistant strains that also transmit well. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for streptomycin and bedaquiline was done for a limited number of isolates to demonstrate a difference in MIC between isolates with and without certain variants. Results: Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that two clades of atypical Beijing strains have independently developed resistance to virtually all the potent drugs included in standard (pre-bedaquiline) drug-resistant TB treatment regimens. We show that undetected drug resistance in a progenitor strain was likely instrumental in this resistance acquisition. In this cohort, ethionamide (ethA A381P) resistance would be missed in first-line drug-susceptible isolates, and streptomycin (gidB L79S) resistance may be missed due to an MIC close to the critical concentration. Subsequent inadequate treatment historically led to amplification of resistance and facilitated spread of the strains. Bedaquiline resistance was found in a small number of isolates, despite lack of exposure to the drug. The highly resistant clades also carry inhA promoter mutations, which arose after ethA and katG mutations. In these isolates, inhA promoter mutations do not alter drug resistance, suggesting a possible alternative role. Conclusion: The presence of the ethA mutation in otherwise susceptible isolates from ethionamide-naïve patients demonstrates that known exposure is not an adequate indicator of drug susceptibility. Similarly, it is demonstrated that bedaquiline resistance can occur without exposure to the drug. Inappropriate treatment regimens, due to missed resistance, leads to amplification of resistance, and transmission. We put these results into the context of current WHO treatment regimens, underscoring the risks of treatment without knowledge of the full drug resistance profile.
- ItemMapping of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity profiles in Tanzania and Other African countries(Public Library of Science, 2016) Mbug, Erasto V.; Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Keyyu, Julius D.; Kendall, Sharon L.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Michel, Anita L.; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Warren, Robin M.; Matee, Mecky I.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastog, NalinThe aim of this study was to assess and characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotypic diversity in Tanzania, as well as in neighbouring East and other several African countries. We used spoligotyping to identify a total of 293 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (one isolate per patient) collected in the Bunda, Dar es Salaam, Ngorongoro and Serengeti areas in Tanzania. The results were compared with results in the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Genotyping and phylogeographical analyses highlighted the predominance of the CAS, T, EAI, and LAM MTBC lineages in Tanzania. The three most frequent Spoligotype International Types (SITs) were: SIT21/CAS1-Kili (n = 76; 25.94%), SIT59/LAM11-ZWE (n = 22; 7.51%), and SIT126/EAI5 tentatively reclassified as EAI3-TZA (n = 18; 6.14%). Furthermore, three SITs were newly created in this study (SIT4056/EAI5 n = 2, SIT4057/T1 n = 1, and SIT4058/EAI5 n = 1). We noted that the East-African-Indian (EAI) lineage was more predominant in Bunda, the Manu lineage was more common among strains isolated in Ngorongoro, and the Central-Asian (CAS) lineage was more predominant in Dar es Salaam (p-value<0.0001). No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing HIV status of patients vs. major lineages (p-value = 0.103). However, when grouping lineages as Principal Genetic Groups (PGG), we noticed that PGG2/3 group (Haarlem, LAM, S, T, and X) was more associated with HIV-positive patients as compared to PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS, EAI, and Manu) (p-value = 0.03). This study provided mapping of MTBC genetic diversity in Tanzania (containing information on isolates from different cities) and neighbouring East African and other several African countries highlighting differences as regards to MTBC genotypic distribution between Tanzania and other African countries. This work also allowed underlining of spoligotyping patterns tentatively grouped within the newly designated EAI3-TZA lineage (remarkable by absence of spacers 2 and 3, and represented by SIT126) which seems to be specific to Tanzania. However, further genotyping information would be needed to confirm this specificity.
- ItemMargarida Genetic diversity and potential routes of transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Mozambique(Public Library of Science, 2018) Machado, Adelina; Rito, Teresa; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Muhate, Nuelma; Maxhuza, Gabriel; Macuamule, Custodia; Moiane, Ivania; Macucule, Baltazar; Marranangumbe, Angelica Suzana; Baptista, Jorge; Manguele, Joaquim; Koivula, Tuija; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Warren, Robin Mark; Kallenius, Gunilla; Van Helden, Paul; Correia-Neves, MargaridaENGLISH ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans. A collection of 178 M. bovis isolates was obtained from cattle in Mozambique. Using spoligotyping and regions of difference analysis, we classified the isolates into clonal complexes, thus reporting the first characterisation of M. bovis strains in this region. Data from MIRU-VNTR typing was used to compare isolates from a number of African countries, revealing a deeply geographically structured diversity of M. bovis. Eastern Africa appears to show high diversity, suggesting deep evolution in that region. The diversity of M. bovis in Africa does not seem to be a function of recent importation of animals, but is probably maintained within each particular region by constant reinfection from reservoir animals. Understanding the transmission routes of M. bovis in Mozambique and elsewhere is essential in order to focus public health and veterinary resources to contain bovine tuberculosis.
- ItemMolecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa(AOSIS Publishing, 2011) Hlokwe, Tiny M.; Jenkins, Akinbowale O.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Venter, Estelle H.; Cooper, Dave; Godfroid, Jacques; Michel, Anita L.Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a chronic disease of mammals caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a threat to South African wildlife. It has been reported that African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are reservoir hosts of BTB in South African wildlife populations. This study reports on the molecular identification and typing of 31 M. bovis isolates collected between 1993 and 2008, mainly from buffaloes but also from two lions and a bush pig, in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) in KwaZulu-Natal. To study the dynamics of BTB in the buffalo populations, 28 M. bovis isolates from the HiP and epidemiologically related parks were characterised using regions of difference deletion analysis for species identification and spoligotyping, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), polymorphic G–C-rich sequences and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping methods. At least three distinct M. bovis genotypes were found amongst HiP samples. The combination of VNTR typing (using a 16-loci panel) and IS6110 RFLP revealed the presence of three additional genetic profiles in individual buffaloes, demonstrating that the highest level of discrimination was achieved by these typing methods. One of the observed spoligotypes (SB0130) was dominant and represented 75% of isolates from buffaloes. A novel M. bovis spoligotype (SB1474), which is reported for the first time in this study, was observed in 14.3% of isolates from buffaloes. Based on the observed genetic relationships, the findings suggest independent introductions from at least three unrelated sources. These findings improve the knowledge regarding the diversity of circulating M. bovis strains in the HiP.
- ItemMolecular epidemiological interpretation of the epidemic of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa(American Society for Microbiology, 2015) Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sampson, S. L.; Dheda, K.; Dolby, T.; Simpson, J. A.; Victor, T. C.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Robin M.We show that the interpretation of molecular epidemiological data for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is dependent on the number of different markers used to define transmission. Using spoligotyping, IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, and DNA sequence data, we show that XDR-TB in South Africa (2006 to 2008) was predominantly driven by the acquisition of second-line drug resistance.
- ItemMycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity : mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for classification, population genetics and epidemiology(2006-03) Brudey, Karine; Driscoll, Jeffrey R.; Rigouts, Leen; Prodinger, Wolfgang M.; Gori, Andrea; Al-Hajoj, Sahal A. M.; Allix, Caroline; Aristimuno, Liselotte; Arora, Jyoti; Baumanis, Viesturs; Binder, Lothar; Cafrune, Patricia; Cataldi, Angel; Cheong, Soonfatt; Diel, Roland; Ellermeier, Christopher; Evans, Jason T.; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Ferdinand, Severine; Garcia de Viedma, Dario; Garzelli, Carlo; Gazzola, Lidia; Gomes, Harrison M.; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Hawkey, Peter M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Kadival, Gurujaj V.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kremer, Kristin; Kubin, Milan; Kulkarni, Savita P.; Liens, Benjamin; Lillebaek, Troels; Ly, Ho Minh; Martin, Carlos; Martin, Christian; Mokrousov, Igor; Narvskaia, Olga; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Naumann, Ludmilla; Niemann, Stefan; Parwati, Ida; Rahim, Mohammad Z.; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Rasolonavalona, Tiana; Rossetti, M. Lucia; Rusch-Gerdes, Sabine; Sajduda, Anna; Samper, Sofia; Shemyakin, Igor; Singh, Urvashi B.; Somoskovi, Akos; Skuce, Robin; Van Soolingen, Dick; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Suffys, Philip N.; Tortoli, Enrico; Tracevska, Tatjana; Vincent, Veronique; Victor, Tommie C.; Warren, Robin; Yap, Sook Fan; Zaman, Kadiza; Portaels, Francoise; Rastogi, Nalin; Sola, ChristopheBackground: The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical laboratory, molecular epidemiology, evolutionary and population genetics. It is easy, robust, cheap, and produces highly diverse portable numerical results, as the result of the combination of (1) Unique Events Polymorphism (UEP) (2) Insertion-Sequence-mediated genetic recombination. Genetic convergence, although rare, was also previously demonstrated. Three previous international spoligotype databases had partly revealed the global and local geographical structures of MTC bacilli populations, however, there was a need for the release of a new, more representative and extended, international spoligotyping database. Results: The fourth international spoligotyping database, SpolDB4, describes 1939 shared-types (STs) representative of a total of 39,295 strains from 122 countries, which are tentatively classified into 62 clades/lineages using a mixed expert-based and bioinformatical approach. The SpolDB4 update adds 26 new potentially phylogeographically-specific MTC genotype families. It provides a clearer picture of the current MTC genomes diversity as well as on the relationships between the genetic attributes investigated (spoligotypes) and the infra-species classification and evolutionary history of the species. Indeed, an independent Naïve-Bayes mixture-model analysis has validated main of the previous supervised SpolDB3 classification results, confirming the usefulness of both supervised and unsupervised models as an approach to understand MTC population structure. Updated results on the epidemiological status of spoligotypes, as well as genetic prevalence maps on six main lineages are also shown. Our results suggests the existence of fine geographical genetic clines within MTC populations, that could mirror the passed and present Homo sapiens sapiens demographical and mycobacterial co-evolutionary history whose structure could be further reconstructed and modelled, thereby providing a large-scale conceptual framework of the global TB Epidemiologic Network. Conclusion: Our results broaden the knowledge of the global phylogeography of the MTC complex. SpolDB4 should be a very useful tool to better define the identity of a given MTC clinical isolate, and to better analyze the links between its current spreading and previous evolutionary history. The building and mining of extended MTC polymorphic genetic databases is in progress.
- ItemMycobacterium tuberculosis pncA polymorphisms that do not confer pyrazinamide resistance at a breakpoint concentration of 100 micrograms per milliliter in MGIT(American Society for Microbiology, 2015) Whitfield, Michael G.; Warren, Robin M.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sampson, Samantha L.; Sirgel, Frik A.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Mercante, Alexandra; Willby, Melisa; Hughes, Kelsey; Birkness, Kris; Morlock, Glenm; Van Rie, Annelies; Posey, James E.Sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA gene allows for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing. We summarize data on pncA polymorphisms that do not confer resistance at a susceptibility breakpoint of 100 μg/ml pyrazinamide in MGIT within a cohort of isolates from South Africa and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- ItemThe non-clonality of drug resistance in Beijing-genotype isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Western Cape of South Africa(BioMed Central, 2010-11) Loerger, Thomas R.; Feng, Yicheng; Chen, Xiaohua; Dobos, Karen M.; Victor, Thomas C.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Warren, Robin M.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Sacchettini, James C.Background. The Beijing genotype of M. tuberculosis is a virulent strain that is disseminating worldwide and has a strong association with drug resistance. In the Western Cape of South Africa, epidemiological studies have identified the R220 cluster of the Beijing genotype as a major contributor to a recent outbreak of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Although the outbreak is considered to be due to clonal transmission, the relationship among drug resistant isolates has not yet been established. Results. To better understand the evolution of drug resistance among these strains, 14 drug-resistant clinical isolates of the Beijing genotype were sequenced by whole-genome sequencing, including eight from R220 and six from a more ancestral Beijing cluster, R86, for comparison. While each cluster shares a distinct resistance mutation for isoniazid, mapping of other drug-resistance mutations onto a phylogenetic tree constructed from single nucleotide polymorphisms shows that resistance mutations to many drugs have arisen multiple times independently within each cluster of isolates. Thus, drug resistance among these isolates appears to be acquired, not clonally derived. This observation suggests that, although the Beijing genotype as a whole might have selective advantages enabling its rapid dissemination, the XDR isolates are relatively less fit and do not propagate well. Although it has been hypothesized that the increased frequency of drug resistance in some Beijing lineages might be caused by a mutator phenotype, no significant shift in synonymous substitution patterns is observed in the genomes. Conclusion. While MDR-TB is spreading by transmission in the Western Cape, our data suggests that further drug resistance (i.e. XDR-TB) at this stage is acquired.
- ItemPopulation structure of mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is strain genotype and culture medium dependent(Public Library of Science, 2013-07-30) Hanekom, Madeleine; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Van de Berg, Doreen; Cox, Helen; McDermid, Cheryl; Bosman, Marlein; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Victor, Tommie C.; Kidd, Martin; Van Soolingen, Dick; Van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Robin M.Background Molecular genotyping methods have shown infection with more than one Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain genotype in a single sputum culture, indicating mixed infection. Aim This study aimed to develop a PCR-based genotyping tool to determine the population structure of M. tuberculosis strain genotypes in primary Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT) and Löwenstein–Jensen (LJ) cultures to identify mixed infections and to establish whether the growth media influenced the recovery of certain strain genotypes. Method A convenience sample of 206 paired MGIT and LJ M. tuberculosis cultures from pulmonary tuberculosis patients resident in Khayelitsha, South Africa were genotyped using an in-house PCR-based method to detect defined M. tuberculosis strain genotypes. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-based method for detecting Beijing, Haarlem, S-family, and LAM genotypes was 100%, and 75% and 50% for detecting the Low Copy Clade, respectively. Thirty-one (15%) of the 206 cases showed the presence of more than one M. tuberculosis strain genotype. Strains of the Beijing and Haarlem genotypes were significantly more associated with a mixed infection (on both media) when compared to infections with a single strain (Beijing MGIT p = 0.02; LJ, p<0.01) and (Haarlem: MGIT p<0.01; LJ, p = 0.01). Strains with the Beijing genotype were less likely to be with “other genotype” strains (p<0.01) while LAM, Haarlem, S-family and LCC occurred independently with the Beijing genotype. Conclusion The PCR-based method was able to identify mixed infection in at least 15% of the cases. LJ media was more sensitive in detecting mixed infections than MGIT media, implying that the growth characteristics of M. tuberculosis on different media may influence our ability to detect mixed infections. The Beijing and Haarlem genotypes were more likely to occur in a mixed infection than any of the other genotypes tested suggesting pathogen-pathogen compatibility.
- ItemProgrammatically selected multidrug-resistant strains drive the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2013-08-23) Muller, Borna; Chihota, Violet N.; Pillay, Manormoney; Klopper, Marisa; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Coetzee, Gerrit; Trollip, Andre; Hayes, Cindy; Bosman, Marlein E.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Victor, Thomas C.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Robin M.Background: South Africa shows one of the highest global burdens of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). Since 2002, MDR-TB in South Africa has been treated by a standardized combination therapy, which until 2010 included ofloxacin, kanamycin, ethionamide, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Since 2010, ethambutol has been replaced by cycloserine or terizidone. The effect of standardized treatment on the acquisition of XDR-TB is not currently known. Methods: We genetically characterized a random sample of 4,667 patient isolates of drug-sensitive, MDR and XDR-TB cases collected from three South African provinces, namely, the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Drug resistance patterns of a subset of isolates were analyzed for the presence of commonly observed resistance mutations. Results: Our analyses revealed a strong association between distinct strain genotypes and the emergence of XDR-TB in three neighbouring provinces of South Africa. Strains predominant in XDR-TB increased in proportion by more than 20-fold from drug-sensitive to XDR-TB and accounted for up to 95% of the XDR-TB cases. A high degree of clustering for drug resistance mutation patterns was detected. For example, the largest cluster of XDR-TB associated strains in the Eastern Cape, affecting more than 40% of all MDR patients in this province, harboured identical mutations concurrently conferring resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin, ethionamide, kanamycin, amikacin and capreomycin. Conclusions: XDR-TB associated genotypes in South Africa probably were programmatically selected as a result of the standard treatment regimen being ineffective in preventing their transmission. Our findings call for an immediate adaptation of standard treatment regimens for M/XDR-TB in South Africa.