Browsing by Author "Dheda, Keertan"
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- ItemAn automated tuberculosis screening strategy combining X-ray-based computer-aided detection and clinical information(Springer Nature, 2016) Melendez, Jaime; Sanchez, Clara; Philipsen, Rick H. H. M.; Maduskar, Pragnya; Dawson, Rodney; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan; Van Ginneken, BramLack of human resources and radiological interpretation expertise impair tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes in TB-endemic countries. Computer-aided detection (CAD) constitutes a viable alternative for chest radiograph (CXR) reading. However, no automated techniques that exploit the additional clinical information typically available during screening exist. To address this issue and optimally exploit this information, a machine learning-based combination framework is introduced. We have evaluated this framework on a database containing 392 patient records from suspected TB subjects prospectively recruited in Cape Town, South Africa. Each record comprised a CAD score, automatically computed from a CXR, and 12 clinical features. Comparisons with strategies relying on either CAD scores or clinical information alone were performed. Our results indicate that the combination framework outperforms the individual strategies in terms of the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (0.84 versus 0.78 and 0.72), specificity at 95% sensitivity (49% versus 24% and 31%) and negative predictive value (98% versus 95% and 96%). Thus, it is believed that combining CAD and clinical information to estimate the risk of active disease is a promising tool for TB screening.
- ItemC-Tb skin test to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children and HIV infected adults : a phase 3 trial(Public Library of Science, 2018) Aggerbeck, Henrik; Ruhwald, Morten; Hoff, Soren T.; Borregaard, Bettine; Hellstrom, Elizabeth; Malahleha, Mookho; Siebert, Mirna; Gani, Mashra; Seopela, Vincent; Diacon, Andreas; Lourens, Madeleine; Andersen, Peter; Dheda, KeertanBackground C-Tb, an ESAT-6/CFP-10-based skin test, has similar sensitivity for active TB compared to tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold-In-Tube (QFT). However, data are limited in children and HIV-infected persons. Methods Asymptomatic South African contacts <5 years (n = 87; HIV-uninfected), or symptomatic individuals of all ages presenting to clinics with suspected TB (n = 1003; 30% HIV-infected) were recruited from eight South African centres. C-Tb and TST were allocated to either forearm double blinded. Samples for QFT were collected in parallel, and test-positivity rates were compared. Results In participants with microbiologically confirmed TB (n = 75; 45% HIV-infected) sensitivity of C-Tb, TST and QFT were similar (72% versus 75% versus 73%; p>0.5). All 3 tests had similar positivity rates in HIV-infected participants with active TB, however, positivity rates were reduced when CD4 counts were <100 cells/μL. In participants where active TB was excluded (n = 920), C-Tb (41%), TST (43%), and QFT (44%) also had similar test-positivity rates. Among asymptomatic contacts aged below five, 32% (28/87) tested positive with C-Tb and 32% (28/87) with TST (concordance 89%). Overall, C-Tb and TST showed a similar safety profile. Conclusion C-Tb was safe and showed similar test-positivity rates, compared to TST and QFT, in children and HIV-infected persons with active or latent M. tuberculosis infection. These data inform the utility of C-Tb in clinical practice.
- ItemCost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF and investing in health care in Africa(Elsevier, 2014-10) Dheda, Keertan; Theron, Grant; Welte, AlexThe Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an accurate test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis when an adequate sputum sample can be obtained; even in smear-negative tuberculosis the sensitivity is about 67%.1, 2 Although the assay turnaround time is under 2 h, depending on the health-care setting, time to tuberculosis treatment can be 2 weeks or more in a substantial number of patients.3 The technology has now been endorsed by WHO as a frontline test for tuberculosis in populations where there is a high incidence of HIV.4 Indeed, several countries in Africa are rolling out Xpert MTB/RIF.5 However, for expanded and sustained uptake, governments and policy makers require information about the cost-effectiveness of the technology to allow for appropriate planning and allocation of health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness must be balanced against affordability and sustainability. Thus, although the diagnostic accuracy of the technique is not in doubt, questions remain about the cost-effectiveness of the technology given that the overall number of patients treated for tuberculosis can remain unchanged6 and given the high rates of empirical treatment in resource-poor health-care settings.7
- ItemThe diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays for drug-resistant TB detection when performed on sputum and culture isolates(Springer Nature, 2016) Tomasicchio, Michele; Theron, Grant; Pietersen, Elize; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Stanley-Josephs, Danielle; Van Helden, Paul; Warren, Rob; Dheda, KeertanAlthough molecular tests for drug-resistant TB perform well on culture isolates, their accuracy using clinical samples, particularly from TB and HIV-endemic settings, requires clarification. The MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl line probe assays were evaluated in 181 sputum samples and 270 isolates from patients with culture-confirmed drug-sensitive-TB, MDR-TB, or XDR-TB. Phenotypic culture-based testing was the reference standard. Using sputum, the sensitivities for resistance was 97.7%, 95.4%, 58.9%, 61.6% for rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and amikacin, respectively, whereas the specificities were 91.8%, 89%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. MTBDRsl sensitivity differed in smear-positive vs. smear-negative samples (79.2% vs. 20%, p < 0.0001 for ofloxacin; 72.9% vs. 37%, p = 0.0023 for amikacin) but not by HIV status. If used sequentially, MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl could rule-in XDR-TB in 78.5% (22/28) and 10.5% (2/19) of smear-positive and smear-negative samples, respectively. On culture isolates, the sensitivity for resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and amikacin was 95.1%, 96.1%, 72.3% and 76.6%, respectively, whereas the specificities exceeded 96%. Using a sequential testing approach, rapid sputum-based diagnosis of fluoroquinolone or aminoglycoside-resistant TB is feasible only in smear-positive samples, where rule-in value is good. Further investigation is required in samples that test susceptible in order to rule-out second-line drug resistance.
- ItemDifferential RD-1-specific IFN-γ host responses to diverse Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in HIV-uninfected persons may be explained by genotypic variation in the ESX-1 region(Elsevier, 2020-04) Tomasicchio, Michele; Limberis, Jason; van der Merwe, Ruben; Jacobson, Rachael; Meldau, Richard; Theron, Grant; Nicol, Mark; Warren, Rob; Dheda, KeertanObjectives: Between-person variability in T-cell-specific interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) responses and discordance between IGRA test formats are poorly understood. Methods: We evaluated the IFN-γ responses (QuantiFERON-TB Gold-In-Tube [QFT-GIT] and TSPOT-TB) stratified according to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotype of the culture isolate obtained from the same patients with confirmed active tuberculosis (n = 91). We further analysed differences within the RD-1-encoding ESX-1 region between the different strain types using whole genome sequencing. Results: In HIV-uninfected patients, TSPOT.TB and QFT-GIT IFN-γ responses were 5-fold (p < 0.01) and 2-fold higher (p < 0.05) for those infected with family 33 compared to the LAM strain (additionally, TSPOT.TB responses were 5.6-fold [p < 0.05] and 2.6-fold higher [p < 0.05] for the patients infected with the family 33 versus the X strain and Beijing versus the LAM strain, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that strain type (determined by spoligotyping) was independently associated with the magnitude of the IGRA response (varied by IGRA test type) and this is likely explained by variability in the ESX-1 region of Mycobacteriumtuberculosis (determined by next-generation sequencing). Conclusions: These data have implications for the understanding of between-person heterogeneity in IGRA responses, Mycobateriumtuberculosis-specific host immunity, and the discordance between different IGRA test formats.
- ItemDrug-associated adverse events and their relationship with outcomes in patients receiving treatment for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2013-05-07) Shean, Karen; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Pieterson, Elize; Symons, Greg; Van Zyl Smit, Richard; Theron, Grant; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Padanilam, Xavier; Wilcox, Paul; Victor, Tommie C.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Groubusch, Martin; Warren, Robin M.; Badri, Motasim; Dheda, KeertanBackground: Treatment-related outcomes in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are poor. However, data about the type, frequency and severity of presumed drug-associated adverse events (AEs) and their association with treatment-related outcomes in patients with XDR-TB are scarce. Methods: Case records of 115 South-African XDR-TB patients were retrospectively reviewed by a trained researcher. AEs were estimated and graded according to severity [grade 0 = none; grade 1–2 = mild to moderate; and grade 3–5 = severe (drug stopped, life-threatening or death)]. Findings: 161 AEs were experienced by 67/115(58%) patients: 23/67(34%) required modification of treatment, the offending drug was discontinued in 19/67(28%), reactions were life-threatening in 2/67(3.0%), and 6/67(9.0%) died. ∼50% of the patients were still on treatment at the time of data capture. Sputum culture-conversion was less likely in those with severe (grade 3–5) vs. grade 0–2 AEs [2/27(7%) vs. 24/88(27%); p = 0.02]. The type, frequency and severity of AEs was similar in HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Capreomycin, which was empirically administered in most cases, was withdrawn in 14/104(14%) patients, implicated in (14/34) 41% of the total drug withdrawals, and was associated with all 6 deaths in the severe AE group (renal failure in five patients and hypokalemia in one patient). Conclusion: Drug-associated AEs occur commonly with XDR-TB treatment, are often severe, frequently interrupt therapy, and negatively impact on culture conversion outcomes. These preliminary data inform on the need for standardised strategies (including pre-treatment counselling, early detection, monitoring, and follow-up) and less toxic drugs to optimally manage patients with XDR-TB.
- ItemEffect of Xpert MTB/RIF on clinical outcomes in routine care settings : individual patient data meta-analysis(Elsevier, 2019-02) Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Khaki, Ali Raza; Theron, Grant; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Cox, Helen; Mupfumi, Lucy; Trajman, Anete; Mason, Peter; Bandason, Tsitsi; Durovni, Betina; Bara, Wilbert; Hoelscher, Michael; Clowes, Petra; Mangu, Chacha; Chanda, Duncan; Pym, Alexander; Mwaba, Peter; Cobelens, Frank; Nicol, Mark P.; Dheda, Keertan; Churchyard, Gavin; Fielding, Katherine; Metcalfe, John Z.Background: Xpert MTB/RIF, the most widely used automated nucleic acid amplification test for tuberculosis, is available in more than 130 countries. Although diagnostic accuracy is well documented, anticipated improvements in patient outcomes have not been clearly identified. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to examine improvements in patient outcomes associated with Xpert MTB/RIF. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry from inception to Feb 1, 2018, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of Xpert MTB/RIF with sputum smear microscopy as tests for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults (aged 18 years or older). We excluded studies of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and studies in which mortality was not assessed. We used a two-stage approach for our primary analysis and a one-stage approach for the sensitivity analysis. To assess the primary outcome of cumulative 6-month all-cause mortality, we first performed logistic regression models (random effects for cluster randomised trials, with robust SEs for multicentre studies) for each trial, and then pooled the odds ratio (OR) estimates by a fixed-effects (inverse variance) or random-effects (Der Simonian Laird) meta-analysis. We adjusted for age and gender, and stratified by HIV status and previous tuberculosis-treatment history. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42014013394. Findings Our search identified 387 studies, of which five RCTs were eligible for analysis. 8567 adult clinic attendees (4490 [63·5%] of 7074 participants for whom data were available were HIV-positive) were tested for tuberculosis with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert group) versus sputum smear microscopy (sputum smear group), across five low-income and middle-income countries (South Africa, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Tanzania). The primary outcome (reported in three studies) occurred in 182 (4·5%) of 4050 patients in the Xpert group and 217 (5·3%) of 4093 patients in the smear group (pooled adjusted OR 0·88, 95% CI 0·68–1·14 [p=0·34]; for HIV-positive individuals OR 0·83, 0·65–1·05 [p=0·12]). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a lower rate of death (12·73 per 100 person-years in the Xpert group vs 16·38 per 100 person-years in the sputum smear group) for HIV-positive patients (hazard ratio 0·76, 95% CI 0·60–0·97; p=0·03). The risk of bias was assessed as reasonable and the statistical heterogeneity across studies was low (I²<20% for the primary outcome). Interpretation Despite individual patient data analysis from five RCTs, we were unable to confidently rule in nor rule out an Xpert MTB/RIF-associated reduction in mortality among outpatients tested for tuberculosis. Reduction in mortality among HIV-positive patients in a secondary analysis suggests the possibility of population-level impact.
- ItemEndoscopic lung volume reduction in severe emphysema(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik N.; Theron, Johan; Bruwer, J. W.; Allwood, Brian W.; Vorster, Morne J.; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Dheda, KeertanENGLISH ABSTRACT: Therapeutic options in severe emphysema are limited. Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) refers to bronchoscopically inducing volume loss to improve pulmonary mechanics and compliance, thereby reducing the work of breathing. Globally, this technique is increasingly used as treatment for advanced emphysema with the aim of obtaining similar functional advantages to surgical lung volume reduction, while reducing risks and costs. There is a growing body of evidence that certain well-defined subgroups of patients with advanced emphysema benefit from ELVR, provided that a systematic approach is followed and selection criteria are met. In addition to endobronchial valves, ELVR using endobronchial coils is now available in South Africa. The high cost of these interventions underscores the need for careful patient selection to best identify those likely to benefit from such procedures.
- ItemThe epidemiology of tuberculosis in health care workers in South Africa : a systematic review(BioMed Central, 2016-08-20) Grobler, Liesl; Mehtar, Shaheen; Dheda, Keertan; Adams, Shahieda; Babatunde, Sanni; Van der Walt, Martie; Osman, MuhammadENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: In South Africa, workplace acquired tuberculosis (TB) is a significant occupational problem among health care workers. In order to manage the problem effectively it is important to know the burden of TB in health care workers. This systematic review describes the epidemiology of TB in South African health care workers. Methods: A comprehensive search of electronic databases [MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science (Social Sciences Citation Index/Science Citation Index), Cochrane Library (including CENTRAL register of Controlled Trials), CINAHL and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP)] was conducted up to April 2015 for studies reporting on any aspect of TB epidemiology in health care workers in South Africa. Results: Of the 16 studies included in the review, ten studies reported on incidence of active TB disease in health care workers, two report on the prevalence of active TB disease, two report on the incidence of latent TB infection, three report on the prevalence of latent TB infection and four studies report on the number of TB cases in health care workers in various health care facilities in South Africa. Five studies provide information on risk factors for TB in health care workers. All of the included studies were conducted in publicly funded health care facilities; predominately located in KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape provinces. The majority of the studies reflect a higher incidence and prevalence of active TB disease in health care workers, including drug-resistant TB, compared to the surrounding community or general population. Conclusions: There is relatively little research on the epidemiology of TB in health care workers in South Africa, despite the importance of the issue. To determine the true extent of the TB epidemic in health care workers, regular screening for TB disease should be conducted on all health care workers in all health care facilities, but future research is required to investigate the optimal approach to TB screening in health care workers in South Africa. The evidence base shows a high burden of both active and latent TB in health care workers in South Africa necessitating an urgent need to improve existing TB infection, prevention and control measures in South African.
- ItemGenoType MTBDRsl assay for resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs(Cochrane, 2016-09-08) Theron, Grant; Peter, Jonny; Richardson, Marty; Warren, Rob; Dheda, Keertan; Steingart, Karen R.Background: Genotype® MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) is a rapid DNA-based test for detecting specific mutations associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. MTBDRsl version 2.0 (released in 2015) identifies the mutations detected by version 1.0, as well as additional mutations. The test may be performed on a culture isolate or a patient specimen, which eliminates delays associated with culture. Version 1.0 requires a smear-positive specimen, while version 2.0 may use a smear-positive or -negative specimen. We performed this updated review as part of aWorld Health Organization process to develop updated guidelines for using MTBDRsl. Objectives: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of MTBDRsl for: 1. fluoroquinolone resistance, 2. SLID resistance, and 3. extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, indirectly on a M. tuberculosis isolate grown from culture or directly on a patient specimen. Participants were people with rifampicin-resistant or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The role of MTBDRsl would be as the initial test, replacing culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST), for detecting second-line drug resistance.
- ItemHigh frequency of resistance, lack of clinical benefit, and poor outcomes in capreomycin treated South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis(Public Library of Science, 2015) Pietersen, Elize; Peter, Jonny; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sirgel, Frik; Rockwood, Neesha; Mastrapa, Barbara; Te Riele, Julian; Davids, Malika; Van Helden, Paul; Warren, Robin M.; Dheda, KeertanBackground: There are limited data about the epidemiology and treatment-related outcomes associated with capreomycin resistance in patients with XDR-TB. Capreomycin achieves high serum concentrations relative to MIC but whether capreomycin has therapeutic benefit despite microbiological resistance remains unclear. Methods We reviewed the susceptibility profiles and outcomes associated with capreomycin usage in patients diagnosed with XDR-TB between August 2002 and October 2012 in two provinces of South Africa. Patients whose isolates were genotypically tested for capreomycin resistance were included in the analysis. Results Of 178 XDR-TB patients 41% were HIV-infected. 87% (154/178) isolates contained a capreomycin resistance-conferring mutation [80% (143/178) rrs A1401G and 6% (11/178) were heteroresistant (containing both the rrs A1401G mutation and wild-type sequences)]. Previous MDR-TB treatment, prior usage of kanamycin, or strain type was not associated with capreomycin resistance. 92% (163/178) of XDR-TB patients were empirically treated with capreomycin. Capreomycin resistance decreased the odds of sputum culture conversion. In capreomycin sensitive and resistant persons combined weight at diagnosis was the only independent predictor for survival (p=<0.001). By contrast, HIV status and use of co-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were independent predictors of mortality (p=<0.05). Capreomycin usage was not associated with survival or culture conversion when the analysis was restricted to those whose isolates were resistant to capreomycin. Conclusion: In South Africa the frequency of capreomycin conferring mutations was extremely high in XDR-TB isolates. In those with capreomycin resistance there appeared to be no therapeutic benefit of using capreomycin. These data inform susceptibility testing and the design of treatment regimens for XDR-TB in TB endemic settings.
- ItemIndications for the use of bronchial thermoplasty in severe asthma(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Dheda, Keertan; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Esmail, Aliasgar; Irusen, Elvis; Wechsler, Michael; Niven, Rob M.; Chung, Kian Fan; Bateman, Eric D.Approximately 5% of the ~3 million asthmatics in South Africa have severe asthma that is associated with substantial morbidity, cost, absenteeism, preventable mortality, and the requirement for costly chronic medication that may be associated with significant adverse events. There is an unmet need for alternative safer and more effective interventions for severe asthma. A recently introduced option, bronchial thermoplasty (BT), imparts radiofrequency-generated heat energy to the airways to cause regression of airway smooth muscle. The effectiveness of this technique has been confirmed in randomised control trials and is now endorsed by several international guidelines, including the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline, the British Asthma Guideline, and the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline. We recommend BT as a potential therapeutic intervention for severe uncontrolled asthma, provided that it is performed by an experienced pulmonologist at an accredited centre and done within the broader context of appropriate management of the disease by doctors experienced in treating difficult-to-control asthma.
- ItemA landscape of genomic alterations at the root of a near-untreatable tuberculosis epidemic(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-02-04) Klopper, Marisa; Heupink, Tim Hermanus; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Dippenaar, Anzaan; De Vos, Margaretha; Abdallah, Abdallah Musa; Limberis, Jason; Merker, Matthias; Burns, Scott; Niemann, Stefan; Dheda, Keertan; Posey, James; Pain, Arnab; Warren, Robin MarkBackground: Atypical Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are widespread in South Africa and have acquired resistance to up to 13 drugs on multiple occasions. It is puzzling that these strains have retained fitness and transmissibility despite the potential fitness cost associated with drug resistance mutations. Methods: We conducted Illumina sequencing of 211 Beijing genotype M. tuberculosis isolates to facilitate the detection of genomic features that may promote acquisition of drug resistance and restore fitness in highly resistant atypical Beijing forms. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis was done to determine changes that are unique to the resistant strains that also transmit well. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination for streptomycin and bedaquiline was done for a limited number of isolates to demonstrate a difference in MIC between isolates with and without certain variants. Results: Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that two clades of atypical Beijing strains have independently developed resistance to virtually all the potent drugs included in standard (pre-bedaquiline) drug-resistant TB treatment regimens. We show that undetected drug resistance in a progenitor strain was likely instrumental in this resistance acquisition. In this cohort, ethionamide (ethA A381P) resistance would be missed in first-line drug-susceptible isolates, and streptomycin (gidB L79S) resistance may be missed due to an MIC close to the critical concentration. Subsequent inadequate treatment historically led to amplification of resistance and facilitated spread of the strains. Bedaquiline resistance was found in a small number of isolates, despite lack of exposure to the drug. The highly resistant clades also carry inhA promoter mutations, which arose after ethA and katG mutations. In these isolates, inhA promoter mutations do not alter drug resistance, suggesting a possible alternative role. Conclusion: The presence of the ethA mutation in otherwise susceptible isolates from ethionamide-naïve patients demonstrates that known exposure is not an adequate indicator of drug susceptibility. Similarly, it is demonstrated that bedaquiline resistance can occur without exposure to the drug. Inappropriate treatment regimens, due to missed resistance, leads to amplification of resistance, and transmission. We put these results into the context of current WHO treatment regimens, underscoring the risks of treatment without knowledge of the full drug resistance profile.
- ItemManagement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease—A position statement of the South African Thoracic Society : 2019 update(AME Publishing, 2019-10-06) Abdool-Gaffar, Mohamed Sabeer; Calligaro, Gregory; Wong, Michelle Lianne; Smith, Clifford; Lalloo, Umesh Gangaram; Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik Nicolaas; Dheda, Keertan; Allwood, Brian William; Goolam-Mahomed, Akhter; van Zyl-Smit, Richard NellisENGLISH ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of death and disability in both developed and developing countries. It is increasing in frequency and demands increasing utilisation of healthcare resources.
- ItemPoint of care Xpert MTB/RIF versus smear microscopy for tuberculosis diagnosis in southern African primary care clinics : a multicentre economic evaluation(Elsevier, 2019-06-01) Pooran, Anil; Theron, Grant; Zijenah, Lynn; Chanda, Duncan; Clowes, Petra; Mwenge, Lawrence; Mutenherwa, Farirai; Lecesse, Paul; Metcalfe, John; Sohn, Hojoon; Hoelscher, Michael; Pym, Alex; Peter, Jonny; Dowdy, David; Dheda, KeertanBackground: Rapid on-site diagnosis facilitates tuberculosis control. Performing Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) at point of care is feasible, even when performed by minimally trained health-care workers, and when compared with point-of-care smear microscopy, reduces time to diagnosis and pretreatment loss to follow-up. However, whether Xpert is cost-effective at point of care remains unclear. Methods: We empirically collected cost (US$, 2014) and clinical outcome data from participants presenting to primary health-care facilities in four African countries (South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania) during the TB-NEAT trial. Costs were determined using an bottom-up ingredients approach. Effectiveness measures from the trial included number of cases diagnosed, initiated on treatment, and completing treatment. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness of point-of-care Xpert relative to smear microscopy. The study was performed from the perspective of the health-care provider. Findings: Using data from 1502 patients, we calculated that the mean Xpert unit cost was lower when performed at a centralised laboratory (Lab Xpert) rather than at point of care ($23·00 [95% CI 22·12–23·88] vs $28·03 [26·19–29·87]). Per 1000 patients screened, and relative to smear microscopy, point-of-care Xpert cost an additional $35 529 (27 054–40 025) and was associated with an additional 24·3 treatment initiations ([–20·0 to 68·5]; $1464 per treatment), 63·4 same-day treatment initiations ([27·3–99·4]; $511 per same-day treatment), and 29·4 treatment completions ([–6·9 to 65·6]; $1211 per completion). Xpert costs were most sensitive to test volume, whereas incremental outcomes were most sensitive to the number of patients initiating and completing treatment. The probability of point-of-care Xpert being cost-effective was 90% at a willingness to pay of $3820 per treatment completion. Interpretation: In southern Africa, although point-of-care Xpert unit cost is higher than Lab Xpert, it is likely to offer good value for money relative to smear microscopy. With the current availability of point-of-care nucleic acid amplification platforms (eg, Xpert Edge), these data inform much needed investment and resource allocation strategies in tuberculosis endemic settings.
- ItemRecombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages(BioMed Central, 2016-02-29) Phelan, Jody E.; Coll, Francesc; Bergval, Indra; Anthony, Richard M.; Warren, Rob; Sampson, Samantha L.; Gey Van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Glynn, Judith R.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Alves, Adriana; Bessa, Theolis B.; Campino, Susana; Dheda, Keertan; Grandjean, Louis; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Miranda, Anabela; Moore, David; Panaiotov, Stefan; Perdigao, Joao; Portugal, Isabel; Sheen, Patricia; De Oliveira Sousa, Erivelton; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Viveiros, Miguel; Hibberd, Martin L.; Pain, Arnab; McNerney, Ruth; Clark, Taane G.Background: Approximately 10 % of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is made up of two families of genes that are poorly characterized due to their high GC content and highly repetitive nature. The PE and PPE families are typified by their highly conserved N-terminal domains that incorporate proline-glutamate (PE) and proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) signature motifs. They are hypothesised to be important virulence factors involved with host-pathogen interactions, but their high genetic variability and complexity of analysis means they are typically disregarded in genome studies. Results: To elucidate the structure of these genes, 518 genomes from a diverse international collection of clinical isolates were de novo assembled. A further 21 reference M. tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified, notably pe_pgrs3 and pe_pgrs17. Evidence of positive selection was revealed in 65 pe/ppe genes, including epitopes potentially binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. Conclusions: This, the first comprehensive study of the pe and ppe genes, provides important insight into M. tuberculosis diversity and has significant implications for vaccine development.
- ItemRecommendations for lung cancer screening in Southern Africa(AME Publishing, 2019-07-09) Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Dorfman, Shane; Schewitz, Ivan; Richards, Guy A.; Maasdorp, Shaun; Smith, Clifford; Dheda, KeertanENGLISH ABSTRACT: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in southern Africa. Early trials of chest radiograph-based screening in males at high risk for lung cancer found no mortality benefit of a radiograph alone, or a radiograph plus sputum cytology screening strategy. Large prospective studies, including the National Lung Screening Trial, have shown an all-cause mortality benefit when low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) was used as a screening modality in patients that are at high risk of developing lung cancer. The South African Thoracic Society, based on these findings, and those from several international guidelines, recommend that annual LDCT should be offered to patients between 55–74 years of age who are current or former smokers (having quit within the preceding 15 years), with at least a 30-pack year smoking history and with no history of lung cancer. Patients should be in general good health, fit for surgery, and willing to undergo further investigations if deemed necessary. Given the high local prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection and post-TB lung disease, which can radiographically mimic lung cancer, a conservative threshold (nodule size ≥6 mm) should be used to determine whether the baseline LDCT screen is positive (thus nodules <6 mm require no action until the next annual screen). If a non-calcified, solid or partly solid nodule is ≥6 mm, but <10 mm with no malignant features (e.g., distinct spiculated margins), the LDCT should be repeated in 6 months. If a solid nodule or the largest component of a non-solid nodule is ≥10 or ≥6 mm and enlarging or with additional malignant features present, definitive action to exclude lung cancer is warranted. Patients should be screened annually until 15 years have elapsed from date of smoking cessation, they turn 80, become unfit for a curative operation or significant changes are observed.
- ItemRecommendations for the use of bronchial thermoplasty in the management of severe asthma(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Dheda, Keertan; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.; Esmail, Aliasgar; Irusen, Elvis; Wechsler, Michael; Niven, Rob M.; Bateman, Eric D.; Chung, Kian FanThere are approximately 3 million asthma suffers in South Africa, and the national death rate is ranked as one of the highest in the world. Approximately 5% have severe asthma (uncontrolled despite being adherent on maximal and optimised therapy). Such uncontrolled asthma is associated with high healthcare expenditure and may require treatment with anti-IgE and/or systemic corticosteroids, in addition to inhaler therapy and oral agents. These treatments may be costly, and those such as oral corticosteroids may have potential serious adverse events. There is therefore a need for more effective, affordable and safe therapies for asthma. A new modality of treatment, bronchial thermoplasty (BT), has recently been developed and approved for the treatment of severe asthma. BT involves delivering radio frequency-generated thermal energy to the airways, with the goal of reducing airway-specific smooth-muscle mass. Several clinical studies have confirmed that BT is effective and safe, that it improves control and quality of life in patients whose asthma remains severe despite optimal medical therapy, and that the beneficial effects are sustained for at least 5 years. We provide recommendations for the management of severe asthma, with an emphasis on the role of BT, and endorse the use of BT in patients with severe persistent asthma who remain uncontrolled despite optimal medical therapy as outlined in steps 4 and 5 of the British Thoracic Society (BTS)/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. We outline the context in which BT should be used, how it works and associated potential adverse events and contraindications, and also review unanswered questions and controversies.
- ItemWorld TB Day 2010 : eradicating tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa needs effective and committed north-south partnerships(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010) Marais, Ben; Hoelscher, Michael; Mwaba, Peter; Dheda, Keertan; Zumla, Alimuddin