Masters Degrees (History)

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    Reflections in a broken mirror : a cinematic exploration of Afrikaans theatre post-apartheid, c. 1984–2022
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Fox-Martin, Amber Dawn; Bickford-Smith, Vivian; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.
    ENGLISH SUMMARY : The documentary-thesis, Reflections in a broken mirror, uses the medium of film to explore Afrikaans theatre history from 1984 to 2022. More specifically, this research defines and investigates a sub-genre of Afrikaans theatre that bears the following traits: engaging, cathartic, self-reflective, existential and boundary-pushing. Exploring theatre history through documentary film methodology is underutilised, moreover, this research proposes that the visual storytelling medium of theatre is best represented through film. The central question driving the film asks how this genre of Afrikaans theatre survived and adapted to a post-Apartheid South Africa. Reflections in a broken mirror explores theatre’s role in capturing the zeitgeist of different periods. While existing research has investigated broader trends in Afrikaans theatre post-1994 and the Afrikaans theatre festivals, these dissertations end their analyses between 2003 and 2006, leaving the subsequent period unchartered. Film sequences present case studies by combining archival sources with interviews to capture the historical moment of each case study. The key theatre productions explored in the film are TRITS (Mis, Mirakel, Drif) (1992–1994), Donkerland (1996), Drie Susters, Twee (1997), Boklied (1998), Ek, Anna van Wyk (1999), Aars! (2001), Saad (2007), Ons vir Jou (2008), Sakrament (2009), Die kortsondige raklewe van Anastasia W. (2010), and Balbesit (2013). Three generations of theatre makers emerged in this study. The first generation operated within the apartheid state-funded infrastructure between the 1970s and 1990s and were referenced in the preceding study, A Feast in Time of Plague. The second generation emerged as creators during the period of transition between the 1980s and 1990s. The third generation emerged at the turn of the century, creating work in the 2000s. The film notes that this sub-genre of theatre has experienced existential struggles throughout each period, with a recent decline in industry infrastructure after 2013. This study concludes that the methodological practice of documentary filmmaking is effective when exploring theatre history, due to the correlations between both storytelling mediums.
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    Being public : musicians and the Market Theatre Cafe, 1976 - 1980
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Ncume, Pakama Sbongile; Matshoba, Pakama Sbongile; Lambrechts, Lizabe; Fransch, Chet; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.
    ENGLISH SUMMARY : In 1976 the Market Theatre Complex was opened in Newton, Johannesburg by Barney Simon and Mannie Manim. Their vision was to establish a non-discriminatory and inclusive theatre that operated outside the legislated segregation policies of the apartheid system. One of the venues in the complex was a small music entertainment space called the Market Theatre Café. The Café which operated from 1976 to 1978 was run and managed by David Marks and his wife Frances Marks. Throughout its short existence, the venue offered a platform for local and international musicians, English, Afrikaans, Zulu, and Sepedi singers-songwriters, folk musicians, township jazz groups, rock and punk groups, and jazz musicians to perform. While the performances in the Market Theatre Complex are well documented, very little has been written about the Café and the music and musicians who performed there. Using primary sources, specifically live sound recordings made of the performances at the Café, preserved in the Hidden Years Music Archive at Stellenbosch University, this study will offer an analysis of the concerts staged in the Market Theatre Café. Through investigating the musicians, the music performed and lyrics of songs, as well as the conversations on stage between musicians and/or with the audience - as well as the music productions staged at the venue - this study will explore how such music performances enabled the coming together and the “being public” of a community that sanctioned a space for freedom of expression and political action during times when “publics” and “being public” were highly regulated.
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    Contours of confrontation : factors that mobilised the Cape rebels in the South African War, 1896–1902
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Coetzee, Lauren; Fourie, Johan, 1982-; Wehner, Joachim
    ENGLISH SUMMARY : Heroes, traitors, and social outcasts – the Cape Rebels of the South African War, 1899–1902, have been cast in several roles throughout history. Not only do they continue to capture the interests of social historians, but with the incorporation of quantitative history methods, their histories have been revisited in new ways. Using a combination of archival sources and methods like GIS, this thesis presents a study of the social, economic and political circumstances of this group to analyse why they mobilised. With honour, security and livelihoods at stake, the question is raised why these rebels chose to abandon their homes and families at the high cost of hope elsewhere for a better future. Several theories of mobilisation were tested and found wanting. This thesis has used GIS to combine archival research with mapping software to show a visual representation of the historical context of the rebels. The most prevalent theories cited in the literature on the Cape Rebels were mapped and analysed to evaluate the conditions and influences on mobilisation levels in the Cape Colony before the war. The most popular theory, the rinderpest epidemic, was shown to have some correlation with rebel mobilisation rates. However, this was mostly relegated to the districts with heavier cattle losses in the north of the Cape. Proximity to the republics and differences in lifestyle and culture on the frontier were also evaluated in terms of whether this influenced people to side with those more similar to them, demonstrating that ideas, attitudes and ideologies were free-flowing in these regions. This was shown using education levels, the establishment of schools and distances to the borders. The differentiation between frontier regions and republics was proven to be political rather than physical, meaning many rebels in the area were closer to republican communication networks than that of the Cape. Some rebels were motivated by their personal convictions to aid the republics whose sovereignty was threatened. Moreover, the pre-eminent political conditions spurred people to seek alternative leadership after repeated political blunders had compounded the political and ideological vulnerabilities of potential rebels. Finally, the appeal of strong, charismatic leadership has been shown to be a powerful tool in mobilising groups. This was done through mapping the route taken by General Jan Smuts as a proxy for quantifying charismatic leadership. Ultimately, rebels mobilised in the Cape because they shared common goals and interests with the Boer republics.
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    Coming to South Africa : a historical analysis of the participation of foreign footballers in South African domestic football leagues, 1985–2020
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Chidamwoyo, Kudzai Allan; Venter, Gustav; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.
    ENGLISH SUMMARY : This study seeks to contribute to an emerging literature on African football, especially on the topic of player migration. The subject of African players migrating to Europe to advance their football careers has been well explored. This study, however, takes a different approach by considering the migration of players to South Africa’s top professional football league, the Premier Soccer League (PSL), during the period 1985–2020. This primarily represents a form of intra-continental player migration as the vast majority of foreign players entering the PSL have historically been from elsewhere in Africa. Through utilising contemporary football media sources, interviews, public and privately available data as well as secondary football sources, this study aims to analyse the patterns of this migration over time. The period under investigation incorporates both a portion of South Africa’s isolation from international football due to apartheid, as well as the country’s readmission into the international fold where new forces began impacting the domestic football structure. The study begins in 1985 with the formation of the National Soccer League (NSL) – the forerunner to the present day PSL. This league was played on a multiracial basis with government approval, and despite South Africa’s international isolation at the time, it did contain a number of foreign players that circumvented the international boycott. These elements are analysed up to 1992 – the year of South Africa’s return to FIFA. Thereafter the focus shifts to the post-isolation period when international player recruitment could now be done by South African clubs within formal football structures and as part of the international football community. Other important considerations include the rise in sponsorship in South African domestic football during the 2000s, as well as the country’s hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The study analyses the degree to which these forces impacted foreign player recruitment within the PSL. Finally, the study looks at specific positional patterns regarding foreign player recruitment, and also assesses to what degree foreign players have contributed to the success of local South African teams. It represents a novel contribution to the historical literature on African and South African football, which has grown substantially over the past two decades.
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    “Had its history been different, South Africa would probably have been one of the most visited places in the world.”? : analysing South African tourism history with special reference to the Western Cape, 1980-2000
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Carstens, Rouzanne; Grundlingh, Albert M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: During his State of the Nation Address on 13 February 2020, President Cyril Ramaphosa singled out tourism as a key driver for economic growth in the country. He also identified this industry as one of the most noteworthy contributors regarding job creation during the coming years. This is a sentiment which is reflected in a number of academic pieces, specifically those which focused on the so-called rebirth of the tourism industry in South Africa after 1994. Many believe the tourism industry only received attention when it was realized this industry could be used to promote the so-called ‘new’ South Africa after de Klerk’s surprising announcements of 1990. Even the White Paper: Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa of 1996 stated that if South Africa’s “history had been different, South Africa would probably have been one of the most visited places in the world.”2 This thesis questions this specific statement and the accompanying statements that it was the so-called ‘Mandela-Boom’ that led to South Africa’s thriving tourism industry, which, in 2019, was estimated to be worth R354,9 billion. This study specifically looks at how the tourism industry navigated and adapted with regards to the sanctions of the 1980s, the political changes of the 1990s and the new millennium in 2000.