Doctoral Degrees (School for Security and Africa Studies)


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    Developing a neo-regional transboundary marine protection policy framework between the navies of South Africa, Namibia, and Mozambique
    (2022-04) Kwak, Gerrit Werner; Theletsane, Kula Ishmael; Jansen Van Rensburg, Johannes Lourens; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Security and Africa Studies: Military History.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation posits the need for the development of a neo-regional transboundary marine protection policy framework (NTMPPF) for the littoral navies of South Africa, Namibia, and Mozambique. The study seeks to analyse the marine protection policy frameworks of the aforementioned littoral navies to consider reviewing the current Southern African Development Community (SADC) Maritime Security Strategy (MSS) and to develop a marine protection policy framework within the SADC Standing Maritime Committee (SMC) context as part of the African Integrated Maritime Strategy 2050. The concept of reforming littoral conservation policy and its utility value are debated within the maritime security and constabulary roles of Regional Economic Communities such as the SADC navies. The paradoxical relationship between the marine environment and the inherent combatant nature of navies are assessed because governments and academics need to find synergy towards improved maritime and marine stability. The use of grounded theory as the selected research design allowed the researcher to synthesise theories that are founded on three key performance areas, namely governance, interoperability, and capacity building, as the cornerstones of an NTMPPF. The qualitative research conducted in this dissertation provides proof that insufficient research exists to negate the potential utility of a possible NTMPPF for SADC navies. The research found patterns indicating the need to ensure political inclusivity, good ocean governance, effective organisational architecture, and a cross-sectoral approach in order to mitigate the perception of political and scientific ignorance towards an NTMPPF. The prominence of the South African Navy and the progress it has made towards marine protection from a policy point of view in contrast to policy constraints as experienced by Namibia and Mozambique is a regional challenge. The study found repeated proof that the SADC SMC is supportive of marine protection policy initiatives, but expect a structured and staggered approach over clear timelines. The reality of political, economic, and naval capabilities, as well as ecological differences between the three respective navies, present challenges that might compromise such a transboundary policy solution in support of a blue economy. This research therefore culminated in a proposed NTMPPF, as presented in Figure 6.4, which should address the identified gap in the transboundary marine protection policy environment of the SADC. The current political impetus between SADC SMC member states in terms of a renewed MSS approach provides a favourable platform to consider the integration of an NTMPPF. The NTMPPF is expected to be instrumental towards improved ocean governance and repositioning SADC navies in a more supportive role in the social security programmes of each respective country and the SADC.