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    Moontlikheid en werklikheid. Waarom kan Suid-Afrika (nog) nie die droom van ’n inklusiewe samelewing verwesenlik nie?
    (LitNet, 2022) Lategan, Bernard C.
    Die artikel fokus op die vraag waarom Suid-Afrika na bykans drie dekades van ’n inklusiewe politieke bestel skynbaar nog nie daarin kon slaag om die ideaal van ’n inklusiewe samelewing te verwesenlik nie. Verskillende faktore dra hiertoe by. Een faktor wat nie voldoende in aanmerking geneem word nie, is oorgelewerde denkpatrone wat die nuwe bestel in sy nuwe formaat steeds kniehalter. Wat onderskat word, is die vertrekpunt van hierdie denke, die kontoere wat dit volg en veral die rigting of oriëntasie waarin dit plaasvind. Om hierdie probleem te illustreer, word insigte uit Mahmood Mamdani se onlangse boek, Neither settler nor native, as uitgangspunt geneem. Mamdani (self ’n sterk voorstander van dekolonialisering) beweer dat die dekolonialiseringsprojek in vele opsigte misluk het omdat die nuwe bewindhebbers die denkwyses, sosiale kategorieë en burgerskapsmodelle van die koloniale era oorgeneem en steeds gehandhaaf het. Aan die hand van voorbeelde soos die “makmaak” van die Amerikaanse Weste, die opkoms van die Nazi-ideologie in Duitsland, die skynbaar onoorbrugbare kloof tussen Israeliet en Palestyn in die huidige staat Israel en die verdeling tussen Noord- en Suid-Soedan maak hy duidelik hoe die (koloniale) verlede steeds die (gedekolonialiseerde) hede beïnvloed. Suid-Afrika is volgens Mamdani die een uitsondering, waar die bestaande orde op radikale wyse vervang is deur ’n inklusiewe politieke bestel waarin alle burgers in teorie dieselfde regte het. Die ironie is egter dat formele inklusiwiteit nog nie in dieselfde mate tot sosiale inklusiwiteit gelei het nie. Waarom word die moontlikheid wat die Grondwet bied, nie ’n werklikheid nie? Die insigte van Eberhard Jüngel oor die verhouding tussen moontlikheid en werklikheid bied ’n sleutel om hierdie dilemma te ontknoop. Anders as Aristoteles, wat die werklikheid as van “meer waarde” as die moontlikheid ag, dring Jüngel daarop aan dat die prioriteit aan die moontlikheid gegee word. As die bestaande werklikheid die norm is, kan ons alleen herhaal wat reeds werklikheid was. As die moontlikheid die voorrang het, open dit geleenthede om ’n nuwe werklikheid tot stand te bring. Hiervoor is verbeelding nodig – nie as ontvlugting uit die werklikheid nie, maar as die energie wat “intensie” (Husserl) loslaat om – vry van die hede – ’n alternatiewe toekoms te bedink en strategieë te ontwikkel om vanuit hierdie visie terug te dink na die hede. Hierdie moontlike toekoms word werklikheid deur elke dag op te tree in terme en volgens die waardes van die nuwe visie.
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    Was the evolutionary road towards adaptive immunity paved with endothelium
    (BioMed Central, 2015-09) Van Niekerk, Gustav; Davis, Tanja; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart
    Background: The characterization of a completely novel adaptive immune system (AIS) in jawless vertebrates (hagfish and lampreys) presents an excellent opportunity for exploring similarities and differences in design principles. It also highlights a somewhat neglected question: Why did vertebrates, representing only 5 % of all animals, evolve a system as complex as an AIS twice, whereas invertebrates failed to do so? A number of theories have been presented in answer to this question. However, these theories either fail to explain why invertebrates would not similarly develop an AIS and are confounded by issues of causality, or have been challenged by more recent findings. Presentation of the hypothesis: Instead of identifying a selective pressure that would drive the development of an AIS, we hypothesise that invertebrates failed to develop an AIS because of the evolutionary constraints imposed by these animals’ physiological context. In particular, we argue that a number of vascular innovations in vertebrates allowed the effective implementation of an AIS. A lower blood volume allowed for a higher antibody titer (i.e., less ‘diluted’ antibody concentration), rendering these immune effectors more cost-effective. In addition, both a high circulatory velocity and the ability of endothelium to coordinate immune cell trafficking promote ‘epitope sampling’. Collectively, these innovations allowed the effective implementation of AIS in vertebrates. Testing the hypothesis: The hypothesis posits that a number of innovations to the vascular system provided the release from constraints which allowed the implementation of an AIS. However, this hypothesis would be refuted by phylogenetic analysis demonstrating that the AIS preceded these vascular innovations. The hypothesis also suggests that vascular performance would have an impact on the efficacy of an AIS, thus predicting a correlation between the vascular parameters of a species and its relative investment in AIS. The contribution of certain vascular innovations in augmenting immune functionality of an AIS can be tested by modelling the effect of different vascular parameters on AIS efficacy. Implications of the hypothesis: The hypothesis not only explains the immunological dimorphism between vertebrates and invertebrates but also brings to attention the fact that immunity is dependent on more than just an immune system.
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    Die Gereformeerde Kerkbode (1849-1923) as bron vir die Afrikaanse kultuurgeskiedenis
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1993) Booyens, Bunyan; Grobbelaar, P. W.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.
    De Gereformeerde Kerkbode was established in 1849 (which means that the one hundred and fiftieth year of its existence will be commemorated at the turn of the century); it was also the official weekly journal of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk of South Africa from 1884. Since De Kerkbode was associated with the members of the abovementioned creed and other inhabitants of our country for about a century and a half, the journal and its contents deserve the attention of researchers in cultural, ecclesiastical, language and social history. Because of the exceptionally long history of De Kerkbode this study concentrates only on the first 75 years (1849-1923) of its existence. The investigation required that all issues of the journal over this perdiod be consulted in detail.
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    'n Regsvergelykende studie van sakedeeleiendom ingevolge die Wet op Deeltitels 95 van 1986
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1992) Blignaut, Elizabeth Margaretha; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Private Law.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although commercial sectional titles schemes occur in practice, the provisions of the South African Sectional Titles Act are primarily aimed at residential schemes. Many of its provisions are therefore unsuitable for commercial schemes. The aims of this dissertation are to identify those provisions which create problems for commercial owners and to suggest improvements to the South African statute in the light of comparable legislation elsewhere.
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    Die fakultatiewe vir Afrikaans
    (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1992) Bosman, Christa; Feinauer, A. E.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Afrikaans and Dutch.
    The Afrikaans preposition vir operates as a function word to indicate the possible relationships which exist between the verb and the noun(s) in the sentence. The most important relationships expressed by vir are time, goal and price. This capacity of vir, is the basis for its classification as a function word or preposition. However, vir has required an additional function. Because Afrikaans has no case marking, participants in a sentence are not always marked clearly enough as regards their role in the action expressed by the verb. in these instances an optional vir is used to indicate the object.