Research Articles (Epidemiology and Biostatistics)


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 87
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    Tuberculosis in individuals who recovered from COVID-19: a systematic review of case reports
    (PLOS, 2021-11) Alemu, Ayinalem; Bitew, Zebenay Workneh; Seid, Getachew; Diriba, Getu; Gashu, Emebet; Berhe, Nega; Mariam, Solomon H.; Gumi, Balako
    Background The emergence of COVID-19 overwhelmed tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control, resulting in a decrease in TB detection rate and an increase in TB deaths. Furthermore, the temporary immunosuppressive effects, lung inflammation, and the corticosteroids used to treat COVID-19, may play a direct role in immunosuppression, leading to reactivation of either previous infection or latent TB or the development of new TB. Thus, the aim of this study was to review TB incidence in individuals who recovered from COVID-19. Methods We conducted a systematic search of available databases for previously published studies that reported TB in COVID-19 survivors. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide the review, and the JBI checklist was used to evaluate the study’s quality. The descriptive data were summarized. Results Data were extracted from 21 studies conducted in 13 countries having 33 cases. The median age was 44 years (range; 13.5–80), and more than half (18, 54.5%) were males. Twelve patients immigrated from TB endemic settings. All 17 patients assessed for HIV were seronegative, and all 11 patients assessed for BCG vaccination status were vaccinated. The majority (20, 69%) of patients had some type of comorbidity with diabetes (12/29) and hypertension (9/29) being the most common. Four patients (30.77%) had a history of TB. Corticosteroids were used to treat COVID-19 in 62.5% (10) of individuals. Dexamethasone, remdesivir, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, and enoxaparin were the most commonly used drugs to treat COVID-19. The most common TB symptoms were fever, cough, weight loss, dyspnea, and fatigue. Twenty, eleven, and two patients developed pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and disseminated/miliary TB respectively. It may take up to seven months after COVID-19 recovery to develop tuberculosis. Data on the final treatment outcome was found for 24 patients, and five patients died during the anti-TB treatment period. Conclusion Tuberculosis after recovering from COVID-19 is becoming more common, potentially leading to a TB outbreak in the post-COVID-19 era. The immunosuppressive nature of the disease and its treatment modalities may contribute to post COVID-19 TB. Thus, we recommend a further study with a large sample size. Furthermore, we recommend feasibility studies to assess and treat latent TB in COVID-19 patients residing in TB endemic counties since treatment of latent TB is done only in TB non-endemic countries.
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    Tooth loss in relation to serum cotinine levels - a cross-sectional study from the Belville South area in South Africa
    (Academy of Science of South Africa, 2021-05) Kimmie-Dhansay, Faheema; Pontes, Carla C.; Chikte, Usuf; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Kengne, Andre P.; Matsha, Tandi E.
    Introduction: Tooth loss constitutes a major public health challenge, sharing common risk factors with non-communicable diseases. Aims and objectives: To report the relationship between tooth loss and serum cotinine levels in a population sample of mixed ethnic heritage from the Belville South area in South Africa. Design: Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods: Subjects were invited from 2014 to 2016 according to a consecutive sampling technique and all those who met the inclusion criteria were included. Results: In all, 1876 individuals were included, being 1416 females (75.5%), with a combined average age of 49.5 ± 15.3 years. In total 46.7% of the sample was edentulous, with females presenting a higher proportion than males (50.7% vs. 34.1%, p < 0.001). The relative risk (RR) of being edentulous was higher for females (RR=1.8, 95% CI=1.35-2.41, p<0.001) and for participants with cotinine levels 15-299 ng/ml (RR = 1.37, 95% CI=1.02=1.83, p=0.04) and ≥300 ng/ml (RR=1.51, 95% CI=1.09-2.08, p=0.01). Maxillary incisors and mandibular molars were the most prevalent missing teeth. Conclusions: The burden of tooth loss is high in the studied population sample, as well their unmet needs for dental care. Female gender, tobacco exposure, and aging were associated with partial and total edentulism.
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    COVID-19 and routine childhood immunization in Africa : leveraging systems thinking and implementation science to improve immunization system performance
    (Elsevier, 2020-06-24) Adamu, Abdu A.; Jalo, Rabiu I.; Habonimana, Desire; Wiysonge, Charles S.
    One of the routine health services that is being disrupted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Africa is childhood immunization. This is because the immunization system relies on functioning health facilities and stable communities to be effective. Its disruption increases the risk of epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases, which could increase child mortality. Therefore, policymakers must quickly identify robust and context-specific strategies to rapidly scale-up routine immunization in order to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on their national immunization performance. To achieve this, we propose a paradigm shift towards systems thinking and use of implementation science in immunization decision-making. Systems thinking can inform a more nuanced and holistic understanding of the interrelationship between COVID-19, its control strategies, and childhood immunization. Tools like causal loop diagrams can be used to explicitly illustrate the systems structure by identifying feedback loops. Once mapped and leverage points for interventions have been identified, implementation science can be used to guide the rapid uptake and utilization of multifaceted evidence-based innovations in complex practice settings. As Africa re-strategizes for the post-2020 era, these emerging fields could contribute significantly in accelerating progress towards universal access to vaccines for all children on the continent despite COVID-19.
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    A scoping review of spatial analysis approaches using health survey data in Sub-Saharan Africa
    (MDPI, 2020-04) Manda, Samuel; Haushona, Ndamonaonghenda; Bergquist, Robert
    Spatial analysis has become an increasingly used analytic approach to describe and analyze spatial characteristics of disease burden, but the depth and coverage of its usage for health surveys data in Sub-Saharan Africa are not well known. The objective of this scoping review was to conduct an evaluation of studies using spatial statistics approaches for national health survey data in the SSA region. An organized literature search for studies related to spatial statistics and national health surveys was conducted through PMC, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, NLM Catalog, and Science Direct electronic databases. Of the 4,193 unique articles identified, 153 were included in the final review. Spatial smoothing and prediction methods were predominant (n = 108), followed by spatial description aggregation (n = 25), and spatial autocorrelation and clustering (n = 19). Bayesian statistics methods and lattice data modelling were predominant (n = 108). Most studies focused on malaria and fever (n = 47) followed by health services coverage (n = 38). Only fifteen studies employed nonstandard spatial analyses (e.g., spatial model assessment, joint spatial modelling, accounting for survey design). We recommend that for future spatial analysis using health survey data in the SSA region, there must be an improve recognition and awareness of the potential dangers of a naïve application of spatial statistical methods. We also recommend a wide range of applications using big health data and the future of data science for health systems to monitor and evaluate impacts that are not well understood at local levels.
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    Mechanical debridement with antibiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis : effect on systemic biomarkers― a systematic review
    (MDPI, 2020-08) Munasur, Sudhir L.; Turawa, Eunice B.; Chikte, Usuf M. E.; Musekiwa, Alfred
    In this systematic review, we assessed the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics as an adjunctive therapy to mechanical debridement in improving inflammatory systemic biomarkers, as compared to mechanical debridement alone, among adults with chronic periodontitis. We searched relevant electronic databases for eligible randomized controlled trials. Two review authors independently screened, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We conducted meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity, and assessed certainty of evidence using GRADEPro software. We included 19 studies (n = 1350 participants), representing 18 randomized controlled trials and found very little or no impact of antibiotics on inflammatory biomarkers. A meta-analysis of eight studies demonstrated a mean reduction of 0.26 mm in the periodontal pockets at three months (mean difference [MD] −0.26, 95%CI: −0.36 to −0.17, n = 372 participants, moderate certainty of evidence) in favor of the antibiotics. However, results from five studies reporting clinical attachment level (mm) yielded little or no difference at three months (MD −0.16, 95% CI: −0.35 to 0.03, n = 217 participants) between antibiotic and placebo groups. There is little or no evidence that adjunctive systemic antibiotics therapy improves inflammatory systemic biomarkers, compared to mechanical debridement alone, among adults with chronic periodontitis.