Browsing Masters Degrees (Public Law) by Title
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- ItemDie aard van borgverrigtinge met spesifieke verwysing na die toepassing van die reels van die bewysreg op sodanige verrigtinge(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004-04) Hendriks, Renette; Van der Merwe, S. E.; Stellenbosch University.Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: When evaluating a bail application, the court must take into consideration the interests of the accused against those of the community. The main goal of this assessment is to find a balance between said interests. While an application for bail is made at a stage where guilt has not been proven, it is of extreme importance that the court must not infringe on the fundamental rights of the accused which include the right to personal freedom and the presumption of innocence. In order to protect the rights of the bail applicant within the proper functioning of the legal system, it is important to determine the nature of bail proceedings. As shown in this thesis, bail proceedings are sui gelleris in nature, which means that a separate set of rules of the law of evidence is applicable to these proceedings. The object of this thesis is to identify the rules of law of evidence applicable to bail proceedings as well as to clarify the deviation from the normal rules of evidence which apply to the trial of the accused. In chapter one the purpose and nature of bail proceedings as well as the characteristics of accusatorial and inquisitorial systems, are discussed. Problem areas within the South African legal system with regards to bail applications are also highlighted in this chapter. In chapter two the application of the primary rules of the law of evidence with regards to bail proceedings are investigated as well as the admissibility of evidence pertaining to prior convictions of the applicant, opinion evidence and character evidence. In chapter three the admissibility of hearsay evidence at bail proceedings is discussed. The constitutionality of the privilege pertaining to the police docket is dealt with in chapter four. Chapter five deals with the infom1er's privilege. The requirements that have to be met in order to qualify for protection under the said privilege, are examined. Chapter six focuses on the privilege against self-incrimination and the manner In which it is applied in bail proceedings. The provisions of s 60(11B)(c) of the Criminal Procedure Act and the role of the presiding officer are also discussed in this chapter. Chapter seven focuses on the burden of proof in bail applications. Chapter eight contains a summary and recommendations.
- ItemThe absence of a system of internal controls in South African Administrative Law, in light of Section 7(2) of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-12) Heydenrych, Ernst; Quinot, Geo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Section 33 of the Constitution envisions a lawful, reasonable and procedurally fair manner of obtaining administrative justice. Coupled with the project of Transformative Constitutionalism, which seeks to create a culture of justification, the hope was that South Africa’s public administration would become more open, accountable and efficient. The primary mechanism through which the above occurs, is judicial review. However, its time-consuming and costly nature means that a large portion of South African society cannot gain access to the court system. Furthermore, courts have often held that the public administration is better suited to deal with certain matters, as courts may lack the necessary expertise to address a particular administrative matter adequately. Thus, there is a need to find alternative methods for holding the public administration accountable. One such method, is by way of the exhaustion of internal remedies. Section 7(2)(a) of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000 holds that an applicant for judicial review must first exhaust any and all available internal remedies before approaching a review court. Should the applicant fail to do so, the court is obliged to direct said applicant to first exhaust the available internal remedies (section 7(2)(b)), unless the court grants an exemption (section 7(2)(c)). However, members of the public have no general right to an internal remedy, nor is there a duty on the state to provide an aggrieved party with one. South African administrative law currently lacks a uniform system of internal controls (remedies), and whether or not an aggrieved party will have an internal remedy to exhaust, will depend on the context of each case. Accordingly, this thesis argues in favour of the creation and implementation of a uniform system of internal controls by the state, by relying on four main points: (a) section 33 of the Constitution; (b) the project of Transformative Constitutionalism; (c) the impact of poverty on the attainment of administrative justice; and (d) the duty to exhaust domestic remedies under international law. Should the above argument be accepted, then focus must shift to the content and scope of an effective internal remedy. By way of analysis of various statutory frameworks containing existing internal remedies, nine criteria are identified, which should inform the decision-making of the state when formulating the content and scope of an effective internal remedy.
- ItemAccess to justice for non-citizens : a constitutional analysis(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Matshakaile, Thabani Nkosiyapha; Botha, Henk; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The rights entrenched in the Bill of Rights in South Africa’s final Constitution are, with a few exceptions, guaranteed to citizens and non-citizens alike. South Africa has seen an influx of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees since 1994, and this migratory movement has posed significant challenges to the post-apartheid legal order. This thesis is concerned with the State’s implementation of its constitutional obligations to protect and guarantee the constitutional rights of everyone within the borders of South Africa. It is important that these constitutional obligations do not remain mere aspirations but should translate into reality. Most non-citizens living in South Africa face numerous barriers to accessing justice and the processes that could enable them to realise their rights. The thesis examines the concept of “access to justice” and investigates a number of obstacles encountered by different categories of non-citizens – such as refugees, asylum seekers and documented and undocumented migrants – in trying to access justice and to realise their rights. Against this background, arrest, detention and deportation under the Immigration Act and Refugees Act are examined because these processes have often been abused by State officials to prevent non-citizens from accessing the rights and protections guaranteed in these Acts and the Constitution, and to frustrate the implementation of court orders vindicating the rights of non-citizens. The application of the Immigration and Refugees Acts is discussed through the lens of sections 12(1), 33, 34 and 35(2) of the Constitution which ensure that arrest, detention and deportation are done in a lawful and procedurally fair manner, as opposed to the arbitrariness that most non-citizens experience on a daily basis. Secondly, the thesis also examines access to justice for non-citizens in the context of xenophobia and bias based crimes. The State has in the past failed to respond in a coordinated and timely fashion in the face of violent manifestations of xenophobia. Against this background, the State’s obligation to protect non-citizens from violence from either public or private sources in terms of section 12(1)(c) of the Constitution is discussed and analysed. The role, accessibility and effectiveness of Equality Courts are also examined in light of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act and the cases that were brought before them emanating from xenophobic incidents. The thesis concludes with proposals on areas which require better implementation of existing laws; and areas in which legislative reform is needed.
- ItemAdministrative justice and tribunals in South Africa : a commonwealth comparison(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2011-12) Armstrong, Gillian Claire; Quinot, Geo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the field of administrative law, the judiciary has traditionally exercised control over the administrative actions of the executive through judicial review. However, judicial review is neither the most effective nor the most efficient primary control mechanism for systemic administrative improvement. In a country faced with a task of =transformative constitutionalism‘, and hindered with scarce resources, there is good cause to limit judicial intervention as the first response to administrative disputes. The major theme of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of administrative tribunal reform in South Africa, using two other commonwealth countries, Australia and England, as a basis for comparison. Australia and England have been chosen for comparison because they share similar administrative law traditions and they can provide working models of coherent tribunal structures. The Australian tribunal system is well-established and consists of tribunals which fall under the control of the executive, while tribunals in England have recently undergone a significant transformation, and are now part of the independent judiciary. The South African government currently spends, indeed wastes, a significant amount of money on administrative law litigation. Due to the limitations of judicial review, even after the high costs of litigation and the long duration of court proceedings, the results achieved may still be unsatisfactory. Furthermore, judicial review is unsuited to giving effect to systemic administrative change and the improvement of initial decision-making. Australia and England have begun to move away from the traditional court model for the resolution of administrative disputes. Both have indicated a preference for the important role of tribunals in the administration of disputes. Tribunals have been shown to offer the advantage of being speedier, cheaper, more efficient, more participatory and more accessible than traditional courts, which contributes to tribunals being a more available resource for lay people or people without sophisticated legal knowledge, and provides wider access to remedies than courts. The English and Australian models indicate a few important trends which need to be applied universally to ensure a sustained tribunal reform and a system which provides a higher level of administrative redress than the over-burdened and institutionally inept courts currently do. These include co-operation among government departments and tribunals; open and accountable systemic change; the need for supervision and evaluation of the whole of administrative law by an independent and competent body; and ultimately a focus on the needs of users of state services. At the same time, there are arguments against administrative tribunal reform. These include the costs of reform; the ways to establish tribunals; and the level of independence shown by the tribunals. These arguments are especially relevant in the South African context, where the government faces huge social problems and a scarcity of resources. However, after an analysis of the valuable characteristics of tribunals and the role that they serve in the day to day administration of justice, it is difficult to see how these objections to tribunals can outweigh their potential importance in the administrative justice system. The need for sustained systematic reform in South Africa is one that cannot be ignored. Tribunals offer a valuable alternative to judicial review for the resolution of administrative disputes. Furthermore, the tribunal systems of Australia and England demonstrate how the effective creation and continued use of comprehensive tribunal structures contributes firstly to cost reduction and secondly to ease the administrative burden on courts who are not suited to cure large-scale administrative error.
- ItemThe admissibility of a case before the International Criminal Court : an analysis of jurisdiction and complementarity(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-03) Denecke, Jan; Kemp, Gerhard; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The permanent International Criminal Court (ICC) will come into operation after the 60th ratification of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998. The ICC will have jurisdiction over the most serious international crimes, namely war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity. The focus of this thesis is the difficulties surrounding the admissibility of a case before the ICC. There are basically two legs to this analysis: jurisdiction and complementarity .. Jurisdiction of the ICC is analysed in historical and theoretical context. This comprises an overview of the international tribunals since the First World War, and more specifically their impact on the development of jurisdiction in international criminal law. Secondly, the thesis is examining the jurisdiction of the ICC in terms of the specific provisions of the Rome Statute. This analysis comprises a detailed analysis of all the provisions of the Rome Statute that have an impact on the exercise of the ICC's jurisdiction. The relationship between the ICC and national courts is a difficult relationship based on a compromise at the Rome Conference in 1998. The principle underlying this relationship is known as "complementarity". This : means that the ICC will only exercise its jurisdiction if a national court is "unwilling" or "unable" to exercise its jurisdiction. A detailed analysis of the different provisions of the Rome Statute, as well as some references to other international tribunals, serve to analyse the impact of complementarity on the eventual ambit of the ICC's jurisdiction. In conclusion, some suggestions regarding the admissibility of cases and the difficult relationship between the ICC and national courts are made.
- ItemThe admissibility of unconstitutionally obtained evidence : issues concerning impeachment(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2005-05) Niesing, Gysbert; Van der Merwe, S. E.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The law regarding the admissibility of unconstitutionally obtained evidence for impeaching the accused's testimony is still undeveloped. This work discusses three of the options available to South African courts and the difficulties inherent in each. The first is to follow the approach of the Supreme Court of the United States. The American approach regarding the exclusion of evidence from the case in chief is strict. Courts are not bestowed with a discretion to admit unconstitutionally obtained evidence: Unless one of the accepted exceptions exist, a court must exclude unconstitutionally obtained evidence in order to deter unconstitutional behaviour by the authorities. Deterrence of unconstitutional police behaviour is however no longer considered controlling when cross-examining the accused. Unconstitutionally obtained evidence - both real and testimonial communications - is therefore admissible for impeachment purposes despite being excluded from the case in chief. The rationale is to prevent the accused giving perjurious testimony in the face of the prosecution's inability to impeach the accused's veracity in the usual manner. The application of the American approach in South Africa has however already been rejected in S v Makhathini.1 The second possibility is for South African courts to follow the position of the Supreme Court of Canada in R v Calder.2 The admissibility of impeachment evidence in Canada - as with evidence in chief - is based on the effect of its admission of the repute of the administration of justice. However, evidence excluded from the case in chief will only in very rare circumstances be admitted in cross-examination of the accused. Finally, the option suggested by this thesis, is to continue the trend started by s 35(5) of the South African Constitution, which has already been applied with great success in cases where the admissibility of unconstitutionally obtained evidence in the case in chief is in issue. Section 35(5), like the Canadian s 24(2) it bears some resemblance to, gives courts a discretion to exclude unconstitutionally obtained evidence on the basis of unfairness to the accused or the effect admission will have on the administration of justice. It is submitted in this thesis that, because of the interlocutory nature of a ruling on admissibility, this approach adapts easily to the admission of limited purpose evidence such as impeachment evidence: If the admission of the unconstitutionally obtained evidence, regardless of whether it was previously excluded from the case in chief, renders the trial unfair or would otherwise be detrimental to the administration of justice it must be excluded.
- ItemAdvancing the constitutional goal of social justice through a teleological interpretation of key concepts in the environmental rights in section 24(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Donald, Megan Elizabeth; Liebenberg, Sandra; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The protection and conservation of the environment is essential for the continued existence of humankind, particularly in light of the challenges of climate change and environmental degradation. Along with these environmental concerns, South Africa faces challenges of poverty and inequality which can exacerbate environmental degradation. It is also often the poor who bear the brunt of the impacts of pollution and environmental degradation. Any effective approach to environmental protection must be mindful of the need for poverty alleviation, while any socio-economic development must bear in mind the absolute necessity of the environment for the existence of humankind. Section 24(a) of the Constitution provides for the right to an environment not harmful to health or well-being, while environmental protection is included in section 24(b). A handful of cases have dealt with this right, but its meaning has not been developed or sufficiently defined. This thesis looks at the interpretation of the key concepts of “environment”, “health or well-being”, and “sustainable development” in section 24. This is done through a teleological interpretation of the right which is mindful of the role of the interdependence of rights, and the context of the Bill of Rights and the Constitution as a whole. In light of the transformative goals of the Constitution it is important that section 24 is construed with due regard to the influences and challenges of socio-economic concerns such as poverty, unemployment and inequality. This thesis argues that the environmental right in section 24 can and should be interpreted to advance the needs of the poor and improve their quality of life alongside the protection of the natural environment.
- ItemThe allocation of resources for the realisation of women's rights : an analysis of article 26(2) of the Maputo Protocol(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-12) Doubell, Lize-Mari; Rudman, Annika; Liebenberg, Sandra; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Maputo Protocol is the leading women’s rights treaty in Africa. However, the treaty can only be effectively implemented if resources, aimed at its realisation, are generated and spent through government policies and budgets. Article 26(2) of the Maputo Protocol provides that state parties are obligated to adopt all necessary measures, which include budgetary and other resources, for the full and effective implementation of the rights therein recognised. After examining how state parties to the Maputo Protocol and the supervisory bodies currently mobilise resources to realise women’s rights, it was established that article 26(2) is severely underutilised and/or incorrectly applied by state parties. Some of the main reasons for this is a misallocation of resources and that state parties do not fully understand their obligations under the Maputo Protocol. Thus, women are left disempowered and unprotected. To address these concerns, this thesis establishes the nature of state obligationsunder article 26(2) through developing an interpretative framework for resource allocation to realise women’s rights. Anti-essentialist feminist legal theory and gender responsive budgeting are used as the theoretical framework guiding the research. As Africa is such a diverse continent, the analysis of anti-essentialist feminist legal theory ensures that the complex needs of women with multiple identities and lived realities are considered. The substantive realisation of human rights cannot be separated from resource allocation; thus, gender responsive budgeting provides a lens through which holistic budgeting for women’s rights can be understood. This thesis also considers how other international supervisory bodies, such as the CEDAW Committee and the CESCR, have interpreted resource allocation for the realisation of human rights. These supervisory bodies have, through their various mandates, provided a rigorous interpretation of how state parties should generate and spend resources to ensure human rights are kept at the forefront. This thesis finds that state parties to the Maputo Protocol, and the supervisory bodies, still have a long way to go to ensure that article 26(2) is fully interpreted and implemented. However, there are immediate steps which all parties can take, including commencing long-term strategies, which will result in more holistic gender responsive budgets and policies. The African Court, the African Commission, the Special Rapporteur, civil society and state parties all need to work together to ensure that women’s rights are fully protected.
- ItemAn analysis of the Separation of Powers Doctrine in Housing Rights Remedies Jurisprudence(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-03) Weideman, Andrea Joy; Slade, Bradley V.; Kok, Anton; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The remedy issued by the Constitutional Court in Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others 2000 11 BCLR 1169 (CC), has been criticized for being overly deferential. In spite of the courts’ wide remedial powers, it made an order lacking specificity about the measures required to remedy the housing rights infringement in that case, overly deferring its remedial role to the executive and legislative branches of government. The basis of the court’s overly deferential approach was the separation of powers doctrine. Therefore, the question that this study aims to address is how the separation of powers doctrine impacts on the courts’ provision of remedies in South African housing rights remedies jurisprudence. To answer this question, this study contains an analysis of the separation of powers doctrine in the abstract and as understood in the South African context, as well as an analysis of the remedies issued by the courts in housing rights cases, with a specific focus on the remedies issued by the Constitutional Court (hereafter “the Court”). This study attempts to illustrate that the foundation for the Court’s strict understanding of the separation of powers doctrine was laid during the debate about the inclusion of socio-economic rights in the 1996 Constitution. During this debate, separation of powers concerns, judicial capacity, and judicial legitimacy, were raised by those against the inclusion of socio-economic rights in the 1996 Constitution. In this study it was found that the same separation of powers concerns raised during this debate are ritually invoked by the Court in housing rights cases during the remedy stage of adjudication. It is against this backdrop that the Court has traditionally adopted a deferential approach in relation to the provision of remedies in housing rights cases. However, despite the implications of the Court’s traditionally deferential approach, the Court post-Grootboom has shifted away from this approach. While the Court’s postGrootboom approach was necessary considering the failed interaction between a deferential Court and an incompetent government, and its implication for the victims of housing rights violations, it potentially raises separation of powers concerns. Despite these separation of powers concerns, it is argued in this thesis that the Court’s post-Grootboom approach is justified on the basis of a more contemporary understanding of the separation of powers doctrine. While the Court’s post-Grootboom approach was a step in the right direction, the transformative — coupled with the supreme — nature of the 1996 Constitution requires something more, a reconceptualization of the separation of powers doctrine. The reconceptualised doctrine that I have in mind encapsulates a separation of powers that is understood and applied by the Court with the achievement of the transformative aims of the 1996 Constitution in mind.
- ItemThe Application of the Joint Criminal Enterprise Doctrine in International Criminal Law for the Prosecution of Sexual Offences(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-12) Hartle, Chelsea; Rudman, Annika; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Department of Public LawENGLISH ABSTRACT : The aim of my thesis is to test Haffajee‟s propositions in order to determine the most suitable construction of the Joint Criminal Enterprise (“JCE”) doctrine to establish a link between an accused and a sexual offence, perpetrated by another, where there is reason to believe that the accused had intent and made a contribution. An evaluation of cases, concerning incidences of sexual violence, from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (“ICTR”) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (“ICTY”) revealed that the reoccurring inability of the prosecution to successfully link the accused to the crime, committed by another, is the cause of the difficulty experienced in securing successful prosecutions. The individual criminal responsibility of the physical perpetrator therefore falls beyond the scope of this thesis. The JCE doctrine is a mechanism that attributes individual criminal responsibility to an accused for crimes that he or she did not physically perpetrate. The accused‟s wrongfulness arises from his or her intentional and substantial contribution to the criminal enterprise with the direct intent of furthering the common criminal purpose or plan. JCE category three has been successfully used by the ICTR, ICTY and United Nations Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (“MICT”) to establish the criminal responsibility of high-ranked officials for acts of sexual violence committed by others. However the JCE doctrine has not been used by the International Criminal Court (“ICC”). My research therefore departed from the primary assumption that the ICC may rely on the jurisprudence of the ad hoc tribunals when interpreting provisions of the Rome Statute pertaining to individual criminal responsibility, in order to sustain the continued use of the JCE doctrine within international criminal law. An in-depth investigation revealed that the jurisprudence of the ad hoc tribunals is neither expressly listed as an applicable source for interpreting the Rome Statute nor does it amount to binding precedent. Nevertheless, the ICC may have to consider the jurisprudence of the ad hoc tribunals when interpreting the Rome Statute because the jurisprudence often reflects principles and rules of international law. Notwithstanding the usefulness of JCE category three, the doctrine cannot unjustifiably limit the rights of the accused or infringe the principles of legality and the principle of culpability. The original construction of JCE category three, as first applied by the ICTY in the Prosecutor v Tadić, poses a threat to the principle of culpability because it imposes equal liability to all contributory JCE members, irrespective of their degree of contribution. Furthermore, it has been used to establish liability for specific intent crimes even though the accused did not possess specific intent. Arguably, the reform of article 25 of the Rome Statute that expressly incorporates and codifies a more detailed construction of JCE category three, as developed by the ad hoc tribunals over a decade, which allows for attribution of a varying degrees of liability; relative to the specific accused‟s intent and contribution, shall ensure the protection of the principle of culpability and the principles of legality.
- ItemThe child's right against exploitation in the form of pornography on the Internet : a South African perspective(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2001) Van der Westhuizen, Lize; Human, C. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: With the arrival of the Internet, the availability of pornography, and especially child pornography, has increased tremendously. This rapidly developing technological wonderworld has brought the dark syndicate of sexual exploitation of children to the living room of each home equipped with a computer. In South Africa the right of the child to not be sexually exploited or abused is enshrined in section 28 of the Constitution, 108 of 1996, as well as in several international documents. This thesis analyses the legislative framework in this regard and comes to the conclusion that South African legislation concerned shows much room for improvement. Legislation concerning sexual offences against children makes use of archaic terms that are outdated in the present context. It is also vague, inconsistent and provides insufficient protection to children in this regard. The sexual exploitation of children does not, despite promises made by the South African government in ratifying several international documents, receive high priority in the South African community. This finding is made in view of the examination of certain key concepts to the subject, international documents such as the United Nations Convention to the Rights of the Child, 1989, and the activities of international organisations combating the sexual exploitation of the child. An analysis of the manner in which countries such as the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan has implemented protection measures against this form of abuse, is also made. Proposals to increase the protection of children in South Africa are submitted in conclusion. Although this new domain needs urgent measures of regulation, it is not an impossible task to govern the Internet. Formulating comprehensive, consistent and effective legislation is a fundamental part in the battle against the sexual exploitation of children. The co-operation of all relevant sectors, including the government, the Internet industry and members of the community, however, remains essential.
- ItemCommunity-based mental health care for adults with psychosocial disabilities in South Africa through a right to health lens(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-03) Booyens, Marietjie; Liebenberg, Sandra; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: There has been a shift, globally, from institutionalisation as the primary response to psychosocial disability, to community-based mental health care. This thesis sets out to determine the extent to which the legal and policy frameworks which govern community-based mental health care for adult persons with psychosocial disabilities in South Africa comply with constitutional and international law standards relevant to the right to health. First, by analysing the right of access to health care services in section 27 of the South African Constitution, relevant normative standards for community-based mental health care are established. Further, the negative and positive constitutional obligations in respect of the right of access to health care services are discussed. Following the analysis of constitutional norms and obligations, four key regional and international human rights instruments are analysed, with the right to health as the primary lens. A key part of this analysis is the consideration of two frameworks: the normative standards of “availability”, “accessibility”, “acceptability”, and “quality”; and the obligations to “respect”, “protect” and “fulfil”. These constitutional and international law standards are then applied to evaluate the mental health care legislation, policy and practice relevant to community-based mental health care – specifically, the Mental Health Care Act 17 of 2002, the National Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan 2013-2020, and the White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities of 2016. On the basis of this evaluation, this thesis finds that the framework does generally align with the constitutional and international law standards. However, the translation of this framework into practice is deficient in a number of ways. These deficiencies include: the absence of effective monitoring and information systems; insufficient resource allocation; the inequitable distribution of goods, facilities and services; a lack of clarity on the applicable standards for quality, ethical care; and poorly functioning oversight and accountability mechanisms. Consequently, this thesis concludes by making recommendations to improve the alignment of South Africa’s system of community-based mental health care with constitutional and international law standards.
- ItemThe conceptualisation of environmental justice within the context of the South African constitution(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-12) Feris, Loretta Annelise; Du Plessis, Lourens M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this dissertation is to conceptualise the principle of "environmental justice". In doing so it attempts to determine its meaning, assess its possible use for the protection of environmental rights in the light of the South African Bill of Rights, and draw, in a comparative manner, on examples from two other jurisdictions, namely the United States of America (USA) and India. In the first part of the study "environmental justice" is defined and thereafter the ways in which the idea of "environmental justice" has found expression in the USA and Indian jurisprudence as well as in legislative and administrative practices in these two countries are analysed comparatively. In reviewing the US experience the study concludes that the courts have shown a conspicuous measure of self-restraint in the conceptualisation of environmental justice. Due to its non-activist and formalistic approach, the judiciary has failed to address systemic environmental inequities, and to carve out remedies whereby environmental injustice could have been dealt with in an effective and meaningful way. The more activist approach of the Indian judiciary, on the other hand, has led to more effective protection of the environment and of people adversely affected by environmental degradation. The judiciary has imposed positive obligations on the state to carry out its social duties as laid down in the Directive Principles of the Indian Constitution. Although India does not have a constitutionally entrenched environmental right, the courts have interpreted the right to life proactively so as to include quality of life. The study concludes by examining possible applications of the principle of environmental justice for the protection of environmental rights in South Africa, assessing the law as it stands and exploring new avenues in the light of the Bill of Rights. In this respect the following guidelines are proposed by this study: o Environmental problems in South Africa must be placed within their specific historical and political context. Consequently environmental injustice must be understood as a form of inequity that impacts on people disproportionately on the basis of race and socio-economic status. The concept "environment" can therefore not be narrowly understood, whether it is being dealt with in the Constitution, legislation or common law. It must be recognised that the concept goes beyond ecosystems and that it includes a multiplicity of relationships, in many of which humans are the focal point. o Environmental justice claims in South Africa may best be framed as constitutional claims. Regard should be had not only to the environmental right in section 24 of the Constitution, but also to other rights that support the notion of environmental justice, such as the rights to life, equality and dignity. o Judicial activism is a key to the promotion of environmental justice. The judiciary plays an important role in ensuring that the state and other actors fulfil their obligation to respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights in the Bill of Rights. Transformation requires a judiciary that is prepared to reconsider the traditional boundaries of the doctrine of separation of powers and to lay down directives for other branches of government, in particular the executive.
- ItemConsenting to objectifying treatment? Human dignity and individual freedom(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-03) Fick, Sarah Johanna; Botha, Henk; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept.of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individual can and/or should be allowed to consent to objectifying treatment. This necessitated the determination of the meaning of dignity, the meaning of freedom and the relationship between dignity and freedom. It was found that both the right not to be objectified and the right to consent to objectification could be found within human dignity. This is due to the broad definition of dignity in terms of which dignity has two, sometimes contradicting, components. One component safeguards autonomy and the right to choose, which supports consent to objectification, whereas the other promotes individual self-worth by prohibiting objectifying treatment. By investigating the meaning of freedom it was found that freedom as a constitutional value, and possibly also a free-standing constitutional right, could incorporate the right to consent to objectifying treatment. Three possible solutions to this tension between human dignity and freedom were identified and critically analysed. The first was that an individual cannot and should not be allowed to consent to objectification. This solution is primarily based on the notion that dignity is supreme to freedom and that freedom should yield to communitarian dignity. Furthermore, it is contended that consent to objectification is often invalid due to economic coercion and undue influence. The second possible solution was that, although an individual might not be able to validly consent to objectifying treatment, such consent should still be allowed under certain circumstances. The example of invalid consent due to economic coercion introduced in the previous solution was examined in relation to prostitution. The contention regarding this approach is that, since our government is unable to fulfil the socio-economic needs of those who consent due to economic coercion, such consent should be allowed and strictly regulated. The third possible approach was that circumstances do exist in which individuals can give valid consent to objectification and that in these circumstances they should be allowed to do so. In this solution the grounds of the first approach is criticised by contending, for example, that dignity is not supreme to freedom, that a plural society should allow these type of choices and that consent to objectification is already allowed in some instances. The results of this study were that, although there are situations in which genuine consent is not possible, it can be given under certain circumstances. An individual who cannot give genuine consent to objectification should not be allowed to do so, unless transitional measures dictate otherwise. However, an individual who is capable of giving valid consent to objectification should be allowed to do so. Finally, regardless of whether such consent is genuine or not, strict regulation thereof is required.
- ItemThe constitutionality of religious observances in South African public schools(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-12) Van Schalkwyk, Cecile; Botha, Henk; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public LawENGLISH ABSTRACT : The right to freedom of religion is one of the oldest of the internationally recognised freedoms and is entrenched in section 15(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (“Constitution”). It is the hallmark of an open and democratic society and provides everyone with the right to practise their religion in the public sphere and to manifest their beliefs by way of religious dress, teaching, or the conducting of religious observances. Section 15(2) of the Constitution makes specific provision for religious observances to be conducted at state and state-aided institutions provided that (a) those observances follow rules made by the appropriate public authorities, (b) they are conducted on an equitable basis, and (c) attendance at them is free and voluntary. The Constitution has created a peculiar tension with the inclusion of section 15(2). On the one hand, it allows for the practice of religion in the public sphere, while on the other hand guaranteeing the right to religious freedom and freedom from religious coercion. In South Africa, religious observances are often conducted in the public school system. Public schools make provision for religious observances like prayer, worship, or the reading and interpretation of religious texts, while some schools even identify themselves as having a particular religious character or religious ethos. The South African Schools Act 84 of 1997 (“Schools Act”) delegates the power to determine rules on religious observances in public schools to the governing body of the school. In a country with a diverse citizenry it is often difficult for governing bodies to formulate rules that afford all learners an equitable right to religious observances, while being free from any religious coercion. What, from one perspective, would constitute a school community’s legitimate practice of their constitutionally guaranteed right to religion, might, from another, amount to a limitation of an individual learner’s right to be free to choose and practise his own religion or abstain from religious observances at all. The object of this study is to determine how the requirements for religious observances in state and state-aided institutions, as stipulated in section 15(2) of the Constitution and reiterated in section 7 of the Schools Act, must be interpreted within the context of public schools, to strike a constitutionally appropriate balance between the powers of school governing bodies and the right of learners to be free from religious coercion.
- ItemConstitutionality of the rules governing sectional title schemes(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-12) Van der Merwe, Zerlinda; Van der Walt, A. J.; Pienaar, G. J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Law. Department of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Various types of rules govern many areas of life in a sectional title scheme. The Sectional Titles Act 95 of 1986 prescribes model management and conduct rules in its regulations. Other non-prescribed rules are adopted by either the developers initially or later by the trustees of the body corporate. These rules provide for the control, management, administration, use and enjoyment of the sections and the common property in the scheme. Sectional owners and other occupiers have the entitlements of use and enjoyment of their individual sections and their share in the common property of the sectional title scheme, in proportion to their participation quota. These entitlements are restricted by the rules in operation within the scheme. Although these rules limit the entitlements of sectional owners and other occupiers in the interest of the sectional title community, they may not be unreasonable in their application and effect. In some instances, the application of the rules might exceed the bounds of reasonableness and result in unfair discrimination, arbitrary deprivation, unfair administrative action or restrictions on access to courts for dispute resolution. If certain rules are unreasonable in their application, based on one or more of the abovementioned grounds, the court must interpret the potentially impermissible rules and if the court cannot avoid a declaration of invalidity by implementing a constitutional remedy such as reading-up, reading-down, reading-in or severance, these impermissible rules will need to be substituted, amended or repealed and replaced because they are potentially unconstitutional and invalid. After a statutory and constitutional enquiry into the nature, scope, application, operation and effect of the rules governing sectional title schemes, it can be concluded that the various types of rules governing sectional title schemes restrict and limit sectional owners’ and occupiers’ entitlements of use and enjoyment of their individual sections and share in the common property. However, after being tested against section 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996 and other non-property rights entrenched in the Bill of Rights, to determine if the rules are reasonable in their application and constitutionally permissible, it can be seen that the application of the rules do not necessarily amount to arbitrary deprivations of property and that they can be justified in terms of the Constitution because there is sufficient reasons for the particular regulations and they are procedurally fair. The various different types of rules governing sectional title schemes serve as reasonable regulations in as far as they contribute to a harmonious relationship between the trustees of the body corporate and the sectional owners and occupiers as members of the body corporate as well as between the members of the body corporate inter se. The rules serve an important function in this regard. Therefore, they are considered reasonable and constitutionally valid in as far as they do not enforce excessive regulation and as long as they are equally applicable and do not unfairly differentiate in their application.
- ItemContract formation and the Internet : an analysis of contract formation in English, South African and German law with special regard to the Internet(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12) Helmholz, Niels; Lubbe, G. F.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines the conclusion of contracts on the Internet in English and South African law on the one hand, and German law on the other. Because these legal systems have not developed specific rules for the formation of contracts by way of this medium of communication, the question is whether the traditional doctrines are adequate to the demands of tecnological innovation. The study accordingly proceeds from a detailed discussion of the traditional rules of offer and acceptance developed in each of the systems. To this end, the leading cases and of English and South African law are considered with an emphasis on the points of difference between the approach of the courts in these systems. Where there is uncertainty or different points of view, regard is had to the critical points of view of English and South African commentators. In respect of the codified German civil law, the authoritative provisions of the general part of the civil code are discussed against the background of the commentary of academic authors. An investigation of the technical structure of the Internet and the various methods of communication afforded by it, provides a foundation for an examination of the application of the general principles of the various legal systems to contract formation on the Internet. It is concluded that despite fundamental differences in the of approach of the systems under consideration, the general principles of each system are capable of application in the context of electronic contracting. The dissertation endeavours to develop proposals regarding adequate solutions to the problems typical of the process of contract formation on the Internet.
- ItemCopyright law and the Internet : in modern South African law(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-09) Ital, Eric Guy; De Ville, E. M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Internet is coming more and more into focus of national and international legislation. Especially with regard to copyright law, the rapid growth of the Internet, its global character, its novel technical applications and its private and commercial use by millions of people makes the control over a work complicated and raises copyright problems all over the world. Present legislation is therefore challenged to avoid gaps in the law. Considering the rapid growth of online providers and users in South Africa, it is likely that copyright disputes with regard to the Internet will evolve here soon. In this dissertation, the "world" of the Internet and its lawfulness with regard to existing South African copyright law will be examined. The examination tries to establish whether South African copyright law is able to cope with the present Internet problems and whether it leads to reasonable results. The first chapter of this dissertation will give an overview of the basic principles of the Internet, including the history, development and function of the Internet. Furthermore the changing aspects by means of diqital technology will be discussed. Because the global character of the Internet lead to "international" infringements, governments are considering the prospect of reaching international accord on the protection of intellectual property in the digital era. In chapter two, the present international harmonisation of copyright law will be introduced. Especially the quick adoption of the World Intellectual Property Organisation Treaties in December 1996 demonstrated that an international realisation for a call for action is existing. In chapter three, the application of South African copyright law with regard to the Internet will be discussed. First, it will be examined if a digital work on the Internet is protected in the same way as a "traditional" work. Second, the various rights of the copyright holder are discussed in connection with the use of a work on the Internet. Third, the potential application of the exclusive rights of the copyright holder to various actions on the Internet, such as caching, Web linking and operating an online service will be discussed. The Internet is a worldwide entity, and, as such, copyright infringement on this system is an international problem. The scenario of global, simultaneous exploitation of works on the Internet conflicts sharply with the current system of international copyright protection, which is firmly based on national copyright laws with territorial effects. Section four provides therefore an overview of the applicable law on an international net and analyses the necessity and borders of protection.
- ItemCriminal liability of Internet providers in Germany and other jurisdictions(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004-12) Funk, Antje Elisabeth Margarete; Kemp, Gerhard; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Public Law.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis deals with the criminal liability of Internet providers. The focus is on Germany, but the analysis is put in a wider, comparative context. This is done with reference to South Africa, as well as Europe and the American system. This thesis demonstrates and discusses the existing legal norms to regulate Internet provider liability for illegal content on the Internet and the international efforts to deal with this issue. In the introduction it is shown how the Internet has given rise to a new form of global communication and the accompanying legal problems. This is followed by an examination of the different functions Internet providers have. A survey of some of the important crimes affecting the Internet and also some Internet-specific offences put the more general issue of liability in a more specific context. Traditional and new forms of crimes are discussed. This section is followed by an analysis of Internet provider liability under German criminal law and Germany's Teleservices Act. From an international criminal law perspective some international instruments, like the Cybercrime Convention of the Council of Europe, is discussed. National legislation, especially in the context of the European Union, must always be put in the proper regional and international context. The thesis concludes with some thoughts on alternative, or perhaps complementary, methods to fight illegal and criminal conduct on the Internet. This is done not as a critique of the responses to Internet crime, but rather to strengthen the many hands trying to reduce Internet crime.
- ItemA critical analysis of the approach of the courts in the application of eviction remedies in the pre-constitutional and constitutional context(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-12) Cloete, Clireesh Terry; Boggenpoel, Zsa-Zsa; Pienaar, Juanita M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Law. Dept. of Private LawENGLISH ABSTRACT : In the pre-constitutional era courts had a very specific approach to eviction remedies. This approach was the result of legal doctrine that regulated the concept of ownership, eviction remedies and standard practices of presiding officers as entrenched in rules of interpretation and procedural rules. The advent of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (the “Constitution”) transformed the eviction landscape by way of section 26(3) of the Constitution and the subsequent promulgation of the Prevention of Illegal Eviction from and Unlawful Occupation of Land Act 19 of 1998 (“PIE”). After the first Constitutional Court judgment Port Elizabeth Municipality v Various Occupiers (2005 (1) SA 217 (CC) it became apparent that the PIE not only replaced the pre-constitutional eviction remedies but in fact also required that the deep-level assumptions of a landowner’s right to evict and the standard practices associated with the courts’ role in eviction cases were also revolutionised. The pivotal consideration of this study, in light of these developments of eviction law brought about by the constitutional dawn, is whether the courts are indeed approaching and applying PIE in line with their mandate. This is critical as a superficial shift will only frustrate the transformative thrust of the Constitution in the context of eviction. The study of the courts’ approach to eviction remedies in the pre-constitutional and constitutional context has shown that section 26(3) and PIE have indeed transformed the eviction landscape on a theoretical basis. In this regard, the courts’ approach to eviction remedies has changed from conservative, formalistic and passive in the pre-constitutional era to context-sensitive, flexible and proactive. However, some courts, especially the lower courts, are still failing to apply PIE as mandated. This is due to the continued pre-constitutional deep-level assumptions of the strength of the landowner’s right to evict, combined with procedural practices that form part of their pre-constitutional legal culture. Interestingly, the specific focus on landowners in this study indicated that this failure on the part of the court is surprisingly problematic for landowners.