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- ItemChemical and Lead Isotope characterisation of First World War shrapnel balls and bullets used on the Alpine Austrian–Italian Front(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2018) Laterza, Vittoria; Ros, Veronica; Turetta, Clara; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Balliana, Eleonora; Baroni, Carlo; Cristina, Salvatore Maria; Bondesan, Aldino; Barbante, CarloChemical and lead isotope characterisation was carried out on shrapnel balls and bullets dating back to the First World War (WWI). These ammunitions were widely utilised in the Alpine Austrian–Italian front located in the Italian Alps. The investigation has been performed using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS-ICP-QMS). The main goal of this work was to identify the elemental and lead isotope composition of raw materials and to discriminate between the military objects analysed. The results of multi-elemental analysis indicate that the shrapnel ball samples consisted of soft Pb or hard Pb with Sb depending on the use, the weapon type and the specific nation. The Italian shrapnel balls were made from hard Pb, as opposed to those of the Austrian–Hungarian samples. Through the investigation of lead isotope ratios, it has been possible to differentiate most of the Italian shrapnel balls from those of Austrian–Hungarian origin. Furthermore, some Italian shrapnel balls had a different lead isotope composition depending on their calibre. The elemental composition and lead isotopic signature of bullets show a clear discrimination between the external jacket and the core in relation to projectile type and nationality. The bullet cores consist of Pb–Sb alloy regardless of the region of origin. This work allowed us to investigate the potential applications of trace elements and lead isotope analyses to discriminate military artefacts of different origins
- ItemConceptualising a Personal Capacity Development Framework for Senior Management Service in the Department of Defence(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Ledwaba, Ncediwe Vivian; Khoza, Lindiwe Mhakamuni; Bester, Piet Cornelius; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. Dept. of Educational Technology (EDUTECH)ENGLISH ABSTRACT: rocesses aimed at military professionalism and public service professionalism through capacity development for senior management services (SMS) by means of education, training, and development (ETD) opportunities are imperative. Equally crucial is that these opportunities match the competencies required in the Department of Defence (DOD). This study aims to propose a DOD-specific development framework for personal capacity development of SMS through an analysis of the status of current governance. A qualitative research method was employed within the interpretivist paradigm with a resultant case design. Two custom designed questionnaires were used as primary sources of data. In addition, document analysis aimed to validate and triangulate the findings. The SMS in the DOD is a unit of analysis comprised of 270 SMS members, inclusive of Defence Act Personnel (DAP) and Public Service Act personnel (PSAP) designated in respective Services and Divisions. Purposive sampling was utilised to describe a phenomenon of which little is known from existing literature. All members of the SMS working in an HR environment were targeted to participate in the study. Seventeen participants responded voluntarily to the questionnaires. Furthermore, accountability documents of the DOD were sampled to determine the balance and consistency of the information. Areas in which they are detailed, and areas in which they are not, in relation to the research questions, were also investigated. Systems theory underpinned in DOD HR processes revealed the identified aspects thereof that add value to working together effectively, cooperatively. Findings revealed that capacity development is a continuous process that changes over time and which is influenced by three capacity levels for example, environmental, organisational, and individual, all of which interact mutually while impacting clearly the capacity development framework. Further studies are recommended towards understanding pedagogical enhancement related to the topic of research, and the incorporation of gender considerations into the curriculum of Professional Military Education (PME). The study is limited to DOD SMS members, even though it is understood that SMS is a universal institutional function. The proposed framework underpins the leadership, management, and governance processes that support learning and innovation commanded by strategists who embrace the African philosophy.
- ItemContemporary military geosciences in South Africa(AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2019) Smit, Hennie; Bezuidenhout, JacquesContemporary Military Geosciences in South Africa presents the reader with chapters celebrating the scope, reach and impact of themes researched by military geoscientists. The first topics under investigation ranges from battlefield archaeology and battlefield tourism to military environmental management and the development of a unique South African spatial decision support system for military integrated environmental management. This is followed by an in-depth look at contemporary maritime factors at play in South Africa. The book is concluded by an analysis of the issues surrounding military mobility software and terrain negotiability, as well as a comprehensive examination of how geographic factors influence the distribution of natural radionuclides in a military area.
- ItemDetermining the change in the bathymetry of Saldanha Bay due to the harbour construction in the seventies(2020-09) Henrico, Ivan; Bezuidenhout, JacquesENGLISH ABSTRACT: Bathymetry is the science to study and measure the depths of the ocean floor. The differences in water depth, underwater slope and ocean floor structure were investigated using a geographic information system (GIS). This article investigates changes to the hydrodynamic sedimentation processes in Saldanha Bay as a result of the harbour constructions that took place in the early 1970s. The construction of the harbour included the massive dredging operations and resultant relocation of 30 million m3 of soil. Bathymetric data from Saldanha Bay before (1957) and after (1977) the construction of the harbour in the early seventies were analysed and compared in ArcGIS. It was found that the overall depth of the inner part of Saldanha Bay increased with about 1.4 m and that the bottom and slopes were smoothed. The physical structure that was constructed for the harbour had a serious impact on the hydrodynamic sedimentation processes. It was found that these interventions altered the depth profile of the Bay and the article finally draws conclusions on coastal and beach formation, based on the change in the hydrodynamic sedimentation processes of Saldanha Bay.
- ItemDeveloping military environmental literacy in the South African Army through a dedicated military environmental management course(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2020) Smit, H. A. P.It is important for soldiers to be military environmentally literate to prevent unacceptable behaviour in the environment in which they conduct their missions. This is especially true during peacekeeping and disaster relief mission, but holds equally true for combat situations. Military environmental literacy is the nature and level of the attitude toward, knowledge about, and behaviour in and toward the environment in which the military operates. The construct of military environmental literacy (MEL) consists of three components, military environmental attitude (a general feeling of favour or disfavour toward the military environment, i.e. the environment in which the military operates), military environmental knowledge (the ability to identify a number of concepts and behaviour patterns related to the military environment, i.e. the environment in which the military operates), and military environmental behaviour (a demonstration of how one acts toward or in the military environment in which the military operates). The MEL of South African Army soldiers were measured in a study reported on in 2017, as well as in a test-retest survey in 2018. A specially developed valid and reliable questionnaire to test military environmental literacy was used in both surveys. This article argues that exposing soldiers to a dedicated military environmental management course can positively influence their military environmental literacy.
- ItemDrivers of environmental management in the SANDF: a case study of Western Cape Units, 2011-2015(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-12) Ncubukezi, Lundi; Smit, Hendrik Adolf Petrus; Van der Merwe, Justin; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Geospatial Studies and Information Systems.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The primary function of the South African Department of Defence and Military Veterans (SA DoDMV) is to defend and protect the Republic of South Africa (RSA), its territorial integrity and its people in accordance with the Constitution and the principles of international law regulating the use of force. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) has military units throughout the country. These units are situated in locations such that they contribute to the primary function of the SA DoDMV. To execute its undertaking, the SANDF requires resources such as land to conduct its activities. Military activities cause physical disturbance to ecosystems. These activities include military training, exercises, peace support operations and the actual conduct of war. Any and all of these activities may have a negative impact on the environment. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act No. 108 of 1996), Defence Review 1996, 1998 and 2015, White Paper on Defence 1996 and the National Environmental Management Act No. 107 of 1998 (NEMA) mandate responsible environmental management (EM) from all organs of the state. In light of this policy framework, the SA DoDMV has established a broad strategy and several functional strategies for environmental services (ES) in the SANDF. Furthermore, the SANDF has for environmental management (EM) purposes grouped military units into five regions (Western Cape; Eastern Cape and KwaZulu Natal; Free State and Northern Cape; Limpopo; Gauteng and North West). The DoDMV published two editions of environmental implementation plans (EIPs), in 2001 and 2008 respectively. The primary aim of the first edition EIP was to represent an instrument for the promotion of co-operative governance around environmental management. The second followed on the efforts and commitments made in the First Edition EIP, as well as filling in any gaps that were identified. As part of mechanisms for monitoring EM, the SANDF has institutionalised the Environmental Awards Programme (EAP). Military units in the Western Cape Region (WCR) have won more environmental awards than the other four regions in the country combined. The question, therefore, is which drivers are promoting effective environmental management (EEM) in award-winning military units (AWMU) in the WCR. The research statement was that there are drivers in the AWMU in the WCR that promote EEM. The study adopted a qualitative research approach. Desktop study and semi-structured interview methods were employed to collect data. Purposive sampling was used to identify respondents. The desktop study revealed the mechanisms that the SA DoDMV planned to use to address EM issues. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate the drivers that environmental managers viewed as enabling the EEM. The collected data was analysed using content and thematic analysis. The results indicate that environmental managers view continuous environmental training, employee capacitation, the involvement of employees, external interaction, management support, and commitment as drivers enabling effective EM in the WCR. The findings suggest that it is not just the presence of policies that prompt improved environmental performance, but internal factors too. The outcomes are noteworthy because they indicate what works in AWMU. Other units may use the findings to develop best practices to enhance their own environmental management performance.
- ItemThe ecological footprint of individual members at the Army Support Base Eastern Cape(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Fouche, Desire Elizabeth; Smit, Hennie; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Geospatial Studies and Information Systems.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a measurement that is used to calculate the demand for resources placed on the environment because of the needs and wants of humans in their daily lives. It is important that each individual is aware of their EF because resources need to be conserved for future generations. In the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa environmental rights are entrenched, and the protection thereof against pollution, ecological degradation and overexploitation specified. The calculation of the EF by means of the Global Footprint Network (GFN) online calculator was used to measure the EF of the individuals of the Army Support Base Eastern Cape (ASB EC). Such a calculation has never been done at any military installation of the South African National Defence Force, a hiatus this research aims to fill. The Ecological Footprint can be measured by either using a mathematical calculation or an online calculator. The mathematical calculation or the Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) is based on either a compound - or component EF calculation. The GFN online ecological footprint calculator is currently the most used method to determine the EF of an individual and displays the land use type of each consumption category. These categories include food, shelter, mobility, goods and services, the EF, carbon footprint and carbon footprint as part of the EF as well as the number of Earths needed for a specific lifestyle. The EF online calculator was used to calculate the EF of the individual members at the Army Support Base Eastern Cape, a military support base situated in Gqeberha in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The main function of the ASB EC is to supply support services. The ASB EC is situated in a larger Garrison area which houses other units and Arms of Services and has an average strength of 460 individuals. The methodology was based on a quantitative approach, using research questions and research objectives to classify the research study as a descriptive and exploratory study. A random sample of the population was used to complete the online EF calculation. The EF online survey method, a questionnaire, was used to obtain the quantitative data from the online results from each participant. The different categories and EF calculations were tabulated in a data matrix table to be able to complete the data analysis process. This data matrix table was in the format of an Excel spreadsheet and with the help of the Centre of Statistical Consultation at Stellenbosch University, the statistical analysis was done. The statistical data was analysed by using the STATISTICA 14.0 programme. The qualitative data that was available from the data matrix table was then used to calculate the EF of the individual members of the ASB EC as well as their combined EF. The ASB EC has a total of 460 personnel. On average the strength per day is 300 members. An attempt was made to include a total of 140 members, which is close to 30% of the overall personnel in the unit. The official unit’s name list was used to randomly select the participants. The analysis of the data was based on the examination of each variable which in all cases were expressed on a numerical or quantitative measuring scale. The sum of the variables was determined by computer program analysis. The descriptive EF online calculation data was used to determine the individual and combined EF of the individuals at the ASB EC to answer the research questions and the research objectives. The data-matrix table which contained the individual results of the GFN online EF calculation completed by the ASB EC participants were used to calculate the EF of everyone, and by adding them up, to determine the combined EF of the ASB EC. The results are described in relation to the rank groups, different departments, and gender of the participants. Officers recorded the highest EF across most categories, with NCOs, PSAP, and privates generally recording the lowest scores. The departments rendered fairly similar results across all categories of the EF. Even where differences existed, they were not always significant, however there were significant differences between male and female participants. In almost all categories, males scored higher than females, indicating that they have a higher EF than females. These trends are corroborated by the results of other studies. According to the results, officers have the highest scores in the different categories of ranks. Group 4 (Emergency Services and PTSR) and Group 1 (Headquarters (HQ), Communication, Human Resources, Senior warrant officer (SWO) and Control) dominate the calculation of the different departments, and in terms of gender, males recorded the overall highest scores. Secondly, officers play a dominant role in both the rank groups and the department compositions. Officers are a high-income group which is one of the main reasons for the high EF. Thirdly, males rather than females have the highest EF especially because of a high CF and mobility footprint because of their higher income. The combined results for the ASB EC indicated that the average planet score is 3.6, the EF 5,8gha, and the carbon footprint 10.6 (T per year) which means that 62% is part of the EF. According to the land use categories, the highest land type scores include forest land (0.7) and cropland (1.0), and the lowest score is grazing land (0.1). When considering the consumer categories, the carbon (3.5) and shelter footprints (1.7) are the highest as well as the food (1.1) and mobility footprints (1.0). The main findings from the study can be summarised as follows: level of income plays the most significant part in the calculation of the EF of an individual. A high income can influence 90% of the other categories because the lifestyle of an individual is directly related to their income. The study shows a direct link between higher income (proxied by rank, in this case officers with high income), and a high EF. Officers who fall in a high-income bracket play a dominant role in both the rank group as well as the different Groups because where the participants in the Group where mostly officers, high scores were recorded in the different categories. This means a high income reflects a more lavish lifestyle and a higher EF. The EF of males and females can both be high or low depending on the role that females play in their home and society. In this study, males dominated the EF calculation, evidenced by an overall high score in the different categories. Since almost no statistically significant differences between the different genders were found, it can be postulated that, because of the same working environment, males and females in the ASB EC may not have such a different EF as the raw results may suggest. More research is needed regarding this phenomenon.
- ItemFrom Paratus to SA Soldier : a reflection on the primary magazine of the SA military 1990-2010(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-12) Warden, Herman; Liebenberg, Ian; Monama, Fankie; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. Dept. of Military Geography. School for Geospatial Studies and Information Systems.ENGLISH SUMMARY: The nature of media has changed and evolved over the years with rapidly increasing changes observed after the Cold War period. The nature of media, both civilian and military in South Africa, was no exception. Within the military environment, four distinctive periods can be identified between 1912 and 2010. During the World Wars, the Nonkay magazine existed for security forces. During the middle 1950’s the Kommando magazine came into existence. During the time of the Cold War Paratus was the magazine for the South African military. Salut magazine came into existence during 1994 after the end of the Cold War and, in South Africa, the transition from apartheid state to a democratic state. In order to reflect the agenda of the new incumbent government and the changed interests of stakeholders, the magazine changed in 2001 from Salut to the SA Soldier. The changes included content, layout and the messages conveyed. These changes were undertaken in order to adapt to the changed economic, political and military environments or settings in which South Africa found itself. The study that I undertook entailed qualitative descriptive research; an exploration into the evolving world of the military media between 1990 and 2010 and a slice of life from the military media over two decades. A content analysis of the Paratus, Salut and the SA Soldier magazine was undertaken, followed by a literature review that explored this field and confirmed that little or no prior studies existed relating to South African military magazines. An in-depth study of the content of the magazines revealed several dominant themes. This study examines those themes and provides reasons how these themes were identified, selected and analysed. Reasons for their inclusion is elaborated upon and discussed in each chapter. The last chapter provides an overall view of the chapters, mentioning the overall findings of the study and effectively brings the study to an end by suggesting a number of research gaps in need of future exploration.
- ItemThe influence of geographic factors on the distribution of natural radionuclides(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-12) Geyser, Alwyn Petrus; Bezuidenhout, J.; Smit, H.A.P.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. Dept. of Military Geography. School for Geospatial Studies and Information Systems.ENGLISH SUMMARY: The primordial radionuclides 40K, 232Th, and 238U have been present in almost all rocks, soils, and minerals since the formation of Earth. These radionuclides emit gamma radiation that is detectable by means of a scintillation detector. By measuring the concentrations of 40K, 232Th, and 238U in an area it is possible to draw radioelement maps. These radioelement maps were then used in a qualitative analysis to establish the influence of local geographic factors on the distribution of natural radionuclides. The research site is a granite outcrop, Baviaansberg, and the immediate area surrounding the outcrop. Baviaansberg is situated in the Saldanha Bay Military Area on the West Coast of South Africa. The available literature on the impact of geographic factors on the distribution of natural radionuclides are limited. Scientific radioelement mapping in military areas in South Africa has only been completed by Bezuidenhout (2012). The research provided the opportunity to study the feasibility of establishing a link between natural radionuclide concentrations and geographic factors within a military area. Hence, the aim of the research was to investigate the relationship between geographic factors and the distribution of natural radionuclides of a particular area. Radioelement maps were used to analyse the impact of the respective geographic factors “geology”, “topography”, “soil type”, “hydrology”, “wind” and “human activity” on the distribution of the concentrations of natural radionuclides. Radiation measurements of the natural radionuclides in the research site were completed by means of in situ measurements using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector connected to a tablet computer. Once the natural radionuclide concentrations were extracted by means of Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA), radioelement maps were created from the results. Qualitative analysis was performed on the radioelement maps by means of comparing it to the slope raster, slope profiles, a flow accumulation raster, wind data, Google Earth images, a human activities map, a soil type map, Spline vs Kriging raster, Th vs K raster, U vs K raster, and a U vs Th raster. The qualitative analysis aimed to establish the influence of the identified geographic factors on the spread of natural radionuclide concentrations. The results indicated that the geology of an area influences the distribution of natural radionuclides. The highest concentrations of natural radionuclides were found close to the granite outcrops on Baviaansberg. Slope was used to determine the influence of topography. The results revealed that slope influences 40K concentrations to a greater extent than 232Th and 238U concentrations due to the solubility of 40K. The different soil types within Baviaansberg also displayed unique associated natural radionuclide concentrations. According to the research results, the hydrology of Baviaansberg impacted on the spread of 40K, 232Th and 238U concentrations. However, 40K was influenced to a greater extent because of its solubility. The impact of the dry summer winds on the distribution of natural radionuclides became apparent through a comparison of the leeward and windward slopes of Baviaansberg. On the leeward slope higher concentrations of natural radionuclides were recorded than on the windward slope due to small particles that are removed from the windward slope and deposited on the leeward slope. Research results concerning the influence of human activities on the distribution of natural radiation were inconclusive. Further research needs to be conducted in order to confirm a definite relationship, should it in fact exist. True to the aim of the research, the study established that it is feasible to validate the influence of geographic factors on the distribution of natural radionuclides by analysing the natural radionuclide concentrations of an area.
- ItemMilitary environmental literacy in the South African Army(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2018) Smit, H. A. P.; Van der Merwe, J. H.Traditional military activities, such as fighting wars, are inherently destructive. Modern militaries undertake a diverse range of military activities, use large areas for military training and operational purposes, and are confronted with a global focus on environmentally responsible behaviour. These conditions compel militaries to ensure that soldiers display the correct attitude toward, behaviour in and knowledge about the diverse physical, social and cultural environments they occupy and on which they have an effect. Globally, and in South Africa, this is not only a moral obligation but a legal imperative too. The aim of this article is to report on the military environmental literacy (MEL) (attitude, behaviour and knowledge regarding the environment in which the military operate) of the members of the South African Army (SA Army). To achieve this aim, existing environmental questionnaires were evaluated to ascertain their suitability for use in an SA Army context. None of them was usable to appraise MEL in a SA Army context effectively. Consequently, an iterative process was initiated to develop a tailor-made, valid, reliable and organisation-specific questionnaire to assess MEL in the SA Army.
- ItemMilitary integrated environmental management at the Donkergat military-training area(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Marx, Jan Taljaard; Van der Merwe, J. H.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Art and Social Sciences. Dept. of Geography and Environmental Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Donkergat Military-training Area (DMTA) at Langebaan, South Africa, hosts diverse, primarily seaborne, training and war fighting endeavours of South African Special Forces (SF) soldiers. The facility borders the Atlantic Ocean, Langebaan Lagoon (a Ramsar site) and Meeuw Island. The question arises how to compatibly accommodate military activity in this sensitive environment? The research aimed to build an inventory of environment-operation interaction impacts on the DMTA, document and analyse the efficacy of management procedures in a MIEM (military integrated environmental management) framework and design and test an electronic spatial decision support system (SDSS) to enable replication elsewhere. Hence, five objectives were pursued, namely to inventorise the physical resource base and concomitant environmental sensitivities of DMTA; to inventorise the military activity impacts on the resource base; to overview management measures to reduce further unrestrained progress of environmentally harmful impacts through MIEM solutions; to develop an SDSS to practically manage the sensitive environmental resources and military activities; and to finally project these measures against a theoretical backdrop of integrated military and marine environmental management. A mixed-mode methodology was followed. The surveys culminated in a comprehensive, reference manual-like inventory of terrestrial and marine floral and faunal life forms – reported to species level in the appendices. Similar data on physical and human-made landscape features were compiled and the conservation status and vulnerabilities of life forms, especially birds, were established. The surveys recorded evidence of notable military impact on the environment concerning infrastructure, ecology and cultural-historic heritage. A comprehensive electronic spatial database of all these features was compiled on a GIS platform. As point of departure for effective operational and environmental management, the requirements for a MIEM framework were determined. Operational measures for combating a wide range of impacts, as well as the success of their application were compiled to guide continued and future management. An SDSS running off a GIS platform, was designed, described in detail and tested for a range of operational and environmental management applications. This application required the sensitivity rating of a range of geographical phenomena captured in the DMTA GIS database and the execution of a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) procedure that resulted in an integrative environmental sensitivity map. DMTA is unique and hence it is recommended that it be retained as a specialised military-training facility. It is recommended that the SDSS be refined, exported and adapted for application at other SF and South African National Defence Force (SANDF) military-training areas. Refinement should harness the Internet and related data-capture and communications technologies. By implementing this system as part of the legally prescribed MIEM in the SANDF, the impact of military activities on the environment can be minimised and ‘sacred’ or ‘sacrificed’ areas identified. It is recommended that ecosystem indicator monitoring of features like birds, water quality, sediment quality, benthic macrofauna, surf-zone fish and rocky intertidal macrofauna at DMTA should be intensified to support planning of new developments. DMTA should become the benchmark ecosystem for status comparison in the Saldanha Bay area. It is also recommended that parts of the training area be incorporated in the Ramsar definition for the Langebaan Wetland system.
- ItemPorous land borders and their effect on South African National Security(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-12) Letlape, Abel Patswaite; Smit, H. A. P.; Van der Merwe, J. D. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Geospatial Studies and Information Systems.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South Africa currently experiences a high volume of irregular migration from neighbouring African countries and other countries further afield. This type of migration is linked globally to human trafficking, extremism, cross-border crime, drug trafficking, and other undesirable political, economic and social issues. Worldwide there is a perception that South Africa’s borders are porous and thus exploited by criminal syndicates. Evidence exists of countless undocumented people who got apprehended by SA law enforcement authorities inside the country. Consequently, this study aims to investigate the causes of porous land border in South Africa, the threats presented by porous land borders, and the land border areas that need diplomatic and security attention. To gain more insight in this matter, eight in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with SANDF military strategy developers, military strategy implementers and experts at the operational level, professional people who are responsible for fulfilling the role of land border safeguarding. To enhance the rigour of the study, the underlying principles of the Copenhagen School of thought, and the Lee’s push-pull theory, the lenses through which the study was approached, were linked to the findings of the study. Furthermore, various sources were used to collect secondary data, which then were triangulated with findings of research interview findings to strengthen the validity and the reliability of the study. The data was recorded, transcribed and analysed manually through thematic analysis. Themes and patterns identified were labelled in the form of a word, a sentence, phrase or a couple of sentences. The findings of the study illustrated that the main causes of porous land borders in South Africa are a lack of resources, the length and material condition of the border, uncoordinated intelligence, corrupt government officials, the colonial border legacy, liberalist migration policies and laws, lack of integrated overarching national security strategy, the large South African informal employment sector, and ineffective cooperation and collaboration between SA departments of state at national strategic level and parallel departments in neighbouring countries. Pull factors that promote the violation of borders include the fact that human rights are guaranteed in South Africa; that South Africa is a country with a liberal democracy; that, despite its challenges, South Africa is still perceived as a country socio-economically and politically exceeding other countries in Africa; that South Africa has an infrastructure largely unmatched on the continent. Factors identified as pushing nationals away from their respective home countries in Africa towards South Africa are: poverty and hardship, violence, civil-military conflicts, wars, poor economic conditions and associated poor living conditions. Paradoxically, escaping from these factors to a country with perceived solutions in turn creates emerging threats in the target country, such as economic threats, societal threats, political threats and environmental threats. These threats to the national security of South Africa are closely linked to her porous land borders. The borders between Mozambique and South Africa, Zimbabwe and South Africa and Lesotho and South Africa were identified as being the most porous land borders that require urgent attention from governments involved. Building from these findings, the South African government should prioritise its territorial integrity and border protection as one of its vital interests. While addressing the internal factors attributed to porous land borders, the government should also focus its efforts on stabilising and assisting in the political and economic situation of its neighbouring countries, especially Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Lesotho. These countries can play a vital role in becoming a buffer and a first physical line of defence to South Africa in stopping illegal immigrants and contraband before reaching South Africa’s porous land borders. The research contended that South Africa should pursue its interest in territorial integrity and border protection through bilateral cooperation, since it is easier to reach a bilateral agreement than pursuing multilateral security initiatives.
- ItemPrisoners of geography : ten maps that tell you everything you need to know about global politics(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2020) Henrico, IvanTim Marshall is an esteemed authority on foreign affairs, with more than thirty years’ experience in broadcasting, reporting, analysis and writing about past, present and future geopolitical affairs – most of the time reporting from the front line on major world events and conflict zones that had significant geopolitical effects on global politics, such as the Balkan wars of the 1990s, the Kosovo crisis of 1999, the first Gulf War (1991), the US war in Afghanistan (2001). He also covered three US presidential elections (The What and The Why, 2016). Prisoners of geography: Ten maps that tell you everything you need to know about global politics is arguably the most successful of his books, and makes for an intriguing read by an author with such an impressive résumé.
- ItemA proactive disaster risk reduction framework for recurring Efundja in the rural Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, Northern Namibia(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-12) Shaamhula, Loide Victoria; Smit, Hennie Adolf; Van der Merwe, Justin D.S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Geospatial Studies and Information Systems.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Cuvelai-Etosha basin is associated with the Efundja, the annual flooding of the basin that results from a combination of local rainfall and water flowing from Angola through the Cuvelai drainage system and spreading across the flat plains of Namibia. This frequently occurring hazard affects the large population of the rural Cuvelai-Etosha basin by destroying their livelihoods, prohibiting their movements and influencing all aspects of their lives. During extreme Efundja events, the inhabitants of the Cuvelai-Etosha basin are forced to repetitively relocate into temporary shelters every flooding season. Governmental response to the Efundja has remained mainly reactive. However, global policies on disaster management have changed drastically since the 1990s, moving away from the previous emphasis on emergency management, towards new applications of disaster risk management. Several international declarations expressed the determination to implement actions to reduce risks at every level. These approaches were adopted by many national governments. Namibia followed suit by aligning with the current Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) as well as the former Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005- 2015. Consequently, the government developed its national disaster risk management framework which is stipulated in the Disaster Risk Management Act, Act number 10 of 2012. The Disaster Risk Management Act is the current guiding national Efundja response blueprint applied whenever responding to any national hazard. Despite the existence of this national disaster risk management framework, governmental response to the Efundja seems to follow a reactive approach as it mainly focuses on providing relief aid and temporary shelters while failing to address the underlying factors. Most importantly, the national response neglects the response mechanisms and mitigation measures of the vulnerable communities living in the basin, completely negating their input in the response mechanism. The aim of this study was to develop a disaster risk reduction proactive response framework for the recurring Efundja in the rural Cuvelai-Etosha basin of northern Namibia, by specifically including the lived experiences of the rural communities of the basin. This study applied a qualitative phenomenological inquiry in order to investigate the appropriate approach of dealing with Efundja in northern Namibia. Through the use of semi- structured interview schedules with key informants and focus group discussions with community members, the present study obtained primary data which was analysed through content analysis with the assistance of Atlas.ti software. The results indicate that the communities of northern Namibia have a negative perception about their ability to deal with the Efundja. This perception highlights the need for risk awareness programmes and improved information sharing methods to teach and help these communities to recognise their own potential and capacities in dealing with the Efundja. These communities collectively engage in response activities such working together to fix local roads and pedestrian bridges, raise funds, demarcate landmarks in the iishana to be able to cross them safely, and use their accumulated knowledge to mitigate the impacts. This indicates capacity and resources to mitigate the impact of the Efundja. Their ability to organise themselves through their social networks in order to participate in these activities represents solidarity and highlights available social capital. Moreover, these communities also engage in mitigation measures that signify the underlying issues that need to be addressed. Mitigation measures such as changing Mahangu storage facility type, buying of groceries in bulk and travelling in groups, changing house building materials, digging trenches, storing valuable goods higher and creating sand embankments all reveal the root issues associated with stagnant water. The large volumes of stagnant water eventually penetrate into homesteads and crop fields and destroy these assets. In order to effectively and proactively address these issues, the government response approach should include the provision of proper road infrastructure that would allow appropriate water movement and enable the movement of the people themselves. An important characteristic of the response mechanisms employed by the communities is that they are only able to respond to, and mitigate, the immediate, short-term and mid-term risks of flooding, but not the long-term risks. Some of the mitigation measures used may lead to further vulnerabilities and accidents such as drowning and the danger posed by open water ditches to children and animals. This indicates the need for the national response approach to earnestly include the vulnerable community’s views and ideas into the national disaster risk management framework in order for the framework to substantially address the underlying issues faced by the communities. The ongoing provision of relief aid and temporary shelters is only a solution for medium and short-term risks but such efforts do not address any long-term Efundja risk issues. The provision of relief aid and temporary shelters does not reduce the loss of human lives or assets as the national disaster risk management framework envisioned to do. Ironically, both the communities and the government focus on short and medium-term responses. While this is normal for affected communities, governmental responses should take a more long-term approach to be successful. The local headmen have also expressed an inability to effectively respond to Efundja. They have stated that besides monitoring the status of residents and consulting with the local constituency. councillors, encouraging the locals to work harder to have enough food, creating awareness and issuing warnings, they do not have a defined way of preparing for or responding to Efundja. Their responses show a lack of confidence in their work and highlight the lack of resources and means to prepare and support their communities during the recurring Efundja. They expressed how they are the least recognised in terms of remuneration, resource allocation and funds provision in order to assist their communities. They emphasised that all the resources and relief aid assistance they offer is usually taken from their personal income. This indicates a need for programmes to empower headmen, through training and awareness programmes, with authoritative power and empowerment in the overall traditional leadership to be able to effectively guide and offer direction to their respective communities in times of hazards. On the other hand, the local-level disaster risk management officials regard the occurrences of Efundja as normal and have expressed the way their offices are under-equipped. These officials only assist those who come to ask for help, give precautionary measures, conduct rapid assessments, monitor dam levels and organise and prepare relocation camps. Moreover, the results show that these local officials lack institutional capacity and knowledge of disaster management. This is evident in the way they emphasise maintaining emergency budgets, giving information on dam levels with no actions recommended, the organising of relocation camps and keeping of emergency equipment, without referring to planning or mitigation for future flooding. Their responses indicate the emphasis placed on emergency management and a lack of planning to reduce the effects of the Efundja on the people. Therefore, it is necessary to build institutional capacity for the local-level disaster risk management officials to empower them to take the leading role in disaster risk reduction at local levels. It is hence important to equip them to be able to initiate, lead and sustain community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM) programmes. They are the people closest to disaster-related problems taking place in communities, making them the best vehicle to establish and execute long- term solutions to risk reduction. This implies that local and traditional authorities are indispensable components in establishing and maintaining disaster resilient communities. The entity responsible for overall national Efundja response is the national-level disaster risk management officials. The national response is based on the national disaster risk management framework which is stipulated in the national policy on di saster risk management and the National Act No.10 of 2012 on disaster risk management. Although this framework stipulates various proactive measures, it is not appropriately implemented throughout the affected area. It displays a top-down response centred on key government decision-makers coordinating other employees in order to provide swift relief aid and temporary shelter to the affected communities. In theory, the framework describes the recommended disaster risk management and disaster risk reduction responses to disasters; however, what is practised and implemented on the ground seems to be emergency response management. The overall response approach is less focused on the affected communities, their views or their way of responding to Efundja and more concerned with evacuating them out of the Efundja zone during flooding season. The affected communities play no role at any level and their views or opinions are not considered on any platform nor do they contribute to the national disaster risk management framework. Therefore, the present study identified an urgent need for the full implementation of the existing disaster risk reduction framework in order to minimise the negative impacts of the Efundja, and the inclusion of the views of the local communities in developing a better, more proactive disaster management framework. The proactive disaster risk reduction framework developed from the results of this study recommends the development of community-based risk awareness programmes, the strengthening of early warning systems and dissemination of information thereof, active participation by community members in improving disaster response and mitigation strategies, and empowerment of local headmen and local-level disaster risk management officials. Further recommendations include the need to secure a funding mechanism for the implementation of further risk reduction programmes and capacity building for all disaster risk management units. By implementing these recommendations, the current disaster risk reduction framework can be improved to ensure sustainable, proactive, disaster risk reduction and mitigation in the Cuvelai-Etosha basin.
- ItemSuccess and failure along the Modder River during the Anglo-Boer War : the influence of terrain(Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2014) Smit, H. A. P.; Janse van Rensburg, H. S.The influence of terrain on military operations is a well-known and well-researched topic. In a South African context, the body of literature about this topic is, however, not as well developed. This article strives to make a contribution to literature about South African battles and the influence of terrain on the outcome of such battles. During the Anglo Boer War (1899–1902), two important battles were fought along the Modder River. The first of these battles is known as the Battle of Modder River or Twee Riviere (Two Rivers, if directly translated from Afrikaans), while the other is known as the Battle of Paardeberg.2 These battles were fought in close proximity to one another, both in distance and time. The terrain of the battlefields played a key role in both engagements. This article suggests that the spatial arrangement of the koppies (hills) and the fact that they were much closer to the Boer laager at Paardeberg than at the battle of Modder River played a key role in Cronje’s surrender to the British.
- ItemTerrain analysis in the course curricula of the South African Army Engineer Corps(Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2014) Lodi, K. P.; Smit, H. A. P.; Ayirebi, G. K.The research reported here examined the engineer occupational course curricula presented by the South African Army School of Engineers. Methodology involved examination of all enabling learning objectives for the Corps Training Course (701 ENGR 006), the Troop Officers Course (701 ENGR 103), the Troop Commanders Course (701 ENGR 16) and the Squadron Commanders Course (701 ENGR 17). The research determined the number of learning objectives dedicated to terrain analysis and whether those learning objectives were linked to an assessment to determine competency levels for terrain analysis. The study used content analysis to determine the presence of terrain analysis content in the course curricula and to make recommendations. Data have been collected from analysis of the first four occupational course curricula presented to officers of the Engineer Corps as mentioned above, books, army field manuals and occasional papers. Recommendations are that the learning objectives dedicated to terrain analysis should be expanded and better focused and that assessment instruments capable of measuring competency in terrain analysis should be created and/or improved. An additional recommendation is that exercises are needed during the occupational courses that require officers to assimilate the effect of terrain on operations in order to improve officers’ terrain analysis competencies. This will serve as an important assessment instrument that will improve development of officers’ skills and earn them experience, not just grades.
- ItemThe tip of the iceberg : spatio-temporal patterns of marine resource confiscations in the Table Mountain National Park(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-03) Brill, Gregg Clifford; Ferreira, S. L. A.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Geography and Environmental Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the scale of marine poaching in the Table Mountain National Park by analysing the amounts of South African abalone, West Coast rock lobster, and shellfish, finfish and bait species confiscated from fishers operating in the park’s marine protected area between 2000 and 2009. The research objectives were fourfold, namely to strengthen conceptual frameworks on illegal harvesting in protected areas; identify the quantities of the various species seized by park officials over the decadal period; cartographically plot the areas in which confiscations took place; and distinguish the different resource users and stakeholders operating in the park and examine the roles they play in resource exploitation. Data was collected from offence logbooks maintained by SANParks rangers and managers, and from records kept by Marine and Coastal Management and the South African Police Services. GIS outputs indicated seizure events over the spatial area of the park. Further data relating to the levels of poaching was sourced from illegal fishers operating in the park who discussed their operations candidly. The research findings indicate that poaching of both abalone and rock lobsters has increased significantly over time. Other marine species show lesser amounts of resources poached over the ten-year period. Spatial outcomes suggest that confiscations of abalone occur predominantly on the east coast of the park, while higher seizure events occur on the west coast for lobsters. Shellfish, finfish and bait species were confiscated in equal amounts from illegal fishers on both the east and west coasts. Future research recommended includes garnering further confiscations data from the police services and undertaking contemporary baseline assessments to discover the effects poaching has had on the resource base since the previous stock assessment in 2001. The challenge laid out for the custodians of the Table Mountain National Park marine protected area is to provide and protect cultural and environmental resources, without compromising biodiversity management, community associations and conservation strategies.
- ItemTowards a learning analytics reference framework to predict at-risk students at the Faculty of Military Science(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Pretorius, Andre; Khoza, Lindiwe Mhaka; Dalton, Wayne Owen; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Geospatial Studies and Information Systems.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Learning analytics (LA) is a relatively new field of application in the Analytics domain. Its main aim is to analyse teaching and learning (T&L) data from various sources to provide users with insights towards improving T&L. One of these T&L improvements is a greater focus on student success and more accurate methods of limiting student failure. This process starts with the identification of students at risk of failure (so-called “at-risk” students) through a prediction methodology which commonly falls within the knowledge sphere of Artificial Intelligence (AI), more specifically Machine Learning (ML). In contemporary information systems, the supporting platform for this is provided by an LA information system (LAIS) that relies on an underlying virtual learning environment (VLE), which in turn uses T&L data from a learning management system (LMS). A reference framework (RF) establishes a common foundation for future implementation of a system for developers and users. It provides appropriate guidance to users in a specific field of knowledge. Guidance is, however, generic in nature to secure reusability. This research focussed on developing an RF to implement LA in the Faculty of Military Science (FMS) of Stellenbosch University (SU) for at-risk student identification. The RF is supported by five models and one framework, namely, (1) a pedagogical model, (2) a model for effective VLEs, (3) a model for LA implementation, (4) a model for at-risk student identification and (5) a framework for the ethical use of LA. It is the conclusion of the study that the RF for LA in the FMS will provide suitable guidance for future implementation of LA in the faculty to effect timely identification of at-risk students and fitting remedial actions towards greater throughput may be implemented. It is envisioned that this RF be validated in the FMS in the near future and that future research in the use of ML be extended to identify suitable indicators of at-risk students more accurately.