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- ItemAn analysis of the social-economic effects of a water crisis on households in the Western Cape: Evidence from Paarl(2022-12) Joseph, Darren Christopher; Mkhize, Mbekezeli Comfort; Madumi, Phathutshedzo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Water crises affect human beings differently from one country to the next. Many studies have investigated the causes and consequences of water crises, yet the Western Cape’s water crisis remains a serious problem. This study aimed to analyse the socio-economic effects of the Western Cape’s water crisis on households in Paarl. Existing literature, including books, journal articles, conference papers, and Internet articles, was reviewed to gain insight into the phenomenon of water crises. In support of the existing literature, the study employed the qualitative research approach to collect empirical data. Qualitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 20 residents, five municipal officials, and five engineers. Each sample had its own interview guide to gather information from these participants. The study employed the Homer-Dixon environmental scarcity theory and the demand management theory to understand and explain the concept of water crises. The thematic analysis method was used to analyse the qualitative data. The key findings revealed that the water crisis affected all the participants; some had lost their jobs, while others were socially affected. Most respondents believed that the water crisis was caused by a combination of climate change and related and consequent low rainfall, overconsumption, human overpopulation, and water wastage factors. Furthermore, the participants pointed out measures that assisted with managing the water crisis, including water restrictions, increased water tariffs, and water meter monitoring. The respondents also suggested ways how water can be used more sparingly, such as using the same water for multiple purposes and using greywater for non-human consumption purposes, such as watering gardens and filling pools, to name a few. Many of these implemented measures and strategies were successful; however, some residents did not comply and were fined by their municipalities. Participants from across the three cohorts sampled agreed that drilling boreholes, recycling water, and building new dams and reservoirs will assist with the stable supply of water in the long term. Furthermore, the engineer participants indicated that the management and maintenance of dams and reservoirs are crucial for storing water. The relevant authorities should upgrade all existing early warning systems and install them in places that are not yet active. These systems should not only be used to indicate pending crises or disasters but should also be used when there is more than enough water to ensure that contingency measures can be taken. The national government should invest more funds in water desalination plants so that seawater can be made safe for human consumption. Local municipalities should constantly remind the public of water-saving methods to decrease domestic consumption. This should be communicated to all stakeholders to secure buy-in from all affected parties. Further investigation is needed on how regional or local water crises influence both national and local economies. The water crisis in the Western Cape has had a significant impact on the local agricultural sector, which, in turn, influenced the country’s economy. Mitigative measures and solutions require urgent investigation, such as finding a more affordable seawater desalination process.
- ItemCritical analysis of the oversight role of the Education Portfolio Committee in Parliament of South Africa(AOSIS, 2015) Manona, W. W.There is a prevalent assumption in South Africa that Parliament is guided by the ideals of democracy, accountability, transparency and accessibility. However, there are still gaps and challenges as far as theoversight role of Parliament is concerned, despite the presence of committees that have been established to oversee the executive and relevant structures of government, government activities and public finances. There is widespread maladministration and misuse of government expenditure in government departments. This paper investigates the oversight role of parliamentary committees to determine their relative influence on accountability and democracy in the execution of functions by public functionaries. The aim of the paper is to provide an understanding into inherent problems in the oversight role of Parliament in the democratic dispensation in South Africa, which seems not to have been given serious attention in the academia, considering the pivotal role Parliament plays in the lives of citizens of the country. These oversight committees have selectively held Senior Executives or Ministers accountable for their ineffectiveness, misuse of government expenditure and maladministration. This could be attributed to the fact that oversight in South Africa does not seem to be properly understood and implemented as it should be. Moreover, the influence of the majoritarian authority of the ruling party in committees seems to be colluding with the executive. Failure to take action against cases of omission brings questions on the effectiveness and efficiency of the oversight role of Parliament. The adverse consequence is the delay in the provision of good quality services to poor communities. This paper employed the theoretical approach as a method of data collection. Conclusions have been drawn that the shortcomings of the parliamentary committees compromise accountability and good governance in service delivery.
- ItemA critical analysis of the role of cooperatives in enhancing the socio-economic developments of Chris Hani District Municipality(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-12) Gotyi, Zamikhaya Gladwell; Theletsane, Kula Ishmael; Erasmus, W DENGLISH ABSTRACT: The inclusion of cooperatives in the country’s major development frameworks is a declaration of the government’s confidence in their ability to enhance socio-economic development. Given the conviction, this study was conducted primarily to establish the extent to which cooperatives have enhanced the socio-economic development of poor communities; also to analyse the role of legislation in developing cooperatives; to identify factors that facilitate or impede the development of cooperatives, and lastly; to formulate a framework that can improve the functionality and sustainability of cooperatives. The Chris Hani District Municipality (CHDM) was used as the research site from which a diverse sample of 254 purposively selected state officials, cooperative members, and community members was assembled. Data from the sample was collected by focus groups and in-depth individual interviews. Effectively, the study has used data triangulation in the collection of data and interpretivist thematic content analysis to analyse it. The findings of the study established that cooperatives indeed contribute to socio-economic development. Poor communities use cooperatives for job creation, income generation, poverty alleviation, food security, crime reduction, and community empowerment. Apart from this positive finding, the study has also revealed that the legislation specifically promulgated to support cooperative development is poorly implemented. State institutions meant to implement these laws are reluctant to do so. Moreover, the study has identified a myriad of factors that impede the performance of cooperatives in socio-economic development. Together with poor implementation of the legislation, these factors debilitate the performance of cooperatives and result to their underdevelopment. Overall, this study has established that poor state support is the major factor that hinders the performance of cooperatives in socio-economic development. Based on this finding, the research recommends a comprehensive and integrated support programme as the conceptual framework by which state support should be provided to cooperatives to improve their performance in socio-economic development.
- ItemDeveloping a conceptual model for transformation at the South African Military Academy : the Ubuntu approach(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2007-12) Theletsane, Kula Ishmael; Jansen van Rensburg, J. L.; Walters, A. N.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The initial conceptual framework for transformation proposes the context (why), the content (what), and the process (how) as three dimensions of transformation that are always present. A distinction is made between external and internal triggers of transformation, and information is provided on the challenges posed by, among others, the knowledge society, globalisation, and changing market conditions that require companies to become learning organisations staffed by empowered knowledge workers. Literature study on transformation clearly shows that transformation brings about change. There are different models on transformation and this shows that there are different approaches to transformation. Ubuntu should be introduced as a way forward for the South African Military Academy (SAMA) to deal with transformation issues. Ubuntu is more concern about the wellbeing of the people and their morale during and after transformation has been implemented. Subsequently, a conceptual model for transformation is proposed in which generic elements of the “why”, “what”, and “how” dimensions are included. The SAMA model is developed to fit the scope of a conceptual model, and to be in line with what is generally proposed in the literature for organisations that want to transform in order to become market leaders and enhance long-term goals. Conclusions drawn from the ongoing SAMA transformation process are that its aims and principles are not in line with what appears to be required in creating an innovative learning organisation. With regard to the “how” of transformation, it is found that improvement is still needed to the processes to change attitudes, mindsets, and styles on the part of managers as well as employees that might inhibit empowerment and stifle creativity and innovation.
- ItemThe economic value of the Port of Cape Town for the Western Cape economy(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1999-12) Smith, Annerine; Floor, B. C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. Dept. of Accounting & Auditing-Military Management-Economics.ENGLISH SUMMARY: The Port of Cape Town is one of the six commercial ports in South Africa and serves a large natural hinterland which covers the entire Western Cape as well as an economic hinterland which stretches as far as Gauteng and into Southern Africa. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the economic importance of a port such as the Port of Cape Town to the economic development and growth of a regional economy. The Western Cape economy can be regarded as relatively stable and prosperous with the agricultural sector as one of the most important contributors to the gross regional product. The port as catalyst in international trade contributes significantly to the growth and competitiveness of sectors such as agriculture and other manufacturing industries in the region The importance of the port community in the Port of Cape Town has also been analyzed in its contribution to the creation of employment and the multiplying effect of monies spent by that community. That multiplier effect for the port was calculated at 2,27 while the number of jobs created within the boundaries of the port is estimated at 5305. The Port of Cape Town being a full service port contributes a substantial amount to the region's economy through its "core" business of cargo handling. During 1997 the total value of cargo moving through the Port of Cape Town amounted to R 32,3 billion. However, that contribution is further expanded through ancillary services such as ship repair and the accommodation of fishing fleets and cruise vessels. The Port of Cape Town as a preferred bunker port is also of significance to the port community and the region, which it serves. The conclusion is reached that the economic impact of the activities of the port community on the various sectors in the Western Cape economy is substantial.
- ItemEnablers and constraints women encounter in advancing to senior managerial positions: Case of South African Military Health Institutions in the Western Cape(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Cox, Rashaad; Dalton, Wayne; Khoza, Lindiwe Mhakamuni; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Women to top management positions in the private and public sector in Africa has made good progress. South Africa, in particular, has made notable progress in narrowing the gender gap since 2004. The percentage of women MP’s has increased from 33% in 2004 to 46% in 2019. However, women appear to remain underrepresented on senior management in one of South Africa’s historically male dominated departments, the DOD. The purpose of this case study was to determine the enablers and constraints that women encounter in advancing to managerial positions in Military Health Institutions in the Western Cape. The objectives of the study were to determine the progress made in advancement of women to senior managerial positions in accordance with legislative prescripts; the factors that women experience as enablers in advancing to senior managerial positions; the factors that women experience as constraints in advancing to senior managerial positions; the implications for advancement of women to senior managerial positions for achieving of the strategic objectives of Military Health Institutions. A mixed-method single case study approach was employed to answer the main research question: “What are the enabling and constraining factors women encounter in advancing to senior managerial positions” Qualitative data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, open-ended questionnaires and through SANDF document analysis. Biographic and background information collected through close-ended questions in the research questionnaire and interviews, personnel post profiles, and Unit post structures sourced from military Units targeted in this study have all been reported as frequency statistics. These sources have been statistically analysed as they emerged from literature as either enablers of, or constraints to women progressing to senior managerial positions. The total population for this study consisted of 113 women officers. But due to Covid-19 regulations, Units worked staggered hours, thus the researcher only managed to reach 67 members, 36 of whom completed the questionnaires. Interviews were conducted with OCs, HODs of Human Resource departments, and RSMs from Military Health Institutions in the Western Cape. The results from different sources were integrated and analysed according to the Micro-individual, Meso-organisational, and Macro socio-cultural levels of the multi-relational framework. It emerged from the results that women are relatively well represented in OIC and HOD positions, but no women to date had held an Officer Commanding (OC) post. Gender equality policies are in place, and it is expected of all organisations and businesses to comply, including the SANDF. Thus, it can be argued that on meso level, the organisation neglected to comply with the legislative prescripts introduced on macro level. Compliance with legislative prescripts will ensure gender parity and diversity on all senior managerial levels, thus giving women the opportunity to contribute to the strategic objectives of the country, the DOD, and the SANDF. One limitation of the study is the low response rate by participants in the study, which may be attributed to participants’ busy schedule as they were compelled to provide essential services during national Covid-19 pandemic measures. It is recommended that future studies should include one of South Africa’s major Military Health Institutes, 2 Military Hospital in Wynberg, Cape Town, and all women officers in all areas of specialisations, not only the departments identified for this study. Future research should also focus on whether the DOD and SANDF comply with legislative prescripts in terms of gender equality on all managerial levels.
- ItemAn examination of the rationale behind employee turnover in the South African National Defence Force(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Joseph, Rhondine Candice; Erasmus, Willem; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Employee turnover is an ever present challenge faced by many organisations. Military institutions are no exception. Extraordinary employee turnover impacts adversely the general effectiveness of all organisations, including non-profit organisations. Relatively high employee turnover is seen as a routine phenomenon in military working environments. Thus it is often unknown to line managers and commanders why employees decide to either leave the organisation, or stay. While military leadership regard regular and even high levels of employee turnover as a normal phenomenon, it becomes a cause of concern when increasing numbers of military personnel voluntarily withdraw their services from the organisation. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is a public service institution within the Department of Defence (DOD) governed by the South African Constitution and South African law. For this reason, it is constantly reminded of its primary mandate of providing security, yet also called upon for improved and effective service delivery to the public of South Africa. For effective service delivery and overall security of South Africa, the SANDF needs to focus on the retention of their valuable employees. Through maintaining the effectiveness, well-being and satisfaction of its personnel, it will secure retention of the best. Yet, an unusually high percentage of military personnel leave the SANDF prematurely. Therefore, a study was undertaken to determine the reasons why military employees leave the SANDF, and to investigate factors that may contribute to their decisions to leave. Possible retention strategies would also be investigated. The study had a sample size of 160, of which 140 were members still employed in the SANDF, and 20 members who had resigned. A mixed research approach was adopted in this study. Quantitative data were analysed through IBM SPSS, and a thematic coding system was used to analyse qualitative data. The results of the study revealed that military employees make their decision to leave the SANDF based on three primary factors, namely: unfair treatment; incompetent leaders, managers, seniors; and lack of organisational support. Recommendations were made that policy procedures should be adhered to when decisions are made, that leaders, managers and seniors should undergo a screening process before being appointed in critical command posts, and that support systems be implemented to assist military employees feeling compelled by circumstance to leave the organisation.
- ItemExemplary leadership and exemplary teams : unleashing future defence leadership potential(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2003) Mollo, SollyA perusal of leadership literature reflects the relatively vast amount of readily available information about leader development, all lumped under the generic heading of 'leadership training.' Yet, according to the present leadership-training debate, training is but one aspect of leader development. And from this we may deduce that much important work remains to be done on leader-development issues. Particularly so, as leader development is the imperative ingredient if organisations are to maximise the performance of human beings in pursuit of organisational goals.
- ItemExploring the military role in support of development in Southern Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-12) Ramokgadi, Shadrack Baleseng; Theletsane, Kula Ishmael; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Abundant pieces of legislation and policy frameworks exist that link the military role and durable peace, and those that link durable peace and sustainable development. The linkage between the military role and sustainable development is absent in these source documents. The researcher submits that this “absence” constitutes both a theoretical and a policy-based gap that demands the attention of the policy practitioners and scholars in Public Administration. In attempting to close this gap, this study begins with the fundamental concepts that emerged from the literature review. Among others, they include regional administration and defence administration that led to the formulation of regional defence administration (RDA) as a higher-order construct. The concepts “operations other than war” (OOTW) and “operational activities for development” (OAD) led to the formulation of “military operational activities for development” (MOAD). In theorising the concept of MOAD, this study seeks to close the identified gaps. In closing this gap, this study depended on the grounded theory and methodological analysis using case studies selected from Southern Africa. The theoretical sampling method was used to generate data from various databases using three key terms, namely the military role, durable peace, and sustainable development. In analysing and synthesising the emerging data, the study focused on the most common words, utterances, concepts, properties, and categories to formulate the higher-order constructs. Furthermore, the study borrowed from biological studies to juxtapose the “unknown” with the “known” for purposes of theory building. In doing so, the study borrowed from systems thinking, biomimicry, metaphorical thinking, tensegrity systems, design by analogy to biology, and the theory of biological compressions and tensions. These theories assisted the researcher to establish the interdependence of civilian and military organisations that respond to worldwide complex emergencies. In doing so, the researcher argues that rapid responses and effective interventions in managing complex emergencies are a step in achieving the long-term Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is on the basis of this theoretical line of argument that the study establishes the military role in support of development.
- ItemExploring the resource management challenges that prompted the South African Military Health Services to outsource(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-12) Bhembe, Michaeline; Mkhize, Comfort; Ramokgadi, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: There is a growing body of research that confirms that organisations often resort to outsourcing when they are experiencing resource management challenges. Outsourcing is mainly used as a cost-saving strategy. While this is done primarily by the private and public sectors, military organisations are increasingly using outsourcing as a better option. While little (or no substantive) research has been conducted in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) regarding the rationale behind outsourcing, no specific research has focused on why the South African Military Health Service (SAMHS) decided to outsource healthcare services. Against this backdrop, this study seeks to bridge this knowledge gap. The purpose of the study is to explore the resource management challenges that prompted SAMHS to outsource healthcare services. The study employed administrative management theory, resource dependency theory, and privatization theory to explain why organisations resort to outsourcing. The study adopted a qualitative explorative and descriptive design to conduct the research involving an intense literature review to collect data. Multiple methods were used to collect data such as information in the archives, books, online journals, government gazette, policy documents and available relevant documents from SANDF to obtain quality data, was conducted. Content analysis was used to analyse the data that was collected from primary and secondary sources. The findings reveal that a lack of management skills and governance led to mismanagement of resources and the cause for outsourcing of healthcare services by the SAMHS. Non-compliance with the policies and the legislative framework by managers led to resource management challenges. The SAMHS did not outsource healthcare services as a cost-saving strategy, but mainly because of a lack of resources and specialised skills to carry out its duties. The conclusions show that the outsourcing of healthcare services can be used by the SAMHS to save costs as it has been used and recommended by other health organisations. The establishment of measures and processes for implementation and control is important in the management of contracts between organisations and service providers to ensure that quality services are provided. This study recommends that all managers in managerial positions at all levels in the SANDF and SAMHS organisations should possess management qualifications, skills, knowledge, capability, and experience. This will ensure that the management of all resources is implemented cost-effectively so healthcare service delivery does not suffer. The refurbishment of the facilities should be completed so that the outsourcing of services can be minimised. The SANDF and SAMHS should adhere to procurement processes when purchasing equipment and medical supplies to avoid irregular expenditure. Lastly, there must be strict adherence to all the legal frameworks that specify how patient care should be managed and provided to the patients, as well as how the responsibilities of healthcare service providers, including managers of healthcare organisations, should be practiced. Finally, the study suggests that future research (preferably field research) should be conducted in this field.
- ItemFactors influencing work satisfaction of single parents in the South African National Defence Force : an exploratory study(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2019) Matjeke, Kgomotso T.; Van Dyk, G. A. J.There has been a documented increase in single-parent families over the years. Various causes, such as divorce, death, irresponsible fathers and choice, to mention but a few, contribute to this increase. Since 2005, the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) has been partaking in various peacekeeping missions on the continent. The deployment of the SANDF is, however, not limited to cross-border activities. The SANDF also deploys its soldiers within the country in border control operations. While some soldiers are deployed within and outside the borders of the country, others remain in the home bases to continue with daily tasks. These soldiers usually work from 08:00–16:00, Monday to Friday. There are instances, however, where they need to work beyond the normal working hours and over weekends to participate in training exercises or even as a result of being deployed. Because of their single-parent status, these soldiers face inherent military challenges as well as role-related ones, which may influence their work satisfaction. The research reported here aimed to investigate the relationships between stress, work–family conflict, social support and work–family enrichment (WFE) in terms of work satisfaction of single parents in the SANDF.
- ItemGovernance and public sector transformation in South Africa : reporting and providing assurance on service delivery information(AOSIS, 2013) Roos, MariaanReporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3)(a). The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2) (c). The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the implementation thereof in South Africa. The aim through deploying these set objectives is to formulate possible future considerations for improved governance. As central part of the methodology, review of literature on reporting and audit of non-financialwas conducted. The research included scrutiny of the different philosophies and approaches adopted by different countries to the reporting and providing assurance on service delivery information. In this respect, the research reflects a comparative element. In South Africa the Auditor-General adopted a phasing-in approach. The development of the audit approach and audit procedures has reached a stable stage, nine years after the initial process started. The audit of performance information now forms an integral part of the regularity audit process. The analysis of audit findings of the period under study indicates a considerable improvement once initiated, but stagnation persists in subsequent years. Numerous challenges remain around the application of performance reporting in South Africa including non-compliance, the lack of sufficient and appropriate audit evidence, inconsistencies between the various strategic documents and the need to improve the usefulness of performance information. In conclusion the article proposes some steps to address the challenges.
- ItemThe influence of the business environment on Botswana’s public procurement process and its impact on military(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-03) Rasetshwane, Bushy Simon; Theletsane, Kula Ishmael; Stellenbosch University. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: While limited literature on public procurement exists, not much research has been conducted on how the influence of the business environment on public procurement has impacted on military capability in Botswana. The limited literature has only concentrated on reforms, without much emphasis on evaluating the impact on military capability. In attempting to close this gap, this thesis thoroughly explains the concept of public procurement based on the existing literature. Of importance are the legislative and policy frameworks in Botswana in which public procurement is conducted, as well as their implications for defence procurement. In formulating the possible best practice for defence procurement in Botswana, international perspectives were evaluated,which culminated in a regional perspective of conducting defence procurement. This study sought to address the question:“What needs to be done to ensure a prompt and efficient defence force,while being dependent on public procurement that exists in a complex business environment characterised by a bureaucratic system?” In answering this question, this study contributes to addressing the existing deficiency in the literature, as well as contributing a solution to an existing practical problem.This was a qualitative study in approach, case study by design, and an exploratory study by purpose. The study used interviews with a non-statistical expert purposive sampling technique, as well as document analysis. A deductive approach to data analysis and interpretation was adopted through the application of the systems theory and systems thinking approach as major theories. These were augmented with the organisational buying behaviour and dialectical theories. As the analysis was deductive in approach, the elements of systemic structures as derived from the iceberg model were applied for coding. The study concluded that Botswana’s defence procurement requires total structural reforms, which include proper placement of the procurement function, engagement of civil professionals, the development of a security and defence policy, as well as developing a procurement model that will be in line with striking a balance between defence spending and national development goals in line with the current Fourth Industrial Revolution debate.
- ItemIs the quality of governance a good pointer to the general economic health of the country?(Lifescience Global, 2019) Madumi, P.Good governance is believed to be instrumental in facilitating an environment for sustainable economic growth, especially for developing countries. It is no surprise that there is a growing public interest in the interplay of political and economic systems in South Africa. The chief concern is that the country is plagued by a couple of economic challenges such as sluggish gross domestic product (GDP) growth, poverty, lack of service delivery, poor financial management, weak business confidence, massive unemployment, and corruption are threats to the economic growth. It is generally believed that good governance would minimize persistent ills of the economy and ultimately pave the way for restoring economic growth. But is the quality governance the principal stimulus of a country’s economic growth? This is the chief questions which this article will attempt to answer. Based on the good governance and neoclassical growth theory, and good governance theory, this article seeks to analyse and evaluates the impact of the quality of governance on the growth of the economy in South Africa.
- ItemKnowledge management for the South African Department of Defence(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2018-12) Putter, Andries Petrus; Theletsane, Kula Ishmael; Jansen Van Rensburg, Johannes Lodewikus; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Organisation and Resource Management. Dept. of Management [Mil]ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to respond to the limited stock of knowledge about military Knowledge Management (KM) and specifically South African Department of Defence (SA DOD) KM. A world in the knowledge era, struggling with data/information saturation, requires KM as an advantage driver and multiplier. The SA DOD is still entrenched in the information era, practising information management as a primary enabler for decision-making, action, effects and advantage. The SA DOD does not seem interested in KM as a primary advantage driver. The research problem and aim of this dissertation are to clarify the extent to which coherent and integrated KM will be beneficial to the SA DOD and what SA DOD KM fundamentals are. The research scope is inclusive of a broad literature review and documents analysis of both the published material on USA military KM and SA DOD legislation and policy, supplemented with questionnaires to a selected sample of SA DOD senior managers. The researcher has a relativist worldview (ontological assumption), calibrated with a constructivist paradigm, favouring a qualitative research methodology and case study research approach/design that will render the rich description of the phenomenon using techniques such as questionnaires and document analysis. A deductive reasoning approach and case study research design was used to structure the research. Document analysis was the primary research method. The secondary research method was questionnaire data collection and analysis to provide insight into the level of interest in KM by the SA DOD and possibly supporting evidence to the findings of the document analysis. The combination of the research philosophy, methodology, design, and methods assisted the researcher in the quest to extract new meaning and propose new solutions for consideration by the SA DOD. A universal definition void for knowledge and KM remains a practical challenge for organisations and a major obstacle to coherence and integration. Literature and business recognise the importance of KM as an advantage multiplier. Even military organisations such as the United States of America (USA) military recognise the importance if KM. The USA military is currently a military KM leader. In contrast, the SA DOD does not recognise the advent of the knowledge era and the importance of KM yet. The SA DOD’s disinterest in KM is based principally on the analysis of legislative, policy and doctrine voids; leadership aspects; information era entrenchment; various levels of misunderstanding; KM policy and doctrine vacuum; and extensive construct dissonance. It is imperative that the SA DOD adopt knowledge era thinking and practice supporting survival and advantage. As a lead department in RSA securing national security, the SA DOD should lead the RSA government in a transition to the knowledge era and KM. Knowledge and KM are fundamental to organisational survival, gaining and sustaining advantage and as enablers to decisions, actions and effects. Public service organisations’, such as the SA DOD, KM motives are typically related to effectiveness and efficiency, economies and risk mitigation. To cope with a world saturated by ubiquitous knowledge continuum artefacts, complexity, and discontinuous change; and fundamental to the decision, action, effect enablers and advantage a KM Capability (KMC) and coherent and integrated KM are recommended by this dissertation for the SA DOD (and probably the entire SA government). SA DOD knowledge is defined by this dissertation as evolving meaning in the form of intellectual capital (IC) that capacitate understanding, decision-making, action, effect and advantage. SA DOD KM is defined by this dissertation as the integrated process transforming organisational IC into evolving meaning to capacitate understanding, decision-making, action, effect and advantage. These definitions are fundamental to a future SA DOD KMC and KM. The dissertation proposes the expansion of KM to Knowledge Continuum Management; within the framework of acknowledging knowledge as a continuum and supporting the continuous requirement for integrated management of divergent approaches, processes and enablers. The dissertation argues for the review of current legislation and the Defence Review 2015 for alignment with the knowledge era. The dissertation argues further for coherent use of constructs such as leadership, IC, capstone military knowledge categories, types of SA DOD knowledge, KM leadership philosophy, and a knowledge continuum (amongst others). Recognition is required for the time-value of the knowledge continuum artefacts, discrepancies in SA DOD policy, doctrine and existing military capability expressions and knowledge security (amongst several others). This should illustrate the importance of knowledge and KM and to recommend possible solutions to a future SA DOD KMC and KM implementation.
- ItemThe management of information inside the general support base concept of the South African National Defence Force(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-12) Bester, Christoffel; La Grange, J. F.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Managing any government institution has become increasingly complicated as the requirements for accountability; streamlined operations and greater flexibility have multiplied. As effective and efficient management becomes more complex and the demands of constant change are more insistent, consequently the role of information as an organisational resource assumes greater importance for management on all levels inside the organisation. Management relies heavily on information to thrive. The value of information is derived from the actions that managers take as a result of using information. Information management consumes a large portion of any organisations finite resources and it would be to the benefit of the South African National Defence Force to achieve goal congruence between the information management objectives and the organisational objectives. If information is to be viewed as a resource of comparable importance to staff assets, and finance it must be procured and managed as purposefully as any other resource. Information can be seen as a strategic resource for any organisation and must be managed accordingly. The Public Service Act, Act 103 of 1994, which classifies information as a strategic resource for the public sector, confirms this. The formal information management strategy of the Department of Defence must therefore enable the information systems of the South African National Defence Force to support the military and business objectives of the Department of Defence. This strategy specifies how an organisation matches its scares resources and capabilities with the opportunities in the environment to accomplish its objectives. The structure of the South African National Defence Force, before transformation, was centralised and structured into vertical silos. The current information systems in use are therefore functionally orientated supporting the centralised structure (vertical silos). Transformation restructured the South African National Defence Force into a more integrated forces concept (general support base concept), suggesting emphasis on co-operation, joint planning and joint operations. The management of information must move away from the islands and silos towards an integrated and shared environment that enables the integration of information amongst the integrated forces of the organisation. This joint engagement strategy places certain requirements on the resource information to enable it to support the military and business strategy of the Department of Defence. The South African National Defence Force is moving unavoidably closer to an accountability framework based on transparency and compliance with legislation and regulations. An integral part of this framework is the requirements to provide clear and unambiguous evidence of how and why decisions are made. If managers and commanders are going to be more accountable, information must be available to assist them in decision-making and control. With the introduction of the Public Finance Management Act and the Promotion of Access to Information Act, the ability to adhere to the requirements of accountability and responsibility has become a necessity. Relevant and timely information for decision-making and control purposes therefore must be provided to managers and commanders to assist them in decision-making and control. In its present state the available architecture of the information systems of the South African National Defence Force is inadequate to provide the required information for decision-making and control purposes. The information management practices including the information systems therefore must be improved to ensure adherence to the requirements of accountability and responsibility. This study is directed towards the improvement of the quality of information provided by the information systems of the Department of Defence to assist commanders and managers in decision-making and the provision of information for control purposes inside the general support base concept of the SANDF. This improvement can only be achieved by changing budget priorities to ensure a higher priority on information technology across the organisation. Failure to improve the information management practices will result in the ineffective execution of the defence strategies.
- ItemMilitary leadership development : a model for the SA National Defence Force(Stellenobsch University, Faculty of Military Science, 2012) Erasmus, Willem D.; Uys, FrederikThe result of this article is an alternative model for leadership character development in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The SANDF reflects the racial and cultural diversity of South Africa as a nation. The need for a unifying leadership related mechanism, which will provide for the military milieu in which humane leadership development will flourish, is evident. This statement is based on the premise that no evidence was found that any previous efforts by the SANDF to instil a leadership philosophy or policy as a way of military life was successful. The model also addresses further shortcomings in the current SANDF leadership development model as the selection process of officer candidates needs improvement because political guidance and participation in the development of military leaders are absent. Officer formative training consequently reflects emaciated attention to the development of the character side of leaders, and the SANDF has no military leadership institution to ensure that its leadership development policies and practices are based on sound academic research.
- ItemOptimal objective achievement via balance of control(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-10) Pienaar, Gideon Johannes; La Grange, J. F.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. Dept. of Military Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Organisations need assurance that strategy is executed as planned and objectives are met, when matching organisational capabilities with the opportunities in the market. Control can give management such an assurance and is ultimately the responsibility of management. It is not however only management that may be interested with proper control in an organisation, all stakeholders wants some degree and form of control to safeguard their interest in an organisation. Management has a daunting task on their hands to ensure an organisation achieve its objectives as effectively, efficiently and economically as possible, while keeping all stakeholders informed and happy. Vast amounts of resources will be used to achieve objectives and management needs to strike a balance between protection of these resources and empowering employees to utilise these resources. A balance between the control systems over the different resources must also be in place. Management needs to have a balanced focus regarding the measurement of activities and behaviour relating to specific objectives, due to the time, cost, quality and innovation effects of control systems. A balance between costs and benefits of control systems must also be obtained. Control needs to be integrated as part of the management process to ensure optimal achievement of objectives. A holistic approach towards control and the usage of a sound control environment combined with relevant, organisational specific control systems that are flexible can ensure balance of control. All employees of an organisation have control responsibilities and must give inputs in the control process. Employees must view control as an aid and not as a stumbling block, when trying to achieve objectives. Management must be empowered and empower employees to have the relevant knowledge regarding control and control systems that can be used, when to use them and how to use them. These control systems must be continuously improved to ensure sustained, optimal achievement of objectives.
- ItemPerceptions of corporate social responsibility and its influence on customer behaviour in White City, Saldanha(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-12) Nkwanyana, Nqobizizwe Agostina; Mkhize, Mbekezeli Comfort; Khoza, Lindiwe Mhaka; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have been conducted on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and customers’ responses to businesses’ CSR activities around the globe. Currently, such studies are increasingly being refined in order to identify customers’ perceptions of CSR activities, and how these perceptions can be influenced. Most of these studies have focused on high-income communities in Western countries. However, the ability to generalise the results and apply the recommendations to low- to medium-income communities within developing countries remains questionable. Theory and empirical research have shown that the most immediate predecessors of CSR engagement are positive media publicity, reputation, and tax savings from businesses’ perspective. Although the literature indicates that there are benefits of engaging in CSR activities, several challenges also exist, namely high costs demands, lack of broad support by society, and lack of social skills. Against this backdrop, this study aimed, as its primary objective, to examine the effects that CSR activities have on customers’ buying behaviour in White City, Saldanha. It is hypothesised in this study that there is a functional dependency between CSR and customer behaviour. To understand and explain the effects of CSR activities on customer behaviour, the study employed four theories, namely the stakeholder theory, legitimacy theory, contractarian theory, and agency theory. The study employed a quantitative research design as its research approach. The sample comprised 311 participants from White City recruited through random sampling. These participants were all employed, receiving income within low- to medium-income brackets, and were all residents of White City. The instrument that was used to collect data was a closed-ended questionnaire developed by the researcher. Reliability and dimensionality analysis were conducted by means of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 25). The instrument was found to be reliable based on the acceptable Cronbach’s alpha percentages, as posited by Nunnally (1978) and Pallant (2011). Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for both the independent variable (CSR activities) and the dependent variable (customer behaviour). The results of the study indicated that White City customers indeed consider a business’ CSR activities when making a buying decision and perceive CSR activities as good practices conducted by businesses. They were, however, neutral about their buying behaviour being dependent on CSR activities. The results of this study provide important insights for managers of businesses that operate in communities with low- to medium-income earners on how to embark on and benefit from CSR activities. The nine-phase CSR model was developed to enable CSR activities’ benefits for both businesses and customers in the future. The study recommends that businesses in low- to medium-income areas should engage in CSR for future sustainable growth and should also consider price fairness. Due to the fact that the study was conducted in a specific setting (White City, Saldanha), the results cannot be generalised to other areas. Future research could include other municipalities in the Western Cape province or other provinces in South Africa.
- ItemPerceptions of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the operational capability of the infantry section(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004-12) Van Niekerk, Paul Michael; Daniels, P. I.; Van Wyk, B. F.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. Dept. of Military Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: HIV/AIDS is spreading through Africa in epidemic proportions. Hundreds and thousands of people are infected on a daily basis. This pandemic destroys the emotional and physical strength of individuals. In Sub-Saharan Africa there is an estimated 28,1 million people living with HIV/AIDS. The military forces of Africa are not immune to this. Growing concern has shifted the focus of HIV/AIDS to the armed forces because they generally have higher levels of HIV/AIDS than the civilian population. Within the military it is critical that HIV/AIDS be managed in a manner that retards the spread of the virus as well as the negative impact that it has. The cornerstone of combat efficiency within the SANDF is its infantry section, a group of people forming the basis for the rest of the operational force structure that is deployed within an operational area. The deployment areas are dangerous and unstable and are conducive to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When forces are deployed within the operational area, they forge a bond built on trust, loyalty and a confidence in each other's work capability. HIV/AIDS impacts on this capability and results in an environment characterised by low morals, discrimination and stigma. The important element is to make soldiers aware of the implications of HIV/AIDS, and the perceptions that exist about people living with the disease. The success lies in the correct management in terms of prevention and protection. A clear understanding of the disease is the most important element in starting an effective prevention programme. People have to understand that HIV/AIDS is not only a medical problem, but also has far-reaching social and security implications. It not only affects the infected but also their families, relatives and friends. The infection has an enormous social impact that should not be underestimated. If left unchecked, HIV/AIDS will cripple the SANDF. implications. It not only affects the infected but also their families, relatives and friends. The infection has an enormous social impact that should not be underestimated. If left unchecked, HIV/AIDS will cripple the SANDF.