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- Item3D simulation of incompressible Poiseuille flow through 180° curved duct of square cross-section under effect of thermal buoyancy(Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2019-08-04) Mokeddem, Mourad; Laidoudi, Houssem; Makinde, Oluwole Daniel; Bouzit, MohamedIn this paper, three-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out to investigate and analyze the gradual effects of thermal buoyancy strength on laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid and heat transfer rate inside a 180° curved channel of square cross-section. The governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy balance are obtained and solved numerically using finite volume method. The effect of Dean number, De, and Richardson number, Ri, on dimensionless velocity profiles and Nusselt number are examined for the conditions: De = 125 to 150, Ri = 0 to 2 at Pr = 1. The mean results are illustrated in terms of streamline and isotherm contours to interpret the flow behaviors and its effect on heat transfer rate. Dimensionless velocity profiles and the local Nusselt number at the angle 0° and 90° are presented and discussed. Also, the average Nusselt number on surfaces of curved duct is computed. The obtained results showed that by adding thermal buoyancy to computed domain, some early Dean vortices are observed at the angle 0° and new sort are observed at 90°. Furthermore, increase in Dean number increases the heat transfer rate. In other hand, increase in Richardson number decreases the average Nusselt number of 180° curved duct.
- ItemAccolades and albatrosses : the South African National Defence Force's centenary and the commemoration of milestones in South African military history(Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2012) Visser, DeonPeoples, societies, institutions and other entities frequently record their histories in terms of successive epochs, and commemorate those histories according to perceived milestones or turning points in their development. Since much of human history has been dominated by strife and warfare, national and international milestones are frequently embedded in notions of a military past. Milestones in military history may be divided into three broad categories, namely those representing significant strides in the evolution of warfare, those associated with bravery, heroic sacrifice and great loss, and those of decisive political importance. Defence forces in general, and individual military units in particular, are extremely conscious of their past and often commemorate milestones through customs, traditions, and splendid parades and ceremonial displays. This year (2012), the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) celebrates its centenary against the complex background of South Africa’s long history of internal strife interspaced with participation in foreign conflicts. This article reflects on the commemoration of South Africa’s military history within the context of the divergent historical heritages of the SANDF and its predecessors. It commences with a brief background on memory, identity and the commemoration of history and military history. Thereafter it outlines the commemoration of a few of the foremost milestones in South African military history associated with the evolution of warfare, with bravery, heroic sacrifice and great loss, and with political change within its historical and current context.
- ItemAfrican military geosciences : military history and the physical environment(AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2018) Bezuidenhout, Jacques; Van der Waag, IanThis eight-chapter volume, African Military Geosciences: Military History and the Physical Environment, is a tour-de-force covering nearly 500 years of African military geosciences. It is a truly global book that reveals keen insights into regional, national and international military-forces activities centered in Africa and how the understanding of geosciences plays important roles. It is written for the specialist, but also attractive to the general military buff – well referenced and illustrated with figures from primary sources, historical catalogues and compendia. The publication explores the “age of sail”, harbour defenses, the trafficability of desert environments and marshes, as well as climate controls on sailing or land battles. There is even insight into an elite artillery unit staffed by women during Second World War – essentially covering the whole gamut. Ultimately, the reader explores a nearly 500-year journey around the African continent and beyond.
- ItemThe African Standby Force : Quo Vadis?(AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2017) Vrey, Francois; Mandrup, ThomasStandby forces of the African Union are expected to deploy rapidly into high-intensity conflict zones. Inherently they stem from and are expected to work effectively with regional militaries of differing capabilities. But first, the AU has to muster the political will to deploy the force at all and do it all on a shoestring budget. Vreÿ and Mandrup’s edited volume illuminates through the chapter contributions the breadth of challenging political hurdles that the African Union’s African Standby Force faces. They do this in clear and readable terms. This important book is imperative for anyone seeking to understand the rapid deployment forces on which African states have optimistically pinned the future of their collective security aspirations.
- ItemAirpower in the Union of South Africa's First World War campaign in German South West Africa(Historical Association of South Africa, 2017) Garcia, AntonioDuring the Great War, aircraft were used primarily for reconnaissance and artillery spotting. The Union of South Africa's First World War campaign in German South West Africa (GSWA) allowed for South Africa's first employment of military aeroplanes in conventional warfare. The creation and employment of the South African Aviation Corps (SAAC) within the Union Defence Force (UDF) provided ground forces with a substantial force multiplier in terms of forward reconnaissance. The aerial reconnaissance allowed General Louis Botha and his subordinate commanders to gain a better understanding of the tactical picture and facilitated the battle concept. This paper discusses the role and impact of aerial operations during the GSWA campaign. The campaign was characterised by sweeping envelopments which were executed by the Union's commandos. During the latter part of the campaign aeroplanes provided the UDF with intelligence in terms of the location and concentration of German forces, which assisted in their final encirclement.
- ItemAkademiese steun by die militere akademie : die aanspreek van andershede in die SA Weermag(Faculty of Military Science of Stellenbosch University, 1992) Smith, L. M.Die Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskap is blootgestel aan snelle veranderinge wat noodwendig 'n neerslag vind in die SA Weermag en die Militêre Akademie op Saldanha. Dit is egter nie net die veranderinge wat hul invloed laat geld nie, maar ook die gebeure wat die veranderinge voorafgegaan het. Die Fakulteit Krygskunde aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch (soos enige ander Suid-Afrikaanse tersiëre opleidingsinstansie) moet dus hul taak volvoer met inagneming van 'n buitengewone geskiedenis en die eise van 'n dinamiese toekoms. Studente wat aanmeld vir 'n B. Mil. graad by bogenoemde fakulteit het deel aan sekere gemeenskaplikhede, maar ook andershede wat spruit uit elk se agtergrond. "Andersheid" word omskryf as die persoonlike verskille wat elke individu of groep uniek maak. Dit is belangrik dat die leser kennis neem daarvan dat elke student van gelyke waarde geag word en dat "andersheid" nie sinoniem is vir "minderwaardigheid" nie.
- ItemAll splendid, but horrible : the politics of South Africa's second "Little Bit" and the war on the western front, 1915-1918(Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2012) Van der Waag, IanSouth Africa’s decision to enter the First World War was not easy. After a difficult interplay between Whitehall and Tuinhuis, the Botha government agreed to secure limited strategic objectives in neighbouring German South West Africa. An armed insurrection had to be suppressed first. When both these objects were achieved, and following a further British appeal, South African troops moved further afield. This move, representing South Africa’s second ‘little bit’, was a dangerous step for the Botha government. The despatch of troops to France was controversial. Yet, by the end of 1915, South African expeditionary forces were en route to Europe and East Africa. This paper investigates the political crisis in South Africa and the difficult decision to send troops out of Africa, their deployment in an environment entirely foreign to the South African way of war, and the impact of the Western Front on the drawing of ‘lessons’ by post-war Union authorities.
- ItemAnalysing human resources acquisition in the South African military health service(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-12) Letebele, Pelonomi Clementine; Theletsane, Kula Ishmael; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The SAMHS uses the Military Skills Development System to source candidates to join its ranks, reinforcing the Reserve Force component in contribution to fulfilling the national security mandate, and in fulfilment of its broadened role of socio-economic upliftment. This study focused on the human resource acquisition process in the SAMHS, interrogating the activities and procedures used to identify best talent among potential candidates and assessing its efficacy in aligning acquisition to employment opportunities in the SAMHS. Literature suggests that an effective, efficient and economical human resource plan, drawn within the ambit of relevant policies and guidelines and based on an ideal of professionalising the Force, is essential to facilitate the matching of potential candidates having requisite knowledge, skills, attitude and aptitude, to available organisational opportunities. The study used a convergent parallel mixed method to collect qualitative and quantitative data around the same period, and interpreted the overall results to best understand the situation. A phenomenological research approach was used to interrogate the SAMHS’ human resource acquisition processes. Sampling was done mainly through analysis of various documents to gain insight and enhance understanding of the processes followed by the SAMHS and for comparison with best practice. Qualitative data was further gathered using purposive sampling, by interviewing HR functionaries to supplement data gathered from records and to obtain their perceptions about the acquisition process. The findings portrayed the annual HR acquisition process of the SAMHS as adequate for getting the quantities needed but revealed gaps in processes for soliciting and identifying suitably qualified talents. The SAMHS has further not embraced emerging recruitment and selection trends, such as technologically-based platforms which are cost effective, save time, and have the potential to drastically improve efficiency. In its endeavour to bring about change, the study recommends transformation in the SAMHS’ human resource acquisition process by changing from a predominantly traditional, routine-based process, to evidence-based practice, informed by operational requirements, as well as the SAMHS’ capacity to train and be aligned to the allocated budget. The change would add a dimension of quality to the HR acquisition process, making it a purposeful and intentional process aimed at getting candidates of a specific calibre to benefit the SAMHS in its endeavour to execute its mandate.
- ItemAnalysis of heat transfer in Berman flow of nanofluids with Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and convective cooling(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014-03-31) Makinde, O. D.; Khamis, S.; Tshehla, M. S.; Franks, O.Heat transfer characteristics of a Berman flow of water based nanofluids containing copper (Cu) and alumina (Al2O3) as nanoparticles in a porous channel with Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and convective cooling are investigated. It is assumed that the exchange of heat with the ambient surrounding takes place at the channel walls following Newton’s law of cooling. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity transformations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation methods with series improvement technique and numerically using an efficient Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting scheme.The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop, and Nusselt numbers are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
- ItemAn analysis of the maritime domain governance architecture in Southern Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Mkhonto, David Maningi; Blaine, Mark; Ramokgadi, S. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Security and Africa Studies: Military Strategy.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Southern Africa's maritime domain covers a vast territory which covers 16 seaboard and island state countries in the SADC region. This territory offers numerous blue ocean economy opportunities for these states in their Exclusive Economic Zones. However, in addition to potential blue ocean economy opportunities in this maritime domain, the vastness of the territory exposes these seaboard and island state countries to a number of maritime security threats which are transnational and multidimensional in nature. This causes complexities that could only be best addressed through multilateral and regional cooperative policy architectures. To address the issue of maritime threats and benefit from the blue ocean economic opportunities, a number of agreements have been entered into by different governments in the region. The result has been the signing of approximately nineteen policies. However, the Maritime Domain Centres are not linked and operate independent of each other without coordination. This results in fragmented and duplicated effort and inefficient use of resources. Accordingly, while the potential for developing a regional cooperative architectural regime exists, it is not being realised as the policies agreed on the state level are not being implementation. The criticality of policy coordination through a regional cooperative architectural regime is heightened by an increase in the activities of transnational organized crime within the maritime domain of these Southern African states. Therefore, the need to establish why policies for a coordinated effort agreed on the state level are note being implemented is critical. This research analyses the maritime domain governance architecture in Southern Africa and evaluates the presence of governance architecture, as well as its challenges, implementation, and efficacy.
- ItemAn analysis of the social-economic effects of a water crisis on households in the Western Cape: Evidence from Paarl(2022-12) Joseph, Darren Christopher; Mkhize, Mbekezeli Comfort; Madumi, Phathutshedzo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Water crises affect human beings differently from one country to the next. Many studies have investigated the causes and consequences of water crises, yet the Western Cape’s water crisis remains a serious problem. This study aimed to analyse the socio-economic effects of the Western Cape’s water crisis on households in Paarl. Existing literature, including books, journal articles, conference papers, and Internet articles, was reviewed to gain insight into the phenomenon of water crises. In support of the existing literature, the study employed the qualitative research approach to collect empirical data. Qualitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 20 residents, five municipal officials, and five engineers. Each sample had its own interview guide to gather information from these participants. The study employed the Homer-Dixon environmental scarcity theory and the demand management theory to understand and explain the concept of water crises. The thematic analysis method was used to analyse the qualitative data. The key findings revealed that the water crisis affected all the participants; some had lost their jobs, while others were socially affected. Most respondents believed that the water crisis was caused by a combination of climate change and related and consequent low rainfall, overconsumption, human overpopulation, and water wastage factors. Furthermore, the participants pointed out measures that assisted with managing the water crisis, including water restrictions, increased water tariffs, and water meter monitoring. The respondents also suggested ways how water can be used more sparingly, such as using the same water for multiple purposes and using greywater for non-human consumption purposes, such as watering gardens and filling pools, to name a few. Many of these implemented measures and strategies were successful; however, some residents did not comply and were fined by their municipalities. Participants from across the three cohorts sampled agreed that drilling boreholes, recycling water, and building new dams and reservoirs will assist with the stable supply of water in the long term. Furthermore, the engineer participants indicated that the management and maintenance of dams and reservoirs are crucial for storing water. The relevant authorities should upgrade all existing early warning systems and install them in places that are not yet active. These systems should not only be used to indicate pending crises or disasters but should also be used when there is more than enough water to ensure that contingency measures can be taken. The national government should invest more funds in water desalination plants so that seawater can be made safe for human consumption. Local municipalities should constantly remind the public of water-saving methods to decrease domestic consumption. This should be communicated to all stakeholders to secure buy-in from all affected parties. Further investigation is needed on how regional or local water crises influence both national and local economies. The water crisis in the Western Cape has had a significant impact on the local agricultural sector, which, in turn, influenced the country’s economy. Mitigative measures and solutions require urgent investigation, such as finding a more affordable seawater desalination process.
- ItemAnalysis of thermal stability in a convecting and radiating two-step reactive slab(Hindawi, 2013) Makinde, O. D.; Tshehla, M. S.This paper investigates the combined effects of convective and radiative heat loss on thermal stability of a rectangular slab of combustible materials with internal heat generation due to a two-step exothermic chemical reaction, taking the diffusion of the reactant into account and assuming a variable (temperature dependent) preexponential factor. The nonlinear differential equation governing the transient reaction-diffusion problem is obtained and tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference technique. A special type of Hermite-Pade approximants coupled with perturbation technique are employed to analyze the effects of ´ various embedded thermophysical parameters on the steady state problem. Important properties of the temperature field including thermal stability conditions are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
- ItemAnatomy of post-communist European defense institutions : the mirage of military modernity(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2020) Jordaan, EvertIn Anatomy of post-communist European defense institutions: The mirage of military modernity, Thomas-Durell Young’s aim was to determine why Central and Eastern European (CEE) states have failed to apply democratic defence governance concepts, despite 25 years of Western assistance programmes.
- ItemThe "apostles of terror" : South Africa, the East African campaign, and the Battle of El Wak(Historical Association of South Africa, 2018-11) Kleynhans, EvertShortly after the outbreak of the Second World War, the Union Defence Force (UDF) had to undergo a rapid transformation from an ageing defence force to one that could project offensive power across Africa. The formation of the 1st South African Division (1st SA Div) during 1940, and the subsequent deployment of South African troops to the East African theatre, afforded the UDF the opportunity to test its military capabilities under operational conditions against the Italian threat in Ethiopia (then Abyssinia) and Somalia (then Italian Somaliland). It had been 21 years since the Union of South Africa was last in a state of war, and the UDF’s first battle in East Africa is a prime tool by which to measure concepts such as force design, military innovation and the operational employment of forces, to name but a few. The Battle of El Wak was not only the UDF’s initial battle in the East African campaign, but also South Africa’s first battle during the Second World War. By drawing from primary archival material and secondary sources, the article concludes that the Battle of El Wak had a definite impact on the entire South African campaign in East Africa.
- ItemApplication of successive linearisation method to squeezing flow with bifurcation(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014-01-02) Motsa, S. S.; Makinde, O. D.; Shateyi, S.This paper employs the computational approach known as successive linearization method (SLM) to tackle a fourth order nonlinear differential equation modelling the transient flow of an incompressible viscous fluid between two parallel plates produced by a simple wall motion. Numerical and graphical results obtained show excellent agreement with the earlier results reported in the literature. We obtain solution branches as well as a turning point in the flow field accurately. A comparison with numerical results generated using the inbuilt MATLAB boundary value solver, bvp4c, demonstrates that the SLM approach is a very efficient technique for tackling highly nonlinear differential equations of the type discussed in this paper.
- ItemThe application of Supers theory in the military : culture and gender in the life roles of young professional officers(AOSIS OpenJournals, 2001-01) Kotze, M. E.Abstract: Political and societal changes in South Africa have resulted in the fundamental transformation of amongst others the personnel composition of the National Defence Force in order to be more representative of the South African population as a whole. As a corollary to this process, the South African Military Academy is making a determined effort to increase the number of black and female students within its student population.
- ItemThe appropriate and optimal role and function of special forces in peace missions(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Bester, Louis Andries; Esterhuyse, Abel; Stellenbosch Universty. Faculty of Military Science. School for Security and Africa Studies. Dept. of Political Science. (Mil)ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The fascination with special forces, which is especially prevalent in books, movies and news articles, could be ascribed to the prominence of their use in contemporary conflicts across the globe. The public’s imagination of special forces has become linked with military actions and the armed struggles in the Middle East, Africa and Europe. Special forces are also strategically very appealing to policymakers for a number of reasons. The political confidence vested in special forces is clearly demonstrated in the creation of specialised commands across the world. This goes hand in hand with an increase in operating budgets, manpower and supporting structures for special forces operations. There is, however, a paradox of employing such a highly lethal force in order to pursuit peace. With peacekeeping evolving parallel with the strategic environment, especially in Africa, the trend towards more robust interventions has become prevalent since the end of the Cold War. As such, the requirement for accurate and timely intelligence in peace missions has become crucial. Admittedly, special forces would not necessarily be the soldiers expected to wear blue berets and participate in peace missions. It may come as a surprise to the uninformed, though, to learn that special forces have indeed participated, and are still involved, in peace missions across the globe. The dichotomy of this phenomenon leads one to enquire as to what gave rise to elite military forces, renowned for their rigorous training, specialised skills, and sophisticated equipment to be employed in peace missions.
- ItemArmoured warfare : the South African experience in East Africa 1940-1941(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Kleynhans, Evert Philippus; Van der Waag, Ian J.; Esterhuyse, A. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Security and Africa Studies: Military History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Following South African entry into the Second World War on 6 September 1939, the Union Defence Force (UDF) transformed from an ageing peacetime defence force into a modern armed force capable of projecting offensive power. During the interwar period a certain state of melancholia had existed in the UDF in terms of military innovation, which resulted in muddled thinking in the UDF in terms of armoured warfare and mechanisation. The offensive potential of armoured forces was simply not understood by the South African defence planners, with the result that there was only a token armoured force in the UDF in September 1939. The South African entry into the war was the impetus for the development of a viable armoured force within the UDF, and the South African Tank Corps (SATC) was established in May 1940. Changes in both the nature and organisational structure of the South African defence establishment followed. The Italian presence in Abyssinia and Italian Somaliland was seen as a direct threat to the neighbouring British East African territories, and South Africa deployed to Kenya during June 1940, soon after the Italian declaration of war. The South African deployment to East Africa was the first deployment of the UDF in a situation of regular war since the First World War. Despite the doctrine that underpinned the South African deployment of armoured forces in East Africa, the SATC units soon learned that the accepted doctrine, borrowed from the British War Office during the interwar period, was but a mere guide to offensive employment. The story of the South African deployment to East Africa during the war is used as a lens through which to investigate the role and employment of both the UDF armoured cars and light tanks. By separately discussing the Allied offensives through Italian Somaliland and southern Abyssinia during 1940-1941, the tactical and operational employment of the South African armour during this time becomes paramount when evaluated against their successes and failures. The nature of the opposing Italian forces in East Africa, the ever-changing topography and climate of the theatre of operations, and the nature of the South African offensive operations throughout the campaign, all combined to shape the novel way in which the armoured cars and tanks of the SATC were employed throughout 1940-1941. The operational experiences that the UDF gained during the campaign in East Africa shaped the further deployments of South African armour to North Africa, Madagascar and Italy during the remainder of the war.
- ItemAssessing public participation strategies in people’s housing process in Wallacedene(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-12) Sandile, Unathi; Theron, Francois; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. Dept. of Science and Technology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Public participation is important in housing development. Since the start of democratic government in South Africa, local governments have been encouraged to promote and use public participation to empower its citizens to influence, direct, control and own their development initiatives. In this study the researcher assessed public participation strategies in Nomzabalazo People’s Housing Process in Wallacedene (NPHPW). The study assesses the public participation process applied and relevant strategies used in a housing development programme in the community, and to establish whether public participation in housing development in this area is practiced as local governance legislation suggests. The study also aims to establish how the selected public participation strategies used affect housing development, in particular assess if housing beneficiaries can actually “influence, direct, control and own” the housing project. In addition, the study aims to establish whether the COCT creates an enabling environment for authentic and empowering public participation for housing beneficiaries on matters that affect their lives. Furthermore, the study evaluates public participation by the members of the public particularly beneficiaries in housing development by assessing the public participation strategies used during the housing planning and delivery in Wallacedene, using the International Association for Public Participation (AIP2) Spectrum model and Arnstein’s (1969) ladder typologies.