Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion
CITATION: Clarke, C., Van Helden, P., Miller, M. & Parsons, S. 2016. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 87(1), a1322, doi:10.4102/jsava.v87i1.1322.
The original publication is available at http://www.jsava.co.za
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion – that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus – are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.