Isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV-infected and -uninfected children (0 - 14 years)

Schaaf, H. Simon ; Cotton, Mark F. ; Boon, Gerald P. G. ; Jeena, Prakash M. (2013-09-04)

CITATION: Schaaf, H. S., Cotton, M. F., Boon, G. P. G. & Jeena, P. M. 2013. Isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV-infected and -uninfected children (0 - 14 years). South African Medical Journal, 103(10):714-715, doi:10.7196/SAMJ.7189.

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Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis (TB) in immunocompetent children <5 years of age after exposure to an infectious TB source case. Routine IPT has been advocated in all HIV-infected children without TB, but has been controversial. Antiretroviral therapy markedly reduces the risk for TB in HIV-infected children, especially when started early in infancy. In HIV-infected children, as in HIV- uninfected children, we recommend post-exposure IPT after each TB exposure episode; but in HIV-infected children, this should be given irrespective of age or antiretroviral therapy. However, evidence for routine IPT without known exposure to TB in HIV-infected children is not convincing and is therefore not recommended.

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