Research Articles (Africa Centre for HIV/AIDS Management)

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    Evaluation of an HIV-related workshop for adolescents at a secondary school in Germany
    (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2019) Davis, Burt; Grosse, Katharina
    This study set out to establish to what extent an HIV-related awareness workshop involving German adolescents at a secondary school in Brandenburg can help to increase knowledge levels about this disease. Only a few studies have explored what German youths know about HIV, with none so far evaluating a workshop aimed at increasing HIV-related knowledge levels among this cohort. In a pre-test post-test design, changes in participants’ knowledge levels related to the risk of HIV transmission associated with different types of exposures or behaviors such as unprotected sex, mother-to-child-transmission, blood transfusions, and shaking hands were assessed. Previous studies have shown that German youths lack knowledge in this regard. From pre-test to post-test, there was a statistically significant increase in knowledge levels about the risk of HIV transmission. However, knowledge levels about the risk of HIV transmission was relatively low. An average of 59.2% questions were answered correctly at pre-test vs. 68.1% of questions at post-test. The present study underlines that an awareness workshop can be a useful tool to improve knowledge levels about the risk of HIV transmission among youths. However, the results also revealed that there is still some work to be done to educate young Germans about the basic facts around HIV/AIDS. Although HIV incidence rate in Germany has been slightly decreasing, there is a growing number of new infections among people who are unaware of their HIV status – while research shows that youths in this country are seemingly complacent about the danger of HIV/AIDS, and often do not use condoms during sex.
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    Tipping the balance towards long-term retention in the HIV care cascade : a mixed methods study in southern Mozambique
    (Public Library of Science, 2019-09-27) Fuente-Soro, Laura; Iniesta, Carlos; López-Varela, Elisa; Cuna, Mauro; Guilaze, Rui; Maixenchs, Maria; Bernardo, Edson Luis; Augusto, Orvalho; Gonzalez, Raquel; Couto, Aleny; Munguambe, Khatia; Naniche, Denise
    Background: The implementation of quality HIV control programs is crucial for the achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and to motivate people living with HIV (PLWHIV) to link and remain in HIV-care. The aim of this mixed method cross-sectional study was to estimate the linkage and long-term retention in care of PLWHIV and to identify factors potentially interfering along the HIV-care continuum in southern Mozambique. Methods: A home-based semi-structured interview was conducted in 2015 to explore barriers and facilitators to the HIV-care cascade among individuals that had been newly HIV-diagnosed in community testing campaigns in 2010 or 2012. Linkage and long-term retention were estimated retrospectively through client self-reports and clinical records. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was calculated to measure the agreement between participant self-reported and documented cascade outcomes. Results: Among the 112 interviewed participants, 24 (21.4%) did not disclose their HIV-positive serostatus to the interviewer. While 84 (75.0%) self-reported having enrolled in care, only 69 (61.6%) reported still being in-care 3–5 years after diagnosis of which 17.4% reported having disengaged and re-engaged. An important factor affecting optimal continuum in HIV-care was the impact of the fear-based authoritarian relationship between the health system and the patient that could act as both driver and barrier. Conclusion: Special attention should be given to quantify and understand repeated cycles of patient disengagement and re-engagement in HIV-care. Strategies to improve the relationship between the health system and patients are still needed in order to optimally engage PLWHIV for long-term periods.
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    Factors influencing the uptake of HIV counselling and testing Services : the case of the employees of the Namibian correctional service at Elizabeth Nepemba correctional facility
    (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2018) Velikoshi, Tangeni; Davis, Burt; Ashipala, Daniel Opotamutale
    Despite the growing public awareness about the burden of HIV and AIDS in Namibia, HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) uptake remains to be low. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the HCT uptake amongst correctional officers deployed at Elizabeth Nepemba Correctional Facility (ENCF) in Rundu, Namibia. The study employed a quantitative approach, and a sample of 31 participants was constituted who completed self-administered questionnaires. This research focused on correctional officers deployed at ENCF. Participants were randomly selected from the employee list. It was found that the majority of the respondents (74%) accessed HCT services in the past twelve months, of which 31% indicated having tested at Elizabeth Nepemba HCT Facility. Factors such as confidentiality and privacy issues, the condition of service and staff competency along with accessibility, fear of rejection from families and friends, information provision, education, future planning and risky behaviour were identified as having an influence on HCT uptake. This study concluded that there is a need for more awareness campaigns, information dissemination and involvement of stakeholders to address HIV-related issues for correctional officers at ENCF. This study recommends that the AIDS Committee and employee wellness department should spearhead workshops, information dissemination and educational programmes for correctional officers, so to improve their visibility and influence as well as improve HCT uptake. In addition, Regular workshops and seminars should be organized to empower correctional officers with the knowledge and skills related to HIV behavioural change; as well as resolve any issues related to fear of stigma or rejection.
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    This may come as a surprise : how prior knowledge of information in a fear appeal is associated with message outcomes
    (Unisa Press, 2016-09) Davis, Burt; Jansen, Carel
    Two related studies were performed aimed at finding if and how prior knowledge of threat and efficacy information in a fear appeal message is associated with message outcomes (attitude and behavioural intentions). the extended Parallel Process model (ePPm) (Witte 1992; 1998) served as theoretical framework for one study about a chlamydia fear appeal (n = 57) and another about an alcohol abuse fear appeal (n = 59). Findings from both studies suggest that prior knowledge of threat information is hardly relevant for readers’ reactions to a fear appeal message. Prior knowledge of efficacy information, however, proved to play a more important role, most often in a positive way. Findings from both studies furthermore suggest that the ePPm may be incorrect in assuming that individual differences – in this case, in prior knowledge – may only affect fear appeal outcomes in an indirect way, that is through different perceptions of threat and efficacy.
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    HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and risky sexual behaviour among a sample of South African university students
    (Sabinet online, 2014) Fennie, Thelma; Laas, Anja; Africa Centre for HIV/AIDS Management
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the level of sexual knowledge and attitudes about risky sexual behaviour among a sample of South African university students. The participants were 164 female and 56 male undergraduates, whose average age was 20 years. The main findings confirmed that more than 80% of the students may have a high level of knowledge and attitudes with regard to HIV/AIDS. Of the sample, 24% approved of not having sex before marriage, while only 33% reported having sex without a condom. Of the participants, 47% reported they would refuse having sex without a condom. Although 69% of respondents reported that they have been tested for HIV, 29% have never been tested. Results showed that 48% reported that more educational and awareness programmes with regard to HIV/AIDS are recommended. The results suggest that this particular South African university population may be aware of the dangers surrounding risky sexual practices.