Process monitoring with restricted Boltzmann machines

Moody, John Matali
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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Process monitoring and fault diagnosis are used to detect abnormal events in processes. The early detection of such events or faults is crucial to continuous process improvement. Although principal component analysis and partial least squares are widely used for process monitoring and fault diagnosis in the metallurgical industries, these models are linear in principle; nonlinear approaches should provide more compact and informative models. The use of auto associative neural networks or auto encoders provide a principled approach for process monitoring. However, until very recently, these multiple layer neural networks have been difficult to train and have therefore not been used to any significant extent in process monitoring. With newly proposed algorithms based on the pre-training of the layers of the neural networks, it is now possible to train neural networks with very complex structures, i.e. deep neural networks. These neural networks can be used as auto encoders to extract features from high dimensional data. In this study, the application of deep auto encoders in the form of Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) to the extraction of features from process data is considered. These networks have mostly been used for data visualization to date and have not been applied in the context of fault diagnosis or process monitoring as yet. The objective of this investigation is therefore to assess the feasibility of using Restricted Boltzmann machines in various fault detection schemes. The use of RBM in process monitoring schemes will be discussed, together with the application of these models in automated control frameworks.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Prosesmonitering en fout diagnose word gebruik om abnormale gebeure in prosesse op te spoor. Die vroeë opsporing van sulke gebeure of foute is noodsaaklik vir deurlopende verbetering van prosesse. Alhoewel hoofkomponent-analise en parsiële kleinste kwadrate wyd gebruik word vir prosesmonitering en fout diagnose in die metallurgiese industrieë, is hierdie modelle lineêr in beginsel; nie-lineêre benaderings behoort meer kompakte en insiggewende modelle te voorsien. Die gebruik van outo-assosiatiewe neurale netwerke of outokodeerders bied 'n beginsel gebaseerder benadering om dit te bereik. Hierdie veelvoudige laag neurale netwerke was egter tot onlangs moeilik om op te lei en is dus nie tot ʼn beduidende mate in die prosesmonitering gebruik nie. Nuwe, voorgestelde algoritmes, gebaseer op voorafopleiding van die lae van die neurale netwerke, maak dit nou moontlik om neurale netwerke met baie ingewikkelde strukture, d.w.s. diep neurale netwerke, op te lei. Hierdie neurale netwerke kan gebruik word as outokodeerders om kenmerke van hoë-dimensionele data te onttrek. In hierdie studie word die toepassing van diep outokodeerders in die vorm van Beperkte Boltzmann Masjiene vir die onttrekking van kenmerke van proses data oorweeg. Tot dusver is hierdie netwerke meestal vir data visualisering gebruik en dit is nog nie toegepas in die konteks van fout diagnose of prosesmonitering nie. Die doel van hierdie ondersoek is dus om die haalbaarheid van die gebruik van Beperkte Boltzmann Masjiene in verskeie foutopsporingskemas te assesseer. Die gebruik van Beperkte Boltzmann Masjiene se eienskappe in prosesmoniteringskemas sal bespreek word, tesame met die toepassing van hierdie modelle in outomatiese beheer raamwerke.
Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM), Dissertations -- Process engineering, UCTD, Process control, Neural networks (Computer science), Auto encoders