- ItemIdentifying the shortcomings of an employee value proposition for African females in an energy company operating in South Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Sibenya, Aphiwe; Bussin, Mark; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Industrial Psychology.ENGLISH SUMMARY: The shortage of females in operations, one perceived as a male-dominated environment, has resulted in a deficit supply of African females in industries such as the mining industry. African females, referred to in the current study as the targeted audience have since become a minority, resulting in a need for organisations to investigate ways in which the scarce talent can be retained within the job market. The Corporate Leadership Council Employee Value Proposition model was used in the current study as a framework to help identify the components that composite an organisation’s offerings. There were five components that were identified namely, 1) financial rewards, 2) People (referring to association), 3) Organisational culture, 4) Development and Career opportunities, and 5) Work content. The study followed a quantitative research design using selected questions from a Master’s study conducted by Van der Merwe (2012) on the EVP. The population included females working in a mine plant situated in the Mpumalanga province. The targeted employees were electronically surveyed, attracting 101 African female participants who successfully completed the questionnaire. The researcher was comfortable with the response rate as the surveyed employees accounted for 12.88% of the employees in the plant. The Statistics Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to process the data. The analysis of the results revealed a discrepancy from what was expected from the literature that was reviewed. The results however revealed that on an individual basis, the current organisation largely meets the expectations of participants per EVP component, except for financial rewards, which happens to be the most important component. Development and career development was rated the second most important component, with people (referring to association) component perceived as the least important component.
- ItemA qualitative analysis of the management of mental health in the workplace in a Namibian organisation(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Bupilo, Mercy; Samantha, Adams; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Industrial Psychology.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Common Mental Disorders have associations with reduced work productivity and job satisfaction. Although mental health problems are often characterised as a reaction to a difficult or stressful life event, such as bereavement or the death of a loved one, there are also profound associations between poor mental health and work-related issues such as stress, conflict, work demands and pressure. Consequently, workplace practices have an impact on the mental wellbeing of employees, if not managed properly the condition leads to dysfunctional workplace behaviour. Therefore, organisations need to assess their contribution towards the wellbeing of employees in order to make required adjustments to enable employees to thrive and achieve performance and job satisfaction. The management of employee mental health and wellbeing was particularly pertinent during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has forced changes in work practices and brought about uncertainty, fear and stigma among employees in terms of job security, financial status, economic status as well as overall physical and emotional wellbeing. Therefore, this study sought to explore approaches to managing mental health in the workplace and determine factors impacting its management so that strategies for effective management of mental health and mental wellbeing are proposed and outlined. Using a descriptive case study, interviews and document analysis were content analysed to explore employee experiences of strategies used to manage mental health in a Namibian based financial insurance company. The data indicated a need for national legislative amendments and policy development to guide the management of mental health in organisations. Employee support strategies surrounding the development of EAPs can provide insight to the measures of support or approaches undertaken by the consulted organisation in this study. To enhance mental wellbeing or manage mental health problems a multidisciplinary approach involving various stakeholders in the industry is required to combine resources and services to support employees. Additionally, the study is suggestive of an alteration or modification of various environmental and operational factors within the organisation to mitigate the impact of these factors on employee’s mental wellbeing.
- ItemA phenomenological exploration of the South African perspective on psychological harassment in the workplace(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Zirzow, Maike; De Wet, Marietha; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Industrial Psychology.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Objective: To gain a deeper understanding of psychological harassment as a concept, its manifestation and the cognitive and behavioural impact on victims in the South African workplace. Participants: Despite aiming to reach a sample size of around 2 to 25 participants, the final sample included 7 participants across various race groups and ages. In addition, both genders were represented across various industries and at various levels of education and career progression. Study Method: A qualitative study using an exploratory framework to gain valuable individual and personal experience with psychological harassment embedded in a phenomenological understanding of the lived experiences. Main Finding: Participants found it challenging to define the concept of psychological harassment but managed to name the behaviour of psychological harassment with ease. Overall, it becomes clear that psychological harassment has the potential to affect one's emotional well-being significantly, which in turn changes other elements that are detrimental to organisational performance. The study's findings also showed that victims of psychological harassment are unlikely to report their experience due to organisational dynamics such as culture, politics and power distribution. Therefore, the presence of psychological harassment in the South African workplace needs to be pre-empted by addressing the aforesaid dynamics. Conclusion: It is evident from the conversation with the study’s participants that the presence of psychological harassment in the workplace might only be acknowledged and hopefully eliminated subsequent to the recently introduced Code of Good Practice on the Prevention and Elimination of Harassment in the Workplace is implemented. With the promising nature of such positive changes, organisations might become more aware of their culture, politics and power dynamics that encourage psychological harassment. However, based on the findings in this study, Employers and employees might require extensive guidance on how to practically implement the Code, as psychological harassment does not seem to be a well-understood phenomenon in South African workplaces.
- ItemPredicting burnout and engagement in public secondary school teachers based on physical educational resources, positive organisational practices, psychological capital, work overload, and learner-to-teacher bullying(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Pretorius, Annika; Boonzaier, Michèle; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Industrial Psychology.ENGLISH SUMMARY: South African secondary school teachers, especially those in public secondary schools, face significant challenges in their work environment daily. A lack of the required job and social resources to do their work, as well as the bullying behaviour of learners, is leading to increasing strain that, in many cases, is resulting in employee burnout. For teachers to be able to create a positive learning environment amidst the challenges that they experience in the school environment, as well as to meet and overcome the problems in education, they must be resilient, motivated, vigorous and innovative, and show initiative. Research has demonstrated that teachers will only have the ability to display these qualities effectively if they are engaged in their work, their classes, and with their learners. The research-initiating question of this study thus was why there is variance in engagement and burnout among secondary school teachers in public secondary schools in South Africa. As such, the study aimed to examine the factors influencing perceived employee burnout and employee engagement among teachers within public secondary schools in South Africa. It did so by considering the relationships between job demands, job resources, personal resources, employee burnout, and employee engagement. This study empirically tested the proposed relationships between the constructs through structural equation modelling, and provided additional theoretical and empirical evidence that job demands, job resources (positive organisational practices), and personal resources (psychological capital) influence the level of employee burnout and employee engagement of teachers in secondary schools in South Africa. Substantive research hypotheses were formulated to establish if the arguments in the literature review are valid. To test the substantive hypotheses, an ex post facto correlation research design was utilised. Volunteer sampling was used to acquire the sample (secondary school teachers in public secondary schools in South Africa). The variables in the proposed structural model were measured through an online survey (sent via email) that contained the following measurements: the UWES-17; the CBI; the PPQ; the PCQ-24; the TTB; the physical educational resources questionnaire; and the JDRS. Biographical information was also obtained through the online survey. Twelve hypotheses were tested through item analysis and PLS-SEM. Of the twelve hypotheses, five were found to be statistically significant, while six of the non-significant paths were related to the moderating effects, and one was related to a main effect. The statistically significant hypotheses were hypotheses 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Based on the support found for the hypotheses, possible interventions were proposed. These interventions focus on assisting human resource managers and industrial psychologists in decreasing the levels of employee burnout and increasing employee engagement in public secondary schools in South Africa. Limitations and recommendations for future research are also provided.
- ItemThe influence of job characteristics, psychological capital, work schedule and chronotype on the engagement, burnout and general health of shift workers(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Smith, Sophia; Boonzaier, Michele; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Industrial Psychology.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Shift work is an important aspect of working time that is often associated with many negative outcomes. Although there are economic, technical, and social benefits for organisations in the use of shift work schedules, these benefits are conflicted by the social and health impairments for workers. Since the use of shift work is escalating, it is increasingly important for organisations to understand what the impact of shift work on their workers is and to implement interventions that aim to prevent, eliminate, or manage the challenges associated with it. The purpose of this research study was therefore to explore salient variables that contribute to variance in burnout, engagement, and general health in South African shift workers. Using the framework of the Job Demands-Resources model, this quantitative study aimed to test the relationships between the five core job characteristics as described in the job characteristics model, psychological capital, non-standard work schedules and chronotype with the engagement, burnout, and general health of shift workers. An ex post facto correlational design was used, and data was collected from a non-probability sample of 175 South African shift workers using a survey method. Variables were measured using the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (RAND-36), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), the Job Diagnostic Survey – Revised (JDS-R), the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-12), three questions for work schedule and the Horne – Őstberg Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Data analysis made us of the PLS-SEM method. The findings indicated that job characteristics are antecedents of PsyCap. These personal resources in turn buffered against burnout and led to higher levels of engagement which fostered the psychological health of workers. Burnout was also found to be negatively related to both physical and psychological health. On the other hand, the relationship between non-standard work schedules and burnout, along with the moderating effect of chronotype on this relationship, was not found to be statistically significant. Furthermore, the relationship between job characteristics and engagement, as well as engagement and physical health, was also not found to be statistically significant. This study concluded that interventions aimed at developing PsyCap among employees could assist in transforming organisations to significant sources of happiness, satisfaction, meaningfulness, and general well-being.