- ItemRobotics process automation : customer contact centre email management utilising uipath(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Khasoane, Paballo Joyce; Visser, Alwyn; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Accountancy.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Customer contact centres have become at the forefront because of inevitable technological advancements, making many customers prefer to access services from the comfort of their own homes over travelling to do the work. The result has burdened contact centres with calls and emails that pile up and cause backlogs that are more difficult to manage with continuous inflow, as well as pressures to attract customers, sell services and products and provide the best customer experience in the process of retaining clients. This study considers the Robotics Process Automation (RPA) software implementation governance through the establishment of the framework with a clear cascade of governance on technological solutions adopted by organisations. The approaches considered for this study range from an Information Technology (IT) perspective to RPA application software, informed by governance standards and control frameworks adopted. Employing RPA technology, the study tackles challenges facing governance, including initiative-taking steps that warrant implementation of measures to ensure regulatory compliance, scalability, and auditability. The administration and deployment of RPA technology entails a complex network of relationships with various stakeholders, each of which has functions and interests, structures, and direction, thus necessitating comprehensive guidance. The desirable structures and directions were attained through an integrated RPA governance framework using the constructed RPA UiPath application software. RPA implementations and usage have been established to address the customer contact centre challenges with UiPath application software. According to the literature studied, UiPath is a leader in automation, providing solutions for harvesting processes, assuring process efficiency, and effectiveness. UiPath does not require programming capabilities, which is advantageous for resources management. UiPath major offering, Studio, and its elements, along with innovative technologies, have demonstrated that organizations' strategic objectives may be realized with their diverse robot offerings. Because of UiPath's unattended and hybrid robots, resources can be deployed to different roles, risk on daily duties can be mitigated through controlled access that UiPath robots are given, ensuring that they complete tasks that they are configured to do, and deliver around-the-clock service because robots do not tire. The systematic literature review technique, including a design science research strategy, have been used to categorise, identify, and separate contributors of a complete RPA governance framework in the context of customer contact centre email management from relevant literature. Also considered are the procedures required to create an adaptable, useable framework that mitigates RPA technology governance constraints. The rewards of an adaptable framework were discovered to be enabled by a well-defined implementation plan and appropriate alignment between business and IT operations, informed by Control Objectives for Information Technology (COBIT 19) and ISO/IEC 38500:2015 as governance standards. Because RPA technology requires no new infrastructure, though running on legacy systems managed by IT, and the technology's end-users are business operations personnel, clearly defined work processes, roles, and duties, need to be established and followed from the time RPA UiPath application software is acquired until it is decommissioned to ensure conformity by the whole organisation.
- ItemDividend in specie : value-added tax implications and the resultant effect on dividends tax(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Cara, Prins; Andrea, Van der Merwe; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Accountancy.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Section 64E(1)(a)(i) of the Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 (ITA) requires a company to calculate dividends tax by multiplying the amount of the dividend by 20%. Dividends tax is regulated in terms of provisions contained in the ITA, however dividends tax is a separate tax from income tax. Dividends are therefore treated differently in terms of income tax and dividends tax. The definition of ‘dividend’ in section 64D of the ITA, read with the definition of ‘dividend’ in section 1(1) of the ITA should be considered in determining whether a transaction should be treated as a dividend and whether dividends tax is applicable. A distribution other than in the form of cash, is referred to as a dividend in specie. In terms of section 64E(3)(b) of the ITA, where a company declares a dividend in specie, the amount of the dividend is deemed to be equal to the market value of the asset. Where there are value-added tax (VAT) implications in terms of the Value-Added Tax Act No. 89 of 1991 (VAT Act) upon declaration of a dividend in specie, it is not clear from current literature whether the VAT implication of the dividend in specie is included in the market value of the asset for dividends tax calculation purposes. The definition of ‘open market value’ in section 3(1)(b) of the VAT Act clarifies that, for the purposes of the VAT Act, ‘open market value’ includes value-added tax. In contrast to the definition of ‘open market value’ in the VAT Act, the definitions of ‘market value’ in the ITA do not provide clarity on whether the VAT implications of a dividend in specie should be considered when determining the market value of the asset for the purpose of calculating dividends tax on the dividend in specie. This research assignment therefore set out to determine whether the VAT implications of a dividend in specie should be included when determining the market value of the dividend in specie for dividends tax purposes. Additionally, it was also determined whether the output tax (if the VAT implications of a dividend in specie results in output tax levied) meets the definition of ‘dividend’ and whether dividends tax should be calculated on the amount of output tax. A doctrinal research methodology was followed in performing the research by using a methodical exposition of relevant literature. In addition to the definitions noted in South African tax legislation, South African and New Zealand case law provided guidance to determine whether the VAT implications of a dividend in specie have a resultant effect on the dividends tax calculation. This research assignment found that the distribution of an asset in specie does not lead to the same VAT implications where different assets are distributed in different scenarios as noted during the evaluation of the indicative factors. It was further found that if the VAT implications of a dividend in specie results in output tax levied, the VAT implications (i.e. output tax levied) would meet the definition of a dividend for dividends tax purposes and as a result, dividends tax is calculated on the VAT implications of a dividend in specie. The findings of this research assignment therefore suggest that the VAT implications, depending on the scenario, of a dividend in specie have a resultant effect on the dividends tax calculation.
- ItemEvaluating the existing residential solid waste management system and its environmental impact in low income areas : the case of the Olievenhoutbosch Township, City of Tshwane(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-03) Mohale, Matodzi; De Wit, Martin P.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Solid Waste (RSW) management is an environmental problem in low income areas such as the Olievenhoutbosch township. Growing population, improved economic growth and urbanization have caused over-consumption of materials which eventually is the source of large amounts of waste landing in the environment. Existing systems are under pressure as they are inadequate to deal with the increasing quantities. This then leads to inadequate collection rates and ineffective disposal approaches (such as illegal dumping, open burning and open dumping) which eventually contributes to environmental problems such as water and soil pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and plastics build-ups on land, in rivers and in oceans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing RSW management system in the Olievenhoutbosch Township which is located in the City of Tshwane’s Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). The specific focus was mainly on the collection and disposal methods impacting on the environment, and with the extended goal of improving the sustainability of the management system. The study utilized both primary and secondary data to explore the current RSW situation. This included desktop study, visual observations and interviews with CTMM waste officers. The collected data was then stored in Microsoft Excel 2010. Analysis of these data revealed that municipalities are indeed under pressure due to increasing RSW volumes caused by the increasing number of people moving into the townships, growing backyard dwellers in existing yards and increasing informal settlement dwellers. The municipality indicated that collection services provided for formal dwellers are sufficient and informal dwellers are currently not served. Transportation concerns involved difficulty in accessing some areas in the township and long distances from collection points (household yards) to CTMM landfill sites. RSW minimization is absent, collection of recyclables is only through informal waste pickers, meaning that all RSW collected ends up in landfill sites. Additionally, the study found that the municipality is focusing mainly on ensuring that RSW is collected from households. RSW minimization initiatives are overlooked due to a lack of budgets, capacity and infrastructure. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made.
- ItemValue-added tax : a critical analysis of input tax in respect of share issue costs(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-03) Beukes, Wilna; Herron, Andrea; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Accountancy.ENGLISH SUMMARY: The issue of shares is one of the main sources of finance used to start up or expand a business. Costs are incurred to facilitate the issue of shares in both the listed and private market. Value-added tax (VAT) is levied on the supply of these services when provided by VAT vendors, in terms of the Value-Added Tax Act (No. 89 of 1991) (hereafter referred to as the VAT Act). The South African Revenue Service’s (SARS) current policy is that input tax on share issue costs incurred is not deductible based on the judgment in Income Tax Case No. 1744 (2002) 65 SATC 154 (hereafter referred to as ITC 1744). Through reliance on earlier judgments in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), it was held in ITC 1744 that the absence of a direct and immediate link between share issue costs incurred and the making of taxable supplies precluded the taxpayer from claiming an input tax deduction. South African authors disagree on whether the direct and immediate link test relied on in ITC 1744 should be used to apply the provisions of the VAT Act. Furthermore, South African authors have suggested that there are grounds to argue that the issue of shares does not constitute a “supply” as defined in section 1(1) of the VAT Act. In terms of the New Zealand Goods and Services Tax Act, on which the VAT Act was modelled, the New Zealand Inland Revenue Department argued that input tax on share issue costs should be deductible to satisfy the broad taxation principles of neutrality, effectiveness and fairness. Despite international developments, SARS has not clarified its policy on the treatment of input tax on share issue costs incurred since ITC 1744 was heard in 2002. This research assignment therefore set out to determine whether input tax on share issue costs incurred should be deductible. A qualitative research approach was followed. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed in the form of a desktop literature review to determine whether input tax on share issue costs incurred should be deductible. This research assignment found that the use of the direct and immediate link test relied on in ITC 1744 may not be appropriate in South Africa, and that only a direct functional link may be required by the phrase “in the course of making taxable supplies” in the input tax definition in section 1(1) of the VAT Act. It was further found that there are grounds to argue that the issue of shares does not constitute a “supply” in terms of section 1(1) of the VAT Act and that share issue costs incurred may accordingly form part of a business’ general overhead costs. Lastly, it was found that the current denial of input tax on share issue costs incurred detracts from the broad taxation principles of neutrality, effectiveness and fairness, which are fundamental to a good VAT system. The findings of this research assignment therefore suggest that input tax on share issue costs should be deductible.
- ItemPerceptions of stakeholders in a water stewardship initiative : Wolseley, South Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-04) Chihumbiri, Faith Kudzai; Muller, Anneke (J. I.); Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : In recent years, most development initiatives have been framed within the context of sustainable development. Project implementation has placed emphasis on a balanced integration of social and environmental objectives with economic development; drawing on the participation of people from different and diverse backgrounds to rally around implementing solutions to a common challenge. This approach also referred to as a multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder participatory approach, seeks to give a broad set of stakeholders more of a say in decision-making and project implementation. It is recommended, and has been applied in addressing developmental challenges, beginning at an international level, cascading down to the national, regional and local levels. A literature study and case study approach were used in this study. The case study explored how the multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder participatory approach has been implemented in an initiative focused on alien vegetation clearing and water security in the Wolseley area in the Cape Winelands District Municipality in the Western Cape, South Africa. The case study was developed through engaging and capturing insights of various stakeholders involved in the initiative. A sample of these stakeholders was drawn from various stakeholder groups ranging from provincial and local government levels, the private sector, private contractors involved in clearing of alien vegetation and their employees as well as the local landowners in the Wolseley area. Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was obtained through methods such as interviews, administering a questionnaire, discussions and observations, while secondary data was obtained through searching library databases and the internet for relevant government laws, policies and regulations, journals, organisational reports, brochures, and prior research carried out on the subjects of participation, sustainable development and water security. The feedback was collated into a coherent narrative of the initiative and the data was subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analysis to better understand the stakeholders’ perceptions and attitudes regarding participating in the initiative. Findings from the study showed that each of the stakeholders and stakeholder groups had different reasons for engaging in collective alien clearing of vegetation. Reasons ranged from delivering on institutional responsibilities for the government department and private sector institutions, support in realising regulatory requirements and reliance on water to support livelihood options for the land owners and a source of income and job creation for the contractors. The contractors’ employees appreciated the wages brought through having a job in the alien clearing process. However, the cumulative collective motivation was to manage and reduce the spread of alien vegetation in Wolseley, as well as contribute to an improved water security profile for the Upper Breede River Catchment. The study coincided with the period during which the Western Cape Province experienced a severe drought. To this end, the Western Cape Government identified water security as posing a major risk towards its effective delivery of services. Some key factors and principles that were identified as contributing towards the seemingly successful engagement in this initiative included converging to address a common challenge and the prospective benefits for each stakeholder, visible project impacts, clarity of purpose, effective communication and coordination as well as engagement and consultation with land owners in the catchment through the embedded Programme Coordinator. These factors and principles need to be taken into consideration to enhance the participatory approach in management of alien vegetation in the Upper Breede River Catchment Area. The study made recommendations on topics and key issues for further investigation to better understand factors and elements that influence perceptions and participation of stakeholders in environmental management initiatives with the intention to continuously improve the engagement process, contribute towards sustainable water security in strategic water source areas and broadly towards sustainable development. Wolseley Water Stewardship Initiative (WWSI) was the term used to refer to the collaborative action on clearing alien vegetation in Wolseley.