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- ItemBiomarkers as a predictor for diabetic retinopathy risk and management : a review(AOSIS, 2018) Phillips, Kevin C.; Clarke-Farr, Peter C.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Meyer, DavidBackground: The systemic and ocular manifestations of diabetes are an increasing burden on both private and public healthcare systems. The ability to accurately predict patient susceptibility and prognostic implications of the disease is essential to its optimal management and planning. Aim: The purpose of this paper was to review alternative biomarkers to those currently in use regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes and the ocular effects of the disease. Current biomarkers include Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Glycolated Haemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: The research strategy comprised of a comprehensive literature review of articles from Mendeley, Cochrane and Elsevier with additional input from experts in the field serving as co-authors. Results: The review found that there are alternative biomarkers to those currently utilised. These include adiponectin, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein and ferritin. Fructosamine, while useful where whole blood is available, is unreliable as a diagnostic biomarker resulting in a 10% variation coefficient. Post-prandial glucose (PPG) measurement most closely predicted HbA1c. Conclusion: With prediction of risk for diabetes in individuals, a value combination, expressed as either a numerical score or a percentage, consisting of adiponectin, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein and ferritin, almost doubled the relative risk of contracting the disease. Eye care practitioners need to question diabetic patients about their FPG and HbA1c levels and encourage them to have the relevant tests regularly, including PPG. The importance of biomarkers should be emphasised and used as an educational tool to facilitate better diabetes management and treatment adherence.
- ItemThe value of an appreciation of clinical profiles in communities as Aide-memoire when faced with difficult ophthalmic diagnoses(Medknow Publications, 2017) Meyer, DavidNo abstract available.
- ItemScreening for retinitis in children with probable systemic cytomegalovirus infection at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2017) Engelbrecht, J. F.; Freeman, N.; Rautenbach, R. M.Background. The incidence of immunocompromised children with probable systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is increasing. Currently, there is no protocol for screening children for CMV retinitis in South Africa. Screening for CMV retinitis may prevent permanent visual impairment. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of retinitis in children with probable systemic CMV infection. To assess the value of clinical and laboratory data in identifying risk factors for the development of CMV retinitis in children. Methods. A retrospective, cross-sectional study design was used. All children (≤12 years) with probable systemic CMV infection who underwent ophthalmic screening over a 5-year period, were included. Presumed CMV retinitis was diagnosed by dilated fundoscopy. All cases were evaluated to identify possible risk factors for the development of CMV retinitis. Results. A total of 164 children were screened. Presumed CMV retinitis was diagnosed in 4.9% of participants. Causes of immunosuppression were HIV infection (n=7) and chemotherapy (n=1). HIV infection showed a definite trend towards association with the development of CMV retinitis in our study population (p=0.064). Conclusion.The prevalence of CMV retinitis was 4.9% in our sample. Other than HIV, we were not able to identify additional risk factors for CMV retinitis. Our results show that CD4 levels are possibly not a reliable indicator to predict CMV retinitis.
- ItemThe intraocular pressure-lowering properties of intravenous paracetamol(Dove Medical Press, 2016) Van Den Heever, Henning; Meyer, DavidAim: The aim of this paper was to investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-changing properties of a single standard dose of intravenous (IV) paracetamol and compare it to that of topical timolol, oral acetazolamide, and no treatment. Methods: A prospective, randomized, investigator-blind, parallel-group study was conducted in 73 eyes of 52 subjects. Subjects received a single dose of IV paracetamol (1 g), oral acetazolamide (250 mg), topical timolol (0.5%, one drop), or no treatment. Baseline IOP was measured, and the measurement was repeated at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after treatment. Results: Paracetamol reduced IOP from baseline by -10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.9% to -16.8%, P=0.146) at 1 hour, -13.3% (95% CI: -8.3% to -18.4%, P=0.045) at 2 hours, -11.8% (95% CI: -5.5% to -18.4%, P=1.000) at 4 hours, and -23.9% (95% CI: -17.8% to -30.1%, P=0.006) at 6 hours after treatment. In the no-treatment group, the change was -2.9% (95% CI: +1.0% to -6.7%, P= referent) at 1 hour, -2.1% (95% CI: +2.9% to -7.2%, P= referent) at 2 hours, -7.6% (95% CI: -3.9% to -11.2%, P= referent) at 4 hours, and -6.9% (95% CI: -3.6% to -10.2%, P= referent) at 6 hours. Acetazolamide reduced IOP by -18.8% (95% CI: -12.7% to -24.8%, P=0.000) at 1 hour, -26.2% (95% CI: -18.2% to -34.2%, P=0.001) at 2 hours, -24.6% (95% CI: -16.9% to -32.3%, P=0.000) after 4 hours, and -26.9% (95% CI: -19.6% to -34.3%, P=0.000) 6 hours after treatment. Timolol reduced IOP by -31.2% (95% CI: -26.7% to -35.7%, P=0.000) at 1 hour, -27.7% (95% CI: -20.7% to -34.8%, P=0.000) at 2 hours, -28.7% (95% CI: -21.1% to -36.2%, P=0.000) at 4 hours, and -21.3% (95% CI: -13.4% to -30.0%, P=0.030) at 6 hours after treatment. The average change in IOP for the no-treatment group was -4.8% (95% CI: -2.6% to -6.9%, P= referent). It was -15.7% (95% CI: -9.3% to -22.1%, P=0.021) for paracetamol, -23.1% (95% CI: -16.4% to -29.8%, P=0.000) for acetazolamide, and -25.3% for the timolol group (95% CI: -19.4% to -31.2%, P=0.000). The maximal change in IOP for the no-treatment group was -9.2% (95% CI: -3.2% to -15.3%, P= referent). It was -25.9% (95% CI: -16.6% to -35.2%, P=0.009) for paracetamol, -33.8% (95% CI: -25.5% to -42.1%, P=0.000) for acetazolamide, and -36.8% (95% CI: -31.0% to -42.5%, P=0.000) for the timolol group. Conclusion: Intravenously administered paracetamol shows IOP-lowering properties over the first 6 hours after administration. Clinicians performing IOP measurements in patients who have received IV paracetamol in the preceding 6 hours should interpret these measurements with caution. Further studies are needed to investigate the IOP-changing properties of paracetamol.
- ItemPolymerase chain reaction to search for Herpes viruses in uveitic and healthy eyes : a South African perspective(Makerere University, Faculty of Medicine, 2015) Laaks, Debbie; Smit, Derrick Peter; Harvey, JustinObjective: To analyse aqueous polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results in patients diagnosed with undifferentiated uveitis and determine prevalence of herpesviridae in non-uveitic patients undergoing routine cataract extraction. Design: Retrospective comparative case series and prospective cross-sectional study. Subjects: 72 patients with idiopathic uveitis and 57 surgical patients. Methods: Diagnostic aqueous paracentesis with PCR testing for 6 herpes viridae in uveitic patients. Anterior chamber paracentesis immediately pre-operative in the prospective arm, with PCR testing. Results: In the retrospective review we had a 47.2% positive PCR yield. Data analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between a positive yield and being HIV+ (p=0.018); between an EBV+ yield and being HIV+ (p= 0.026) and a CMV+ result and being HIV+ (p=0.032). Posterior uveitis (p=0.014) and symptoms <30 days (p= 0.0014) had a statistically significant yield. In the prospective arm of the study: all 57 patients were HIV- and all aqueous samples were negative for the 6 herpesviridae. Conclusion: We recommend PCR testing for Herpesviridae as a safe second line test for patients with undifferentiated uveitis. We were unable to establish prevalence and suggest that the idea of a commensal herpes virus is unlikely if the blood-ocular barrier is intact