Now showing 1 - 5 of 16
- ItemAn analysis of the social-economic effects of a water crisis on households in the Western Cape: Evidence from Paarl(2022-12) Joseph, Darren Christopher; Mkhize, Mbekezeli Comfort; Madumi, Phathutshedzo; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Water crises affect human beings differently from one country to the next. Many studies have investigated the causes and consequences of water crises, yet the Western Cape’s water crisis remains a serious problem. This study aimed to analyse the socio-economic effects of the Western Cape’s water crisis on households in Paarl. Existing literature, including books, journal articles, conference papers, and Internet articles, was reviewed to gain insight into the phenomenon of water crises. In support of the existing literature, the study employed the qualitative research approach to collect empirical data. Qualitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 20 residents, five municipal officials, and five engineers. Each sample had its own interview guide to gather information from these participants. The study employed the Homer-Dixon environmental scarcity theory and the demand management theory to understand and explain the concept of water crises. The thematic analysis method was used to analyse the qualitative data. The key findings revealed that the water crisis affected all the participants; some had lost their jobs, while others were socially affected. Most respondents believed that the water crisis was caused by a combination of climate change and related and consequent low rainfall, overconsumption, human overpopulation, and water wastage factors. Furthermore, the participants pointed out measures that assisted with managing the water crisis, including water restrictions, increased water tariffs, and water meter monitoring. The respondents also suggested ways how water can be used more sparingly, such as using the same water for multiple purposes and using greywater for non-human consumption purposes, such as watering gardens and filling pools, to name a few. Many of these implemented measures and strategies were successful; however, some residents did not comply and were fined by their municipalities. Participants from across the three cohorts sampled agreed that drilling boreholes, recycling water, and building new dams and reservoirs will assist with the stable supply of water in the long term. Furthermore, the engineer participants indicated that the management and maintenance of dams and reservoirs are crucial for storing water. The relevant authorities should upgrade all existing early warning systems and install them in places that are not yet active. These systems should not only be used to indicate pending crises or disasters but should also be used when there is more than enough water to ensure that contingency measures can be taken. The national government should invest more funds in water desalination plants so that seawater can be made safe for human consumption. Local municipalities should constantly remind the public of water-saving methods to decrease domestic consumption. This should be communicated to all stakeholders to secure buy-in from all affected parties. Further investigation is needed on how regional or local water crises influence both national and local economies. The water crisis in the Western Cape has had a significant impact on the local agricultural sector, which, in turn, influenced the country’s economy. Mitigative measures and solutions require urgent investigation, such as finding a more affordable seawater desalination process.
- ItemEnablers and constraints women encounter in advancing to senior managerial positions: Case of South African Military Health Institutions in the Western Cape(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-12) Cox, Rashaad; Dalton, Wayne; Khoza, Lindiwe Mhakamuni; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Science. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Women to top management positions in the private and public sector in Africa has made good progress. South Africa, in particular, has made notable progress in narrowing the gender gap since 2004. The percentage of women MP’s has increased from 33% in 2004 to 46% in 2019. However, women appear to remain underrepresented on senior management in one of South Africa’s historically male dominated departments, the DOD. The purpose of this case study was to determine the enablers and constraints that women encounter in advancing to managerial positions in Military Health Institutions in the Western Cape. The objectives of the study were to determine the progress made in advancement of women to senior managerial positions in accordance with legislative prescripts; the factors that women experience as enablers in advancing to senior managerial positions; the factors that women experience as constraints in advancing to senior managerial positions; the implications for advancement of women to senior managerial positions for achieving of the strategic objectives of Military Health Institutions. A mixed-method single case study approach was employed to answer the main research question: “What are the enabling and constraining factors women encounter in advancing to senior managerial positions” Qualitative data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, open-ended questionnaires and through SANDF document analysis. Biographic and background information collected through close-ended questions in the research questionnaire and interviews, personnel post profiles, and Unit post structures sourced from military Units targeted in this study have all been reported as frequency statistics. These sources have been statistically analysed as they emerged from literature as either enablers of, or constraints to women progressing to senior managerial positions. The total population for this study consisted of 113 women officers. But due to Covid-19 regulations, Units worked staggered hours, thus the researcher only managed to reach 67 members, 36 of whom completed the questionnaires. Interviews were conducted with OCs, HODs of Human Resource departments, and RSMs from Military Health Institutions in the Western Cape. The results from different sources were integrated and analysed according to the Micro-individual, Meso-organisational, and Macro socio-cultural levels of the multi-relational framework. It emerged from the results that women are relatively well represented in OIC and HOD positions, but no women to date had held an Officer Commanding (OC) post. Gender equality policies are in place, and it is expected of all organisations and businesses to comply, including the SANDF. Thus, it can be argued that on meso level, the organisation neglected to comply with the legislative prescripts introduced on macro level. Compliance with legislative prescripts will ensure gender parity and diversity on all senior managerial levels, thus giving women the opportunity to contribute to the strategic objectives of the country, the DOD, and the SANDF. One limitation of the study is the low response rate by participants in the study, which may be attributed to participants’ busy schedule as they were compelled to provide essential services during national Covid-19 pandemic measures. It is recommended that future studies should include one of South Africa’s major Military Health Institutes, 2 Military Hospital in Wynberg, Cape Town, and all women officers in all areas of specialisations, not only the departments identified for this study. Future research should also focus on whether the DOD and SANDF comply with legislative prescripts in terms of gender equality on all managerial levels.
- ItemAn examination of the rationale behind employee turnover in the South African National Defence Force(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Joseph, Rhondine Candice; Erasmus, Willem; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Employee turnover is an ever present challenge faced by many organisations. Military institutions are no exception. Extraordinary employee turnover impacts adversely the general effectiveness of all organisations, including non-profit organisations. Relatively high employee turnover is seen as a routine phenomenon in military working environments. Thus it is often unknown to line managers and commanders why employees decide to either leave the organisation, or stay. While military leadership regard regular and even high levels of employee turnover as a normal phenomenon, it becomes a cause of concern when increasing numbers of military personnel voluntarily withdraw their services from the organisation. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is a public service institution within the Department of Defence (DOD) governed by the South African Constitution and South African law. For this reason, it is constantly reminded of its primary mandate of providing security, yet also called upon for improved and effective service delivery to the public of South Africa. For effective service delivery and overall security of South Africa, the SANDF needs to focus on the retention of their valuable employees. Through maintaining the effectiveness, well-being and satisfaction of its personnel, it will secure retention of the best. Yet, an unusually high percentage of military personnel leave the SANDF prematurely. Therefore, a study was undertaken to determine the reasons why military employees leave the SANDF, and to investigate factors that may contribute to their decisions to leave. Possible retention strategies would also be investigated. The study had a sample size of 160, of which 140 were members still employed in the SANDF, and 20 members who had resigned. A mixed research approach was adopted in this study. Quantitative data were analysed through IBM SPSS, and a thematic coding system was used to analyse qualitative data. The results of the study revealed that military employees make their decision to leave the SANDF based on three primary factors, namely: unfair treatment; incompetent leaders, managers, seniors; and lack of organisational support. Recommendations were made that policy procedures should be adhered to when decisions are made, that leaders, managers and seniors should undergo a screening process before being appointed in critical command posts, and that support systems be implemented to assist military employees feeling compelled by circumstance to leave the organisation.
- ItemVariables affecting employees of insurance companies in achieving learning outcomes competency brought by regulatory changes(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-12) Malatji, Matsobane Jay; Khoza, Lindiwe Mhakamuni; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Military Sciences. School for Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The FAIS Act 37 of 2002 stipulates the Fit and Proper requirements for employees engaged in intermediary services and advice in the South African Financial Services Sector. They must achieve competency in regulatory learning in order for them to be declared Fit and Proper. Competency is defined from a theoretical perspective to demonstrate a positive outcome when assessed for skills, knowledge and expertise needed for execution of tasks in relation to a financial product a person is authorised to deal in. This research project is a case study. Empirical literature provided a conceptual framework through which the study determined the statistical significance of self-directed learning, organisational culture, change management, time management, emotions, motivation and technology in achieving academic success, which is equated to competency for this study. Purposive sampling was utilised to select two insurance companies in South Africa. Two hundred and eighty-five employees in roles entailing advice and intermediary services were targeted as participants. Quantitative data (close-ended questions) and Qualitative data (open-ended questions) were collected through a questionnaire completed online by participants. Document analysis was conducted through the latest competency register from Company A and FSCA competency report. Company B is exempted as per FAIS Notice 78 of 2019. Qualitative data was also collected using four semi-structured focus groups comprising a minimum of six participants per session. Mixed method was used. Quantitative data was statistically analysed. Linear regression was applied to determine the significance of self-directed learning, organisational culture, change management, time management, emotional intelligence, motivation and technology in achieving competency in regulatory learning. Qualitative data was thematically analysed. The Ascent to Competency model was adopted for this study. It demonstrates that needs of students must be met hierarchically before a learner can ascent to competency. Data revealed that Motivation, Emotions and Organizational Culture are at 5% level of significance with averages of 0.1871, 0.2329 and 0.5879 respectively. Change Management and Time Management are statistically significant at 10% level of significance. On the Ascent to Competency model, Change Management is placed at the first layer of the hierarchy under safety and security, followed by Organisational Culture under belongingness. Time Management, Emotions and Motivation fall within the third hierarchy, called Self-concept. Self-Directed Learning and Technology at 0.0237 and 0.0644 respectively are not statistically significant in explaining the model. Qualitative data revealed that all variables identified in this study have an impact on employees when they engage in regulatory learning to achieve competency. Other variables such as Experience, Family Support, Remuneration Model, and Quality of Training also affect employees. The role of the employer was emphasised strongest by respondents as factor affecting the achievement of competency in regulatory learning requirements. Data showed that employees are not accustomed with potential assistance they could get from the FSCA and InSETA. Employees unable to attain competency face the consequences of either debarment, which leads to job loss, or demotion to jobs outside of the advice and intermediary service sector. It is thus necessary for employees of insurance companies to understand both the barriers to, and enablers of achievement of competency, bearing in mind the implications for not fulfilling Fit and Proper requirements.
- ItemThe South African Air Force (SAAF), unmanned aircraft systems and national security : an exploratory study(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-03) Allworth, Elizabeth May; Liebenberg, Ian; Stellenbosch University. School for Defence Organisation and Resource Management.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The proliferation of unmanned aircraft technologies, whether unarmed or armed, and the ease at which military, non-state actors, terrorists, extremists groups and organised crime syndicates can acquire drone technologies, are becoming an increasing threat on a global scale. Drones are here to stay, and will remain in the public eye for many years to come. The use of unmanned aircraft systems, referred to as drones is a highly relevant and emotionally debated topic all over the world. Most debates focus around the types of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones available to various role players throughout the global community, whether they are armed or unarmed, the various ways in which they are used, the opposition expressed by various humanitarian groups, the lack of international regulations regarding the use of unmanned aircraft, the extreme pace of proliferation of technologically advancements in drones, artificial intelligence (AI) and 3-D technology, and the 4thindustrial revolution (IR). Of equal importance is the impact, threats and challenges which unmanned aircraft systems could possibly have on South Africa’s national security, and on its neighbouring regions such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This, as background, compounded by the severe operational budget cuts with the implication that operational infrastructure, training and a military’s capabilities cannot be maintained. The SAAF, like the SA Navy, is technology driven and requires the best technology money can buy to be an effective and efficient force multiplier. Taken the above budget restrictions and challenges into consideration, it is questioned whether the SAAF could provide prepared and supported air defence capabilities for the defence and protection of South Africa. Similarly, should unmanned aircraft systems in future pose a threat to SA, would the SAAF have the appropriate counter-measures to counter such threats? This study explored the above-mentioned aspects regarding unmanned aircraft systems seen from a global and national level. The military, industrial and commercial aspects of unmanned aircraft systems are discussed. The aim of this study was to explore unmanned aircraft systems within the 21st century, and to identify the current gaps with regard to unmanned aircraft systems employment. In conclusion, the thesis presents recommendations for doctrine, policy and aviation safety in general.