The use of adjuvants to improve fungicide spray deposition on grapevine foliage

Van Zyl, Sybrand Abraham
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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Sufficient fungicide deposition on the target site is an essential requirement for effective chemical management of fruit- and foliar diseases such as grey mould of grapevines. Control failure is often attributed to insufficient quantitative deposition on susceptible grapevine tissue. However, in high disease pressure situations control failure might also be attributed to poor qualitative deposition. The primary objective of spray technology is to optimise deposition, of which the plant surface is a critical component in the spray application process, specifically in the retention of spray droplets. Adjuvant technology is reported to improve the wettability and spread of droplets by surface-acting-agents on the target surface and thereby improve deposition and retention of the fungicide active ingredient. However, this relatively new spray technology on viticulture and horticultural crops, and possible effects of adjuvants on epicuticular wax affecting plant disease development, needs to be investigated. Moreover, the development of useful prescriptions for adjuvants by determining water volumes and adjuvant dosages is required for different pesticide tank mixes. The aims of this study were, firstly to determine the effect of selected adjuvants on quantitative and qualitative spray deposition on grapevine leaves and subsequent biological efficacy of a fungicide, and secondly to evaluate selected adjuvants under field conditions and determine the effects of adjuvant dosage and spray volume on deposition. Leaves were sprayed under similar laboratory conditions to pre-run-off with 1 mL of a mixture of fenhexamid (Teldor® 500 SC, Bayer) at recommended dose, a fluorescent pigment (SARDI Fluorescent Pigment, 400 g/L EC; South Australian Research and Development Institute) at 0.2 L/100 L, as well as 15 selected commercial adjuvants to manipulate the deposition quality of a given quantity of deposited spray. Spray deposition on leaves was illuminated under black light (UV-A light in the 365 nm region) and visualised under a stereo microscope (Nikon SMZ800) at 10× magnification. Photos of sprayed leaf surfaces were taken with a digital camera (Nikon DMX 1200). Digital images were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed with Image-Pro Discovery version 6.2 for Windows (Media Cybernetics) software, to determine spray deposition. The sprayed leaves were inoculated with 5 mg dry airborne conidia of Botrytis cinerea in a spore settling tower and incubated for 24 h at high relative humidity (≥ 93%). Leaf discs were isolated onto Petri dishes with paraquat-amended water agar and rated 11 days later for development of B. cinerea from isolated leaf discs. B. cinerea incidence on the upper and lower surfaces of water sprayed leaves averaged 90.4% and 95.8%, respectively. Despite full spray cover of leaves, applications with fenhexamid alone did not completely prevent infection and resulted in 34.6% and 40.8% B. cinerea incidence on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves, respectively. Through the addition of certain adjuvants, B. cinerea incidences were significantly lower (2.9-17.1% and 10.0-30.8%, respectively), while some adjuvants did not differ from the fungicide-only treatment, even though they might have improved spray deposition. The effects of Hydrosilicote and Solitaire alone and in combination with fenhexamid on germinating Botrytis conidia on leaf surfaces were studied in a histopathology study using epifluorescence microscopy. Distinct differences were observed in conidium mortality, germination and germ tube lengths between adjuvants alone and in combination with the fungicide, which might be attributed to indirect effects of the adjuvant mode of action on B. cinerea. The laboratory study clearly demonstrated the potential of adjuvants to improve the bio-efficacy of a fungicide directly through improved deposition on grapevine leaf surfaces. For the vineyard evaluations, the same fluorometry, photomicrography and digital image analysis protocol were used to assess quantitative and qualitative spray deposits under varying adjuvant dosage and volume applications. The Furness visual droplet-rating technique was initially included to determine optimum spray volume with a STIHL SR400 motorised backpack mistblower by assessment of pigment deposition on Chardonnay leaves under illuminated black light. Both assessment protocols showed that quantitative spray deposition increased with increasing spray volume applications of 40 L/ha to 750 L/ha, but decreased at 900 L/ha, possibly due to run-off. The addition of selected adjuvants at recommended dosage and at 600 L/ha demonstrated the potential of adjuvants to increase quantitative and qualitative deposition significantly on upper and lower leaf surfaces. Agral 90, BB5, Nu-film-P, and Solitaire significantly improved deposition on upper and lower leaf surfaces compared with the fenhexamid only and water sprayed control. Break-thru S 240 and Villa 51 did not improve quantitative deposition, although remarkably better qualitative deposition was obtained. An adjuvant dosage effect (within the registered dosage range) was evident, especially those retained on the upper leaf surfaces. Agral 90 and Nu-film-P affected significant improvement of spray deposition at the higher, but not at the lower dosage tested. Solitaire improved deposition at the lower dosage tested, whereas reduced deposition at the higher dosage was attributed to excessive spray run-off. No significant improvement of spray deposition was observed for both dosages tested with Villa 51. Spray mixtures with adjuvants Agral 90 and Solitaire yielded similar deposition values at 600 L/ha compared with the fenhexamid only control at 900 L/ha, but reduced deposition at the higher spray volume, possibly due to spray run-off. This study clearly demonstrated the potential of adjuvants to improve quantitative and qualitative deposition, but highlights the necessity to match adjuvant dosages and application volumes on the spray target to achieve maximum spray deposition.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Effektiewe beheer van vrug- en blaarsiektes soos vaalvrot op wingerde benodig voldoende deponering van die swamdoder op die teikenoppervlak. Verlies aan beheer word gewoonlik aan onvoldoende kwantitatiewe deponering op vatbare wingerddele toegeskryf. Onder ‟n hoë siektedruk kan mislukte beheer ook moontlik toegeskryf word aan swak kwalitatiewe deponering. Die primêre doelwit van spuittegnologie is om deponering te optimaliseer met die plantoppervlak as ‟n belangrike komponent in die spuittoedieningsproses, spesifiek in die retensie van spuitdruppels. Byvoemiddel tegnologie het bewys dat oppervlak-aktiewe-agente verbeterde benatting en verspreiding van druppels op die teiken oppervlakte tot gevolg kan hê, en verder ook die deponering en retensie van die aktiewe fungisied bestanddele kan verbeter. Hierdie relatiewe nuwe spuittegnologie op wingerd- en hortologiese verbouing, asook die moontlike effekte van byvoegmiddels op epikutikulêre waks om siekte ontwikkeling te beïnvloed, moet ondersoek word. Verder word nuttige aanbevelings benodig vir byvoegmiddel toedienings by verskillende spuitvolumes en dosisse van die betrokke spuitmengsel. Die doelwit van hierdie studie was, eerstens om die effek van sekere byvoegmiddels op kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe spuitbedekking van wingerdblare te bepaal en dan te vergelyk met die biologiese effektiwiteit van ‟n fungisied, en tweedens om van die byvoegmiddels onder veldtoestande te evalueer, asook die effek van byvoegmiddel dosisse en spuitvolumes te bepaal. Blare is onder dieselfde laboratorium toestande tot net voor-afloop met 1 mL van ‟n spuitmengsel, bestaande uit fenhexamied (Teldor® 500 SC, Bayer) teen die aanbevole dosis, ‟n fluoreserende pigment (400 g/L EC; Suid Australiese Navorsing en Ontwikkeling Instituut) teen 0.2 L/100 L, sowel as 15 geselekteerde kommersiële byvoegmiddels gespuit om die kwalitatiewe deponering, vir ‟n gegewe kwantiteit van spuitdeponering, te manipuleer. Die fluoreserende pigment is op die blaaroppervlak belig met ‟n swart lig (UV-A ligbron in die 365 nm golflengte) en deponering is onder ‟n stereo mikroskoop (Nikon SMZ800) teen 10× vergroting waargeneem. Die gespuite blaaroppervlaktes is op die manier met ‟n digitale kamera afgeneem (Nikon DMX 1200), waarna die digitale foto‟s kwantitatief en kwalitatief deur die gebruik van „Image-Pro Discovery version 6.2 for Windows (Media Cybernetics)‟ sagteware geanaliseer is om spuitbedekking te bepaal. Na elke blaarspuit is die blare met 5 mg droë konidia van B. cinerea in ‟n inokulasietoring geïnokuleer en daarna vir 24 h onder hoë relatiewe humiditeit (≥ 93%) geïnkubeer. ‟n Aantal skyfies vanuit elke blaar is op Petri bakkies met paraquat medium geïsoleer en 11 dae later is die persentasie van B. cinerea ontkieming bepaal. Die gemiddelde voorkoms van B. cinerea op die blare wat slegs met water gespuit is, was 90.4% op die boonste en 95.8% op die onderste blaaroppervlaktes. Spuitbehandelings met slegs fenhexamied, ongeag goeie blaarspuitbedekking, kon nie die B. cinerea infeksie ten volle voorkom nie, en infeksie van gemiddeld 34.6% en 40.8% is onderskeidelik op die boonste- en op die onderste blaaroppervlaktes waargeneem. Met die byvoeging van sekere byvoegmiddels het die voorkoms van B. cinerea betekenisvol verminder (2.9-17.1% en 10.0-30.8%, onderskeidelik), terwyl ander byvoegmiddels nie van die fenhexamied behandeling verskil het nie, hoewel hierdie middels meestal wel spuitdeponering verbeter het. Die effek van slegs Hydrosilicote en Solitaire, en in kombinasie met fenhexamied op ontkiemende Botrytis conidia, is bestudeer in ‟n histopatologiese studie deur middel van die gebruik van epifluoresensie mikroskopie op die blaaroppervlak. Duidelike verskille in die aantal dooie konidia, ontkiemingpersentasies en kiembuislengtes is tussen die byvoegmiddels en in kombinasie met fenhexamied waargeneem, waar sommige waarnemings moontlik aan die indirekte effek van die byvoegmiddel op B. cinerea toegeskryf kan word. Hierdie laboratoriumstudie wys duidelik dat byvoegmiddels oor goeie potensiaal beskik om die bio-effektiwiteit van die fungisied te verbeter deur die direkte verbetering van deponering op die wingerdblaaroppervlak. Dieselfde fluorometrie, fotomikrografie en digitale foto-analise protokol is in ‟n wingerd evaluasie om die kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe spuitdeponering van verskillende byvoegmidel dosisse and spuitvolumes te bepaal, gebruik. Die Furness visuele druppel meting tegniek is aanvanklik ingesluit om die optimale spuit volume met ‟n „STIHL SR400 motorised backpack mistblower‟ te bepaal deur visuele meetings van gedeponeerde pigment op Chardonnay blare onder ‟n swart ligbron. Beide protokolle wys dat kwantitatiewe spuitbedekking met ‟n toename in spuit volumes 40 L/ha tot 750 L/ha verbeter het, maar afgeneem het teen 900 L/ha, moontlik as gevolg van druppel-afloop. Die byvoeging van ‟n byvoegmiddel teen die aanbevole dosis en 600 L/ha wys uitstekende potensiaal om kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe deponering betekenisvol op boonste en onderste blaaroppervlaktes te verbeter. Agral 90, BB5, Nu-film-P, en Solitaire het deponering betekenisvol op boonste en onderste blare in vergelyking met die fenhexamied alleen en die water kontrole verbeter. Break-thru S 240 en Villa 51 het nie kwantitatiewe deponering verbeter nie, alhoewel verbeterde kwalitatiewe bedekking met hierdie produkte waargeneem is. ‟n Byvoegmiddel dosis effek (binne die registreerde dosis reeks) was duidelik waarneembaar, veral vir druppel retensie op die boonste oppervlak van blare. Agral 90 and Nu-film-P verbeter die spuit deponering betekenisvol met die hoër getoetste dosis, maar nie teen die lae dosis nie. Solitaire verbeter egter die deponering teen die laer dosis, maar minder deponering teen ‟n hoër dosis kan moontlik toegeskryf word aan oormatige druppel-afloop. In die geval van Villa 51 was geen betekenisvolle verbetering van spuitdeponering vir beide die behandelingsdosisse waargeneem nie. Spuitmengsels met byvoegmiddels, Agral 90 en Solitaire, het soortgelyke deponerings gelewer teen 600 L/ha in vergelyking met die fenhexamied kontrole teen 900 L/ha, maar deponering neem af teen hoër spuitvolumes met byvoegmiddels moontlik as gevolg van druppel-afloop. Hierdie studie wys duidelik die uitstekende potensiaal van Byvoegmiddels om kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe deponering te verbeter, maar beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van die korrekte gebruik van byvoegmiddel dosis en volume om die maksimum spuitdeponering op die teiken te verkry.
Thesis (MScAgric (Plant Pathology))--Stellenbosch University, 2009.
Adjuvants, Fungicides, Spray technology, Grapevines, Dissertations -- Plant pathology, Theses -- Plant pathology, Grapes -- Diseases and pests -- Control