Masters Degrees (Faculty of AgriSciences (former Departments))

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    Profiling male apparel consumers : demographic characteristics, lifestyle, shopping orientation, patronage behaviour and shopping mall behaviour
    (2006-04) Zietsman, Lucille; Visser, E.M.; Van der Merwe, M. E.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Consumer Science.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The retail environment in South Africa is dynamic and complex. The apparel retailing industry functions within an emergent economic milieu, and the consumers it targets are exposed to various factors that influence their shopping behaviour. Some of these factors are shopping orientation, patronage behaviour, lifestyle, and shopping mall behaviour. Male apparel shopping behaviour can therefore be regarded as a complex phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify those factors that influence male apparel shopping behaviour and to determine whether distinct clusters of male apparel shoppers could be identified. Theoretical models in the study discipline of Consumer Behaviour were investigated. The information was synthesised into an expanded conceptual model of variables influencing male apparel shopping behaviour. The variables that are relevant to this study, include demographic characteristics, lifestyle, shopping orientation, patronage behaviour, and shopping mall behaviour. Information for this exploratory study was generated by means of a store-intercept interview. The questionnaire was based on previous research. Trained fieldworkers conducted the interviews with 297 male apparel shoppers. Eight lifestyle components were identified and labelled as follows: Apparel oriented lifestyle; Performing arts defined lifestyle; Media oriented lifestyle; Socialising lifestyle; Sport oriented lifestyle; Published information oriented lifestyle; Relaxing oriented lifestyle as well as Family/community oriented lifestyle. The three shopping orientation components identified were labelled Local store patronage; Credit prone, Brand conscious and fashion innovating; as well as Shopping self-confidence and enjoyment. Four cluster profiles of male apparel shoppers were formed by means of cluster analysis, according to the eight lifestyles components and three shopping orientation components, as well as the 11 patronage behaviour items. Demographic characteristics describing each cluster profile completed the typology of the four male apparel shopper groups. Cluster 1 was the largest (38%) and was labelled Traditionalists. Its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 4. Cluster 2 was labelled Shopping enthusiasts, and its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 3; they comprised 19% of the total group. Cluster 3 was the second largest (30%) cluster and was identified as Dynamics, and its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 3 and 4. Cluster 4 (13%) was labelled as Laggards, and its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 2. It was evident that the male apparel market is not homogeneous and that it could be clustered into distinct segments of male apparel shoppers with similar characteristics. The following can be regarded as the main implications for retailers, shopping mall management, and marketers: • In order to make retailers’ marketing plan more focused and strategic, marketers could make use of the proposed expanded conceptual model that provides them with an overall view of variables influencing male apparel shopping behaviour within a shopping mall environment. The identified profiles of male apparel shoppers could serve as point of departure when composing marketing strategies. • Advertising and promotional campaigns must be versatile in order to cater for the identified cluster profiles of male apparel consumers. • Male apparel consumers behave differently within different retail stores and shopping malls. Retailers and shopping mall management should therefore attempt to understand their consumers’ needs, wants and, more importantly, prerequisites for patronising their stores and/or shopping malls. South African male apparel consumers should not be considered a homogenous group. Further research should be done across various cultural and ethnic groups, as well as across different gender and age groups. This study focused only on a few concepts pertaining to male apparel shoppers aged 20-35. As, a result, further research is needed to assess the impact of these variables on a wider spectrum of apparel consumers, such as males outside this age demarcation, females or teenagers, and mature shoppers. Recommendations for future research were made which can guide and encourage further scientific research in the field of apparel shopping behaviour.
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    Die versoenbaarheid van katoen/nylon- en katoen/poliester- skeringgebreide terriestofhanddoeke met industriele versorgingsprosedures
    (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-10) De Bruin, Riette; Gericke, A.; Viljoen, L.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Consumer Science.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the compatibility of cotton/nylon and cotton/polyester warpknit terry towelling fabrics with industrial laundering procedures. The literature review focused, on the one hand, on the manufacture, finishing and structure of warp-knit terry towelling fabrics as well as on the physical structure, chemical nature and characteristics of the textile fibres used in the manufacturing of the towelling. On the other hand, a full exposition of the industrial laundering processes is provided, with specific reference to aspects that can have an effect on the towelling fabrics during the wash and tumble-drying cycles. Chapters Three and Four are reports on two research projects that can each be read independently. The aim of the first project was to determine the effect of industrial laundering procedures on the durability of cotton warp-knit terry towelling fabrics with a synthetic base structure. The tensile strength of cotton warp-knit terry towelling samples with a synthetic base structure was determined in the warp and weft directions and after 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wash cycles as well as wash and tumble-drying cycles. The tensile strengths in the warp direction of the washed terry towelling samples decreased significantly (p < 0.001) after 50 wash cycles. In contrast to this, the tensile strength in the weft direction increased, although not significantly (p > 0.05). As far as the comparison of the effect of industrial wash and wash and tumble-drying cycles is concerned, the tensile strengths in the warp direction of the towelling samples that were washed and washed/tumble-dried, were significantly lower (p < 0.001) after 20 and after 50 laundering cycles. As far as the tensile strengths in the weft direction were concerned, a similar pattern as with the wash and wash/tumble-drying processes, occurred. The tensile strengths initially increased and then gradually decreased. Furthermore, the tumble-drying process had greater damaging effects after 40 laundering cycles (p = 0.043) and especially after 50 laundering cycles (p < 0.0001). The aim of the second research project was to compare the durability of cotton warp-knit terry towelling fabrics with a nylon base structure with cotton warp-knit terry towelling fabrics with a polyester base structure after they had been subjected to industrial laundering processes. It was first established whether cotton/nylon and cotton/polyester warp-knit terry towelling fabrics are comparable. Secondly, the durability of cotton/nylon and cotton/polyester terry towelling fabrics was compared by determining the tensile strengths of the samples in the warp direction after they have been subjected to 50 industrial wash as well as wash and tumble-drying cycles. The two groups of untreated samples were regarded as similar on the basis of the percentage of fibre composition, knit fabric structure, knit density, mass and tensile strength. After 50 industrial wash cycles the tensile strengths of the cotton/nylon and cotton/polyester warp-knit terry towelling samples decreased significantly (p < 0.05). But there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the tensile strengths of the cotton/nylon and the cotton/polyester terry towelling samples after 50 washing cycles. There was a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between the tensile strengths of the cotton/nylon and the cotton/polyester terry towelling samples after 50 wash and tumble-drying cycles. The tensile strength of the cotton/polyester terry towelling samples remained practically unchanged after the 50 wash/tumble-drying cycles, with the tensile strength of the cotton/nylon terry towelling samples decreased significantly (p < 0.001).
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    Pollen biology in relation to artificial hybridization in the genus Protea
    (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 1995-03) Van der Walt, Izak David; De Bruyn, J. A.; Retief, A. E.; Littlejohn, G. M.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Genetics; Jacobs, Ivan
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Effects of pH,sucrose, boric acid and temperature on in vitro germination of pollen of Protea repens (L.) L. cv. 'Embers' were investigated in hanging-drop culture to establish optimum conditions for germination. Optimum values were found within ranges pH: 5 - 8, sucroseconcentration:0.4 - 0.7 M, boric acid concentration:50 - 500 mg.e-1 , and incubation temperature: 5 - 30°C. Storage temperature and humidity on pollen viability was studied in four Pro tea clones. Pollen was stored at a range of temperatures and relative humidities for up to one year and tested for ability to germinate in vitro. Pollen of P. repens cv. 'Sneyd', P. eximia cv. 'Fiery Duchess' andP. magnifica clone 'T 84 07 OS', stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) and in a freezer (-14° to -18°C), retained a germination percentage as high as that of fresh pollen regardless of humidity. The study showed that long-term storage of protea pollen is not feasible at temperatures above O°C. The correlations between the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) and germinability were found to be low and nonsignificant. Fifteen month old cryopreserved 'Sneyd' pollen was shown to retain its ability to fertilize and set seed equal to that of fresh pollen. 'Sneyd', 'Fiery Duchess' and 'T 84 07 OS' pollen could be repeatedly thawed and frozen in liquid nitrogen before its germinability in vitro decreased. The morphology and size of Protea pollen was studied, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Polymorphic grains were observed in two interspecific hybrids. Very small differences in pollen grain size were recorded between clones/species. The male fertility of 25 interspecific Pro tea hybrids, based on in vitro pollen germinability, was investigated. The majority of hybrids were found to be sufficiently fertile to be used in a breeding programme. Pistil structure and pollen tube pathways were investigated in 'Sneyd' using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pistil had four distinct regions, consisting of the stigma, the vertebra-shaped upper style, the heart-shaped lower style, and the ovary. The pistil had a stylar canal along its entire length and this canal was also the route by which pollen tubes grew to the ovary. Very low numbers of pollen tubes reached the ovary. The breeding system of 'Sneyd' and 'Fiery Duchess' were determined from pollen tube and seed set data, after controlled hand-pollinations. Both clones were found to be fully selfcompatible. Very low percentages autogamous seed set were recorded. Interspecific crosses had a low success rate. An incompatibility reaction probably occurred on the stigma and/or in the upper style regions.The attainment of maximum stigma receptivity of two Protea cultivars was investigated by means of seed set experiments, pollen tube growth observations and measurement of the degree of opening and closing of the stigmatic groove. Both cultivars were found to be protandrous. The maximum stigmatic groove width of both cultivars never exceeded the pollen grain diameter. It was concluded that Protea spp. must be hand-pollinated two to six days after anthesis in order to obtain maximum seed set; while for the observations of pollen tubes in the ovary, inflorescences must not be harvested before seven days after pollination.
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    The effect of regular and micro detergents on the colourfastness and strength of dyed cotton fabric
    (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 1998-12) De Villiers, M. W.
    Please refer to full text.