Zidovudine with nevirapine for the prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission reduces nevirapine resistance in mothers from the Western Cape, South Africa

Van Zyl G.U.
Claassen M.
Engelbrecht S.
Laten J.D.
Cotton M.F.
Theron G.B.
Preiser W.
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In the Western Cape province of South Africa, an intensified regimen for the prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-HIV consisting of zidovudine (AZT) from 34 weeks of pregnancy plus single dose (sd) nevirapine (NVP) during labor was instituted in 2004. The newborn baby receives a single dose of NVP and AZT for 7 days. Similar strategies in Thailand and Africa have been shown to be more effective in reducing transmission than NVP alone. The use of sd NVP only for the prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-HIV has a high risk of inducing resistance (25-69%) with an average of 35.7% by a recent meta-analysis and has been shown to adversely affect non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy when initiated within 6 months. In this study the prevalence of resistance to NVP and AZT in mothers who had received the intensified regimen was measured. Specimens collected from mothers were genotyped by in-house PCR and sequencing. In specimens obtained within 60 days of delivery, acquired NVP resistance mutations were detected in 13 of 76 patients (17.1%, 95% confidence interval: 8.7-25.6%), which appears to be lower than in studies with sd NVP alone (37.5%, 95% confidence interval: 23.0-50.6%). © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
nevirapine, RNA directed DNA polymerase inhibitor, zidovudine, analytic method, article, confidence interval, controlled study, female, gene sequence, genotype, highly active antiretroviral therapy, human, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, major clinical study, monotherapy, polymerase chain reaction, prevalence, risk, single drug dose, South Africa, virus transmission, Anti-HIV Agents, Disease Transmission, Vertical, Drug Resistance, Viral, Female, HIV Infections, HIV Reverse Transcriptase, HIV-1, Humans, Infant, Mutation, Nevirapine, Pregnancy, South Africa, Zidovudine
Journal of Medical Virology