Rwanda and South Africa’s anti-corruption programmes: A comparative study

Snyman, Frans Jacobus (2020-04)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite South Africa’s written commitment to fight corruption, its anti-corruption programme has failed to reduce the level of corruption as confirmed by Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index and the World Bank’s Control of Corruption Indicator. Failure to improve South Africa’s success in combating corruption will have a negative effect on the achievement of sustainable social and economic development and the reduction of poverty and inequality. In order to determine which areas of South Africa’s anti-corruption programme must be addressed to improve its success in fighting corruption, a comparative analysis of Rwanda and South Africa’s anti-corruption programmes was done. Rwanda was chosen due to its perceived successful anti-corruption programme and the fact that scholars suggest that it can be used for peer learning. The strengths and weaknesses of the two programmes were analysed against the extent of corruption, anti-corruption legislative and institutional frameworks, compliance with the mandatory articles of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) Chapters II and III with a focus on Articles 5 and 6, as well as the level of political will to fight corruption using Brinkerhoff’s (2010) seven factors. The study was conducted using the document analysis method. The study found that South Africa complies with the mandatory articles of UNCAC, has the best anti-corruption legislation in Africa and a comprehensive decentralised institutional framework. However, in reality the country’s anti-corruption institutions are not sufficiently independent and free from political interference and are not adequately resourced in terms of material needs and skilled staff. There are serious concerns over the poor co-ordination of South Africa’s anti-corruption programme, the overlapping mandates of anti-corruption institutions and poor public awareness of the anti-corruption programme. Accountability and civil participation were also identified as weaknesses. The study also quantifiably proved that South Africa has a low level of political will to fight corruption. The application of credible sanctions, continuity of effort, public commitment and allocation of resources and the learning and adaptation factors of political will were identified as serious weaknesses in South Africa’s fight against corruption. If South Africa implements the recommendations of this study, corruption will decrease, the National Development Plan Vision 2030’s goals will become more attainable which will lead to lower levels of poverty and inequality. The end result will be that South Africa will be able achieve its envisioned goals of sustainable social and economic development. The contributions of the findings of this study are twofold regarding the existing literature on successfully combating corruption. Firstly, it provided proof of the importance of the implementation of UNCAC through principles such as proper coordination, participation of civil society, integrity, independence, transparency, accountability and the sufficient allocation of material and human resources. Secondly, South Africa’s level of political will to combat corruption was quantifiably measured for the first time.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ten spyte van Suid-Afrika se skriftelike verbintenis om korrupsie te beveg, bevestig Transparancy International se korrupsie persepsie indeks en die Wêreldbank se beheer van korrupsie aanwyser dat die teenkorrupsie program nie daarin geslaag het om die vlak van korrupsie te verlaag nie. As Suid-Afrila nie daarin slaag om meer suksesvol in die bevegting van korrupsie te wees nie, sal dit die bereiking van volhoubare sosiale en ekonomiese ontwikkeling, sowel as die velaging van armoede en ongelykheid negatief beïnvloed. Om vas te stel op watter aspekte van Suid-Afrika se teenkorrupsie program daar gefokus moet word vir beter sukses, is ‘n vergelykende analise van Rwanda en Suid- Afrika se teenkorrupsie programme gedoen. Daar was op Rwanda besluit as gevolg van die land se oënskynlike suksesvolle teenkorrupsie program en omdat geleerdes voorstel dat Rwanda gebruik word vir eweknie leerdery. Die sterk- en swakpunte was geanaliseer op grond van die mate van korrupsie, die wets- en institusionele raamwerke, nakoming van die verpligte artikels van hoofstuk II en III van die Verenigde Nasies se Kovensie teen Korrupsie (VNKTK) met ‘n fokus op Artikels 5 en 6, asook die vlak van politieke wil om korrupsie te beveg gemeet aan die hand van Brinkerhoff (2010) se sewe faktore. Die dokument analise metode was gebruik om die studie doen. Die studie het bevind dat Suid-Afrika voldoen aan die verpligte artikels van die VNKTK, dat die land die beste teenkorrupsie wetgewing in Afrika het, sowel as ‘n uitgebreide, gedesentraliseerde institusionele raamwerk. Die werklikheid is egter dat die land se teenkorrupsie instellings nie behoorlik onhafhanklik en vry van politieke inmenging is nie en ook nie voldoende voorsien is van materiële benodighede en geskoolde personeel nie. Daar is groot bekommernis oor die swak koördinering van Suid-Afrika se teenkorrupsie program, die oorvleueling van die mandate van die instellings en swak openbare bewustheid van die teenkorrupsie program. Verantwoordbaarheid en siviele deelname aan die program was ook as ‘n swakhede geïdentifiseer. Die studie het ook kwantifiseerbaar bewys dat Suid-Afrika se politieke wil om korrupsie te beveg laag is. Die toepassing van geloofwaardige strawwe, die aaneelopendheid van die poging, openbare verbintenis, die voorsiening van hulpbronne en die leer- en aanpassingsfaktore van politieke wil was geïdentifiseer as erge swakhede in Suid- Afrika se bevegting van korrupsie. As Suid-Afrika die aanbevelings van hierdie geskrif implementeer, sal korrupsie verlaag, die Nasionale Ontwikkelingsplan Visie 2030 se doelwitte sal meer haalbaar word, wat tot laer vlakke van armoede en ongelykheid sal lei. Die eindresultaat sal wees dat Suid-Afrika sy voorsienbare doelwitte van volhoubare sosiale en ekonomiese ontwikkeling sal behaal. Die bevindinge van hierdie geskrif dra tweevoudig by tot huidige literatuur oor suksesvolle bevegting van korrupsie. Eerstens het dit die belangrikheid van die implementering van die VNKTK deur beginsels van behoorlike koördinering, die deelname van die burgerlike samelewing, integriteit, onhafhanklikheid, deursigtigheid, verantwoordbaarheid en voldoende toekenning van materiële en menslike hulpbronne bewys. Tweedens was dit die eerste keer dat Suid-Afrika se vlak van politieke wil om korrupsie te beveg kwantifiseerbaar bewys was.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/123185
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