Attention deficit hyperactivity and oppositional defiance disorder in HIV-infected South African children

Zeegers I.
Rabie H.
Swanevelder S.
Edson C.
Cotton M.
van Toorn R.
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Objective: To determine the prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiance disorder (ODD) in HIV-infected South African children. Methods: Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV) questionnaires were used to determine ADHD and ODD severity and a draw-a-person (DAP) test was used to screen for developmental disorders. Associations between behavioural subtypes, psychological functioning, demographic and health variables were investigated. Results: The SNAP-IV caregiver questionnaires showed a 26% prevalence of ADHD inattentive type; 38% hyperactive type and 24% combined type. The prevalence of ODD was 12% on parent questionnaires and 9.5% on teacher's questionnaires. Conclusions: Parents/caregiver-only SNAP-IV questionnaires indicate a high prevalence of significant ADHD (all subtypes) and ODD in HIV-infected children. No significant differences were found between the severity of HIV disease and the presence of a behavioural disorder. The SNAP IV questionnaires and DAP test may prove valuable screening tools in HIV children with behavioural problems. © The Author [2009]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
article, attention deficit disorder, caregiver, child, child behavior, child health, diagnostic test, diagnostic value, disease severity, draw a person test, female, human, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, major clinical study, male, Nolan Questionnaire, oppositional defiant disorder, Pelham Questionnaire, prevalence, psychological aspect, questionnaire, school child, South Africa, Swanson Questionnaire, African Continental Ancestry Group, Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Caregivers, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Male, Mental Disorders, Parents, Prevalence, Psychometrics, Severity of Illness Index, Socioeconomic Factors, South Africa, Teaching
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics