The use of racial and ethnic categories in the conduct of research has resulted in
deep divisions in the scientific community in South Africa. Given our history of
racial segregation and the subsequent democratic dispensation in a nonracial country,
this type of division ought not to occur in the twenty-first century. Good science
ought to be based on strong ethical principles. This chapter will explore the delicate
relationship between science and ethics. As a point of departure, the historical origin
of racial classification will be briefly discussed, as it is integral to understanding the
ethics of racialised science.