A culture of peace? Ethnic partitioning in Pakistan and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Chance, Samantha Jane (2020-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ethnic partitioning is regarded as a solution to ethnic conflict that aims to achieve a degree of negative peace, defined as the absence of violence. While negative peace is an important element of contemporary peace studies, in the recent decades there has been a new appreciation for positive peace, especially as it relates to conflict resolution theory. A problem can be identified while reviewing the literature on ethnic partitioning pertaining to its relevance as a method of conflict resolution for its main assumptions are primarily based on principles of negative peace. Most of these assumptions do not directly relate to fostering values associated with positive peace that are now regarded as essential for sustaining a peaceful environment. For this reason, this study has aimed to assess the success of ethnic partitioning as a method of conflict resolution, incorporating elements of both negative and positive peace. In doing so, it has assessed its ability to foster a sustainable culture of peace. A research design and methodology must enable a thorough assessment of ethnic partitioning’s ability to foster a sustainable culture of peace in a variety of contexts as this will lead to a conclusion as to whether ethnic partitioning can be regarded as an effective method of conflict resolution. A case study comparative analysis is the most optimal method for this assessment as it is able to compare cases of ethnic partitioning in relation to various cultural and identity factors associated with a culture of peace. To structure this analysis, the cases of Pakistan and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) have been compared against the prescriptions for a culture of peace outlined in the official United Nations’ “Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace”, or more specifically, De Rivera’s (2004) categorisation of these prescriptions and indicators into four distinct dimensions, namely liberal development, violent inequality, state use of violent means, and nurturance. The two cases were assessed on whether they fulfilled the prescriptions for a culture of peace in each dimension. The comparative analysis has found that ethnic partitioning has failed to foster a sustainable culture of peace in Pakistan and the TRNC as all dimensions outlined by De Rivera (2004) are linked to norms associated with exclusion, intolerance, blame and violence. While ethnic partitioning aims to decrease the intensity of the security dilemma naturally stimulated through ethnic conflict, in the long-term the security dilemma is only extended and heightened. When a country is partitioned and violent processes associated with homogenisation are implemented, the points of contention that sparked the ethnic conflict are only further entrenched and new points of contention and hostility are created. The fear associated with living amongst hostile members of an opposing ethnic group are merely transformed into fears of international violence and potential invasion. In conclusion, this comparative analysis of the cases of Pakistan and the TRNC has found that ethnic partitioning, having been analysed as a method of conflict resolution, is unable to foster a sustainable culture of peace.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Etniese partisie word beskou as ‘n konflikbestuursmetode wat ten doel het om ‘n mate van negatiewe vrede, wat omskryf word as die afwesigheid van geweld, te bewerkstellig. Hoewel negatiewe vrede ‘n belangrike element van hedendaagse vredestudies is, is daar in onlangse dekades ‘n nuwe waardering vir positiewe vrede, veral wat konflik-oplossingsteorie betref. ‘n Probleem kan geïdentifiseer word terwyl die letterkunde oor etniese partisie nagegaan word, betreffende die toepaslikheid daarvan as ‘n konflik-oplossingsmetode, want die vernaamste aannames daaroor word hoofsaaklik gegrond op beginsels van negatiewe vrede. Die meeste van hierdie aannames word nie direk in verband gebring daarmee om waardes te kweek wat met positiewe vrede geassosieer word nie, wat tans as noodsaaklik beskou word om ‘n vreedsame omgewing te handhaaf. Hierdie studie het daarom ten doel om die sukses van etniese partisie as ‘n konflik-oplossingsmetode vas te stel, en dit sluit elemente van beide negatiewe en positiewe vrede in. In die loop daarvan het dit die mate bepaal waartoe etniese partisie in staat is om ‘n volhoubare vredeskultuur te kweek. ‘n Navorsingsontwerp en -metodologie moet ‘n deeglike beoordeling moontlik maak van die vermoë van etniese partisie om ‘n volhoubare vredeskultuur in ‘n verskeidenheid kontekste te kan kweek, aangesien dit tot ‘n gevolgtrekking sal lei of etniese partisie ‘n effektiewe konflik-oplossingsmetode is. ‘n Vergelykendegeleding-gevallestudie is die beste metode vir hierdie beoordeling, aangesien dit gevallle van etniese partisie kan vergelyk met betrekking tot verskillende kulturele en identiteitsfaktore wat met ‘n vredeskultuur verband hou. Om hierdie ontleding te struktureer is die gevalle van Pakistan en die Turkse Republiek van Noord-Ciprus (TRNC) vergelyk met die voorskrifte vir ‘n vredeskultuur soos omskryf in die Verenigde Nasies se amptelike “Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace” of meer spesifiek, De Rivera (2004) se kategorisering van hierdie voorskrifte en aanwysers in vier duidelike dimensies, naamlik liberale ontwikkeling, gewelddadige ongelykheid, geweld wat deur die regering gebruik, en koestering. Die twee gevalle is beoordeel op grond daarvan of hulle in elke dimensie aan die voorskrifte vir ‘n vredeskultuur voldoen het. Die vergelykende ontleding het bevind dat entniese partisie in gebreke gebly het om ‘n volhoubare vredeskultuur in Pakistan en die TRNC te kweek, aangesien al die dimensies wat deur De Rivera (2004) omskryf is gekoppel is aan norme wat verband hou met uitsluiting, onverdraagsaamheid, blamering en geweld. Hoewel etniese partisie dit ten doel het om die intensiteit van die sekuriteitsdilemma, wat uiteraard deur etniese konflik gestimuleer word, te laat afneem, word die sekuriteitsdilemma oor die lang termyn net verleng en verskerp. Wanneer ‘n land gepartisie word en gewelddadige prosesse wat met homogenisasie verband hou geïmplementeer word, word die twispunte wat die etniese konflik veroorsaak het net verder gevestig en ontstaan nuwe twispunte en vyandigheid. Die vrees wat verband hou daarmee om tussen vyandiggesinde lede van ‘n etniese teenparty te bly word bloot omskep in die vrees vir internasionale geweld en potensiële inval. Ter afsluiting, het hierdie vergelykende ontleding van die gevalle van Pakistan en die TRNC bevind dat etniese partisie, ontleed as ‘n konflik-oplossingsmetode, nie in staat is daartoe om ‘n volhoubare vredeskultuur te kweek nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108098
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