The potential of LPS-binding protein to reverse amyloid formation in plasma fibrin of individuals with Alzheimer-type dementia
CITATION: Pretorius, E., et al. 2018. The potential of LPS-binding protein to reverse amyloid formation in plasma fibrin of individuals with Alzheimer-type dementia. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 10:257, doi:10.3389/fnagi.2018.00257.
The original publication is available at https://www.frontiersin.org
Many studies indicate that there is a (mainly dormant) microbial component in the progressive development of Alzheimer-type dementias (ADs); and that in the case of Gram-negative organisms, a chief culprit might be the shedding of the highly inflammagenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from their cell walls. We have recently shown that a highly sensitive assay for the presence of free LPS [added to platelet poor plasma (PPP)] lies in its ability (in healthy individuals) to induce blood to clot into an amyloid form. This may be observed in a SEM or in a confocal microscope when suitable amyloid stains (such as thioflavin T) are added. This process could be inhibited by human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). In the current paper, we show using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy with amyloid markers, that PPP taken from individuals with AD exhibits considerable amyloid structure when clotting is initiated with thrombin but without added LPS. Furthermore, we could show that this amyloid structure may be reversed by the addition of very small amounts of LBP. This provides further evidence for a role of microbes and their inflammagenic cell wall products and that these products may be involved in pathological clotting in individuals with AD.