Leesbegripprobleme van niemoedertaalsprekers in Afrikaanshuistaalklasse : moontlike oplossingstrategieë
CITATION: Basson, M. & Le Cordeur, M. 2018. Leesbegripprobleme van niemoedertaalsprekers in Afrikaanshuistaalklasse : moontlike oplossingstrategieë. LitNet Akademies, 15(3):1065-1089.
The original publication is available at https://www.litnet.co.za
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Constitution of South Africa and the Language in Education Policy (LiEP) promulgated in 1998 both recognise the equal status of 11 official languages in South Africa. The aim of the LiEP is to ensure meaningful access to education for all learners. Parents of non-mother-tongue speaking children exercise their democratic right by enrolling their children in Afrikaans- or English-medium schools, because they believe education in Afrikaans- or English-medium will give them an advantage in the future. Consequently, teachers in South Africa are challenged by the presence of diverse languages and cultures in their classes, which poses unique challenges in the classroom. Epistemological issues relevant to teaching pedagogies are not emphasised sufficiently during in-service teacher training. The ability of teachers to develop new knowledge as well as thinking about and finding new solutions has therefore been inhibited. It is important that teachers realise the implications that epistemological issues have for reading comprehension skills. This includes the education of non-mother-tongue speakers in Afrikaans Home Language classes. Teacher development has not incorporated knowledge of the relationship between language and cognition, or strategies for promoting reading comprehension in a non-mother-tongue environment. This article reports on a study which investigated and addressed the professional development needs of teachers to improve their pedagogies regarding the reading comprehension of non-mother-tongue speakers in Afrikaans-medium classes. A professional development programme was designed and implemented based on collected data. The investigation was undertaken against the background of the poor overall achievement of pupils in the national systemic evaluations and international assessment studies, which is currently a cause of great concern. Teachers have indicated that they feel frustrated and overwhelmed, because they do not have adequate knowledge to support non-mother-tongue speakers in their classes. Therefore, they have expressed the need for professional development to assist them to improve their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in this regard. One of the learning theories underpinning the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) is socio-constructivism. Implications of socio-constructivism for teachers are that they should not only provide an environment within which pupils can discover and explore on their own, but that the teachers should also consider themselves to be active participants with their pupils by learning from them, giving information, reminders and encouragement. However, the continued dichotomising of teacher-centred and learner-centred pedagogies is not helpful for improving the quality of teaching, because teachers continue to practise both approaches. Teacher trainers should therefore keep this in mind when planning professional development activities. This should take place through discussion, problem-solving, exploration of different reading and comprehension strategies and their implementation. This enables teachers to construct their own knowledge, establishing them as independent learners. Action research as part of a mixed-method approach was the chosen design for this study. Empirical data was generated by two cycles of this action research study. In this way, research questions could be explored without the constraints of using only one research method. During the first cycle the problems that lead to the poor performance of non-mother-tongue speakers in primary schools in South Africa were investigated. This investigation included a literature review of the status of literacy in South Africa, the causes of poor comprehension skills of non-mother-tongue speakers, and the processes of reading and reading comprehension. This was followed by a questionnaire to gather quantitative and qualitative data on the professional development needs of in-service teachers. Data gathered from the literature study as well as the questionnaires was used to design a professional development programme to expand the existing pedagogical repertoire of in-service teachers so that they are better able to support the reading comprehension of non-mother-tongue speakers in their Intermediate Phase Afrikaans classes. During cycle two a professional development programme was implemented to address the identified professional development needs of the teachers, which included the following: understanding action research, practising reflective thinking, deepening their knowledge of the process of reading by discussing the different reading models and their respective advantages and disadvantages, reading strategies, reading comprehension strategies, and lastly strategies to enhance vocabulary. After completing this programme the teachers implemented the new pedagogies in their classes. The participating teachers recorded their experiences in journals, which produced valuable qualitative data regarding the classroom implementation process. Furthermore, classroom observations were conducted by the researchers to determine whether the teachers were able to implement the pedagogies acquired during the professional development sessions. Additional data was obtained by conducting semi-structured interviews. The qualitative data was coded and grouped into categories by using the research questions, questionnaires, interview schedules and observation schedules as guidelines. Data collected from these data sources was analysed and discussed and then compared in what is called side-by-side comparison. Quantitative data was analysed by the Centre for Statistical Analysis (CSA) of the University of Stellenbosch by using the McNemar Chi-square test as well as the mixed-model repeated measures “analysis of variance” (ANOVAs). Findings before commencement of the professional development programme indicated that the majority of the respondents had received no professional development on reading models and reading strategies, nor on comprehension strategies to enhance the reading and comprehension skills of the non-mother-tongue speakers in their Afrikaans-medium classes. Furthermore, 84% of the respondents indicated that they do not explicitly teach comprehension strategies. The study indicated that the professional development programme may have had a positive influence on the PCK of the participating teachers regarding reading models and strategies as well as comprehension strategies. Similarly, the programme may have resulted in increased implementation of these strategies in their classes, as indicated by the 92% of participants who explicitly taught comprehension strategies after the conclusion of the professional development programme. The results show that the participants’ implementation of action research may have contributed to effective application of reading and reading comprehension strategies. The responsibility to ensure that pre- and in-service teachers receive professional development, which should include the appropriate methodologies and strategies to adequately support the literacy skills of non-mother-tongue speakers, lies with universities and the Department of Basic Education. The study, its findings and recommendations can therefore be used as a resource for the development of training programmes to improve teacher PCK regarding the enhancement of the reading comprehension of non-mother-tongue speakers.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Grondwet van Suid-Afrika, asook die Taal-in-Onderwysbeleid (TiOB), verskaf gelyke status aan die 11 amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika. Ouers voer dus hulle demokratiese reg uit deur hulle kinders in Afrikaans- of Engelsmediumskole te plaas, omdat hulle van mening is dat die vermoё om Engels of Afrikaans magtig te wees tot beter geleenthede in die toekoms sal lei. Gevolglik het onderwysers toenemend te kampe met leerders uit diverse agtergronde wat nie die taal van onderrig en leer magtig is nie. Dit lei tot unieke uitdagings in die klaskamer. Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n navorsingstudie wat onderneem is om die professioneleontwikkelingsbehoeftes van onderwysers met betrekking tot die bevordering van die leesbegrip van niemoedertaalsprekers in Afrikaanshuistaalklasse te ondersoek. Gebaseer op die data wat gegenereer is, is ’n professioneleontwikkelingsprogram ontwerp en geїmplementeer. Hierdie studie het ’n gemengde navorsingsbenadering gevolg. Empiriese data is gegenereer deur middel van kwantitatiewe data (geslote vraelyste) en kwalitatiewe data (oop vraelyste, onderwysersjoernale, klaskamerwaarnemings asook onderhoude met onderwysers). Aangesien hierdie studie navorsing oor die professionele ontwikkeling van onderwysers behels, is ’n teoretiese raamwerk wat hulle voortgesette professionele ontwikkeling en groei in ag neem, oorweeg soos beskryf deur Shulman (1987:9). Gesprekke voor die aanvang van die studie dui daarop dat die meerderheid deelnemers geen professionele ontwikkeling ondergaan het aangaande die bevordering van lees- en leesbegripstrategieë van niemoedertaalsprekers in hulle Afrikaanshuistaalklasse nie, en die meerderheid respondente het aangedui dat hulle nie leesbegripstrategieë eksplisiet onderrig nie. Bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat die professioneleontwikkelingsprogram ’n positiewe invloed op die opvoedkundige inhoudskennis van die deelnemende onderwysers rakende leesmodelle en -strategieë sowel as leesbegripstrategieë gehad het. Eweneens het die professioneleontwikkelingsprogram gelei tot die verhoogde implementering van leesbegripstrategieë in hulle klasse. Voorts dui die resultate daarop dat aksienavorsing moontlik ’n bydrae kon lewer tot die effektiewe toepassing van lees- en leesbegripstrategieë in die deelnemende onderwysers se klasse. Die studie, die bevindinge en aanbevelings kan as verwysing dien wanneer professionele ontwikkeling van onderwysers beplan word, veral wat betref die bevordering van onderwysers se opvoedkundige inhoudskennis aangaande lees- en leesbegripstrategieë van niemoedertaalsprekers.