Research Articles (Exercise, Sport and Lifestyle Medicine)

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    Legal and illegal ruck cleanouts in South African non-professional youth rugby
    (SAGE, 2019) Kruger, Stephanie; Moore, Lee; Viljoen, Wayne; Lambert, Mike; Readhead, Clint; Kraak, Wilbur Julio
    The ruck area is responsible for the second-highest number of rugby union injuries, therefor it is necessary to investigate and understand the ruck better for improved player safety. The study aimed to investigate and compare incidents of legal and illegal ruck cleanouts in non-professional youth rugby. Using Nacpsort Scout Plus software, 118 South African Rugby Union under 18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2015 and 2019. In total, 35 545 ruck cleanouts were coded, of which 32 641 (91.8%) were legal and 2 904 (8.2%) were illegal. Of the 2 904 illegal cleanouts, 2 676 (92.2%) were deemed ‘not dangerous’ and 228 (7.8%) were considered ‘dangerous’. The ‘dangerous’ ruck cleanouts represented 0.6% of the total ruck cleanouts. Of the most common illegal ruck cleanouts, “not supporting own body weight” were mostly ‘not dangerous’ (2 498; 99.4%, p=0.01); and all “neck rolls” were considered ‘dangerous’ (147; 100.0%, p=0.02). The findings of the study suggest player behaviour can still be improved, with regular participation in regular safe and effective technique training drills. The risk of injury during the ruck can further be influenced positively by coaches, through regular coaching and training of safe and effective ruck techniques.
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    Cultural and social experiences and legacies of Esop Suliman and contemporaries in Wellington, South Africa, 1900-19381
    (SABINET, 2020-07) Cleophas, Francois J.
    This study attempts to investigate socio-cultural experiences of Esop Suliman, an immigrant from India, in the rural parts of the Cape Colony, South Africa, roundabout the turn of the 20th century until 1938 in the Cape Province. Special emphasis is placed on the town of Wellington. The study differs from previous work on Indian history in South Africa that tended to focus on leadership. It focuses on an individual, Esop Suliman, his family and contemporaries through archival searches, interviews and the author’s own recollections. The study commences with a cursory literature review of Indian immigration to South Africa, followed by a historical overview of Indian presence in Wellington prior to the Second World War. Historical narratives, in particular regarding Esop Suliman, were collected from archives and personal interviews in order to answer the research question: How did Esop Suliman and other immigrants from India negotiate the Cape Colony’s segregationist practices and other restrictions to which they were subjected by the local authorities? The biographies of Esop Suliman, his family and contemporaries relied on previous research findings that drew conclusions about matters related to travel, business, marriage and family life, assimilation and identity consciousness. A conclusion was drawn that the individuals in this study had mapped pathways for themselves by having possessed the ability to establish social networks across cultural divides, showing what it meant to be human. This humanity left a legacy for their descendants to expand on.
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    Creating a historical sport narrative of Zonnebloem College for classroom practice
    (South African Society for History Teaching, 2020) Cleophas, Francois Johannes
    This article attempts to create a sport narrative of the Zonnebloem College prior to 1950. The introduction provides a motivation for proceeding with a decolonising format and lays out what the elements of such a format would entail. Next, an overview of sport historical developments at the Zonnebloem College is explored. The administrative history of sport at Zonnebloem is explored as well as selected sport codes. Finally, the article is summarised and concluded by presenting teachers and learners with sample questions, which they could consider using in their local conditions.
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    High concussion rate in student community Rugby Union players during the 2018 season : implications for future research directions
    (Frontiers, 2019-12-04) Brown, James Craig; Starling, Lindsay Toyah; Stokes, Keith; Viviers, Pierre; Jordaan, Esme; Surmon, Sean; Derman, Elton Wayne
    Collision sports, such as Rugby Union (“Rugby”) have a particularly high risk of injury. Of all injuries common to collision sports, concussions have received the most attention due to the potentially negative cognitive effects in the short- and long-term. Despite non-professional Rugby players comprising the majority of the world’s playing population, there is relatively little research in this population. Stellenbosch Rugby Football Club (“Maties”), the official rugby club of Stellenbosch University, represents one of the world’s largest non-professional Rugby clubs, making this an ideal cohort for community-level injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and events associated with concussion in this cohort. Baseline demographics were obtained on the 807 male student Rugby non-professional players who registered for the 10-week long 2018 season, which comprised 101 matches and 2,915 of exposure hours. All match-related injuries were captured by the medical staff of Stellenbosch Campus Health Service on an electronic form developed from the consensus statement for injury recording in Rugby. The mean age, height and weight of this cohort were 20 2 years, 182 7 cm and 88 14 kg, respectively. Overall, there were 89 time-loss injuries, which equated to an injury rate of 30.6 per 1,000 match hours [95% confidence intervals (CIs): 24.2–36.9], or about one injury per match. The most common injury diagnosis was “concussion” (n = 27 out of 90 injuries, 30%), at a rate of 9.3 per 1,000 match hours (95% CIs: 5.8–12.8). The three most common mechanisms of concussion in the present study were performing a tackle (33%), accidental collision (30%) and being tackled (11%). Concussion was the most common injury in this population, at a rate that was six times higher than the most comparable study from the UK, which had far more exposure time over six seasons and wider range of player ability, from recreational to semi-professional. This might be explained by the training and vigilance of the club’s first aiders observing all matches for concussion. Future studies should try to explain this high rate and subsequently reduce these concussions. The addition of video surveillance data would assist in identifying the etiology of these concussions injuries in order to develop specific targeted interventions.
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    Infectious Diseases Outbreak Management Tool for endurance mass participation sporting events : an international effort to counteract the COVID-19 spread in the endurance sport setting
    (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021) Adami, Paolo Emilio; Cianca, John; McCloskey, Brian; Derman, Wayne; Steinacker, Juergen Michael; O'Connor, Francis; Migliorini, Sergio; Budgett, Richard; Yamasawa, Fumihiro; Lereim, Inggard; Bigard, Xavier; Troyanos, Chris; Garrandes, Frederic; Bermon, Stephane
    No abstract available