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How the ANC, the DA and the EFF construct South Africa as a nation

dc.contributor.advisorAdams-Jack, Ubanesiaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorKoekemoer, Anjaen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Political Science.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2017-11-22T14:27:41Z
dc.date.accessioned2017-12-11T11:01:50Z
dc.date.available2017-11-22T14:27:41Z
dc.date.available2017-12-11T11:01:50Z
dc.date.issued2017-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102844
dc.descriptionThesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: The ‘nation’ is a powerful social construct. How it is understood has significant consequences for a society and its people. Actors compete for the ability to define the ‘nation’ as a means to spread their views and influence. Consequently, the conceptualisation of the nation remains subject to discursive contest and susceptible to change. South Africa is no stranger to the nation being redefined. Pre-1994 South Africa was shaped by segregationist policies. During apartheid, race determined national identity and the relationship among racial groups. The different ethnic nations co-existed in the South African territory, but they did not do so as equals. Non-white populations were oppressed and exploited and this provoked a struggle, which culminated in the country’s liberation in the 1990s with a negotiated settlement. The 1994 election symbolically marked the beginning of post-apartheid South Africa. It was also used as an opportunity to promote a reinvented South African nation. This ‘new’ national identity was to be based on inclusivity, equality and diversity. Archbishop coined the term ‘rainbow nation’ to reflect this vision for post-apartheid South Africa. The socio-political context in which South Africa as a nation is constructed has changed since 1994. Political parties have started to strategically focus on difference in order to win or maintain political support (Sarakinsky, 2001). This led to the research question of how three important political parties in South Africa, namely the African National Congress (ANC), the Democratic Alliance (DA) and the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), construct South Africa as a nation. Bacchi’s (2004) concept ‘problem representation’ was applied to official political party documents and political parties’ social media to examine their respective constructions of the nation. Bacchi (2004) argues that by using problem representations one can identify certain underlying assumptions that are implicitly being promoted by the construction of the problem. The concept ‘problem representation’ was used to identify what assumptions underpin their construction of the South African nation by analysing constructions of public policy problems and by looking at what these political parties find problematic about the notion of a Rainbow Nation. The ANC and the DA share a commitment to the ‘rainbow nation’. Both parties see unity, diversity and equality as desirable and as the foundation of South African national identity. In contrast, the EFF rejects the 1994 national narrative. They do not regard it as a reimagination of South African national identity and dispute the premise that the ‘new’ South Africa is based on the principles of equality, unity and diversity. According to the EFF, the nation remains ethnically, or racially, defined and black people remains subjugated. Support for the EFF indicates that political parties can benefit from promoting an alternative construction of the nation. However, discarding an inclusive, civic national identity can come at the cost of developing a more socially cohesive South Africa in the long run.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANS OPSOMMING: Die begrip ‘nasie’ is ‘n kragtige sosiale konstruksie. Die verstaan hiervan het beduidende gevolge vir die samelewing en sy mense. Die begrip word gebruik om beleid te formuleer en speel daarom ‘n groot rol in die vorming van standpunt en uitbreiding van invloed in die samelewing. Gevolglik bly die konseptualisering van die ‘nasie’ onderhewig aan diskursiewe geskille en vatbaar vir verandering. Om ‘n nasie so te herdefinieer is natuurlik nie vreemd aan Suid-Afrika nie. Voor 1994 was Suid-Afrika immers gevorm deur segregasie politiek. Gedurende apartheid het ras, en die verhouding tussen verskillende rasse, die nasionale identiteit bepaal. Die verskillende etniese groepe het so as aparte groepe van mekaar bestaan - nie as gelykes van mekaar nie. Nie-wit gemeenskappe is onderdruk en uitgebuit. Dit het gely tot die bevrydingstryd wat uitgeloop het op die onderhandelde skikking in die 1990’s. Die 1994-verkiesing het egter die simboliese begin van post-apartheid Suid-Afrika beteken. Dit was ook ‘n geleentheid om ‘n ‘nuwe’ Suid-Afrikaanse nasie te vestig. Inklusiwiteit, gelykheid en diversiteit sou die fondasie vir die ‘nuwe’ nasionale identiteit vorm. Hiervoor het aartsbiskop Desmond Tutu die konsep van ‘n ‘reёnboognasie’ geskep. Dit moes ‘n nuwe droom vir post-apartheid Suid-Afrika weerspieël. Die sosiale konteks waarin Suid-Afrika as ‘n nasie gevorm is, het egter sedert 1994 verander. Politieke partye het strategies al meer gefokus op verskille in ‘n poging om politieke steun te behou of te werf (Sarakinsky, 2001). Dit het gely tot hierdie navorsing waarin die vraag beantwoord word oor hoe drie belangrike politieke partye in Suid-Afrika, naamlik die African National Congress (ANC), die Demokratiese Alliansie (DA) en die Ekonomiese Vryheidsvegters (EFF) Suid-Afrika as a nasie definieer. Bacchi (2004) se konsep van ‘probleemvoorstelling’ is aangewend in die bestudering van amptelike dokumente en sosiale media van die verskillende politieke partye, om die verskille in die verstaan van ‘n ‘nasie’ uit te wys. Bacci (2004) voer aan dat deur die konsep van ‘probleemvoorstelling’ onderliggende vertrekpunte reeds eksplisiet bevorder word. Die konsep van ‘probleemvoorstelling’ is gebruik om te identifiseer watter aannames gebruik word in die konstruksie van die Suid-Afrikaanse nasie. Dit is gedoen deur openbare beleidsprobleme te ontleed en agter te kom wat hierdie politieke partye as problematies ervaar in die idee van ‘n Reënboognasie. Die ANC en die DA deel ‘n verbintenis tot die konsep van ‘n ‘reёnboognasie’. Albei partye sien eenheid, diversiteit en gelykheid as wenslik en as die grondslag in hul konstruksie van ‘n nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse nasie. In teenstelling hiermee verwerp die EFF hierdie nasionale narratief van 1994. Hulle beskou dit nie as 'n herkenning van Suid-Afrikaanse nasionale identiteit nie en betwis die veronderstelling dat die 'nuwe' Suid-Afrika gebaseer is op die beginsels van gelykheid, eenheid en diversiteit. Volgens die EFF bly die nasie etnies of rassisties gedefinieer en swartmense bly onderdruk. Ondersteuning vir die EFF dui daarop dat politieke partye wel voordeel kan trek uit die bevordering van 'n alternatiewe konstruksie van die nasie. Die wegdoen van 'n inklusiewe, burgerlike nasionale identiteit kan egter op die lange duur ten koste wees van ‘n groter eenheid (kohesie) tussen alle Suid-Afrikaners.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxi, 108 pagesen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectNationalism -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectEthnic relations -- Political aspects -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectPost-apartheid era -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTD
dc.titleHow the ANC, the DA and the EFF construct South Africa as a nationen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


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