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Enhanced therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients by short-term fasting : the autophagy connection

dc.contributor.authorVan Niekerk, Gustaven_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHattingh, Suzel M.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorEngelbrecht, Anna-Marten_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-15T07:08:19Z
dc.date.available2017-08-15T07:08:19Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationVan Niekerk, G., Hattingh, S. M. & Engelbrecht, A. M. 2016. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients by short-term fasting : the autophagy connection. Frontiers in Oncology, 6:242, doi:10.3389/fonc.2016.00242en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn2234-943X (online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.3389/fonc.2016.00242
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102103
dc.descriptionCITATION: Van Niekerk, G., Hattingh, S. M. & Engelbrecht, A. M. 2016. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients by short-term fasting : the autophagy connection. Frontiers in Oncology, 6:242, doi:10.3389/fonc.2016.00242.en_ZA
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at http://journal.frontiersin.orgen_ZA
dc.description.abstractPreclinical studies suggest that fasting prior to chemotherapy may be an effective strategy to protect patients against the adverse effects of chemo-toxicity. Fasting may also sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. It is further suggested that fasting may similarly augment the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. The primary mechanism mediating these beneficial effects is thought to relate to the fact that fasting results in a decrease of circulating growth factors. In turn, such fasting cues would prompt normal cells to redirect energy toward cell maintenance and repair processes, rather than growth and proliferation. However, fasting is also known to upregulate autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that is upregulated in response to various cell stressors. Here, we review a number of mechanisms by which fasting-induced autophagy may have an impact on both chemo-tolerance and chemo-sensitization. First, fasting may exert a protective effect by mobilizing autophagic components prior to chemo-induction. In turn, the autophagic apparatus can be repurposed for removing cellular components damaged by chemotherapy. Autophagy also plays a key role in epitope expression as well as in modulating inflammation. Chemo-sensitization resulting from fasting may in fact be an effect of enhanced immune surveillance as a result of better autophagy-dependent epitope processing. Finally, autophagy is involved in host defense against viruses, and aspects of the autophagic process are also often targets for viral subversion. Consequently, altering autophagic flux by fasting may alter viral infectivity. These observations suggest that fasting-induced autophagy may have an impact on therapeutic efficacy in various oncological contexts.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttp://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2016.00242/full
dc.format.extent7 pages : illustrationsen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaen_ZA
dc.subjectTherapeutic efficacy in cancer patientsen_ZA
dc.subjectCancer patients -- Treatmenten_ZA
dc.subjectFasting-induced autophagyen_ZA
dc.titleEnhanced therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients by short-term fasting : the autophagy connectionen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.description.versionPublisher's versionen_ZA
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyrighten_ZA


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