- ItemEvaluation of locally manufactured patient-specific custom made implants for cranial defects using a silicone mould(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2018) Vlok, A. J.; Naidoo, S.; Kamat, A. S.; Lamprecht, D.Background: Cranial vault defects can pose a significant problem for neurosurgeons where autologous bone is no longer available for cranioplasty. Numerous materials exist to create implants which include polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and titanium. A technique using 3-dimensional CT scan reconstruction of a cranial defect and creating a silicon mould which can be autoclaved in theatre to create a PMMA implant was developed. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, cosmetic result, safety and cost-effectiveness of this procedure and compare this to existing techniques. Methods: An ambispective study was performed in patients requiring cranioplasty with a custom made implant. Patients were assessed for risk factors and cosmetic outcome, surgical technique was described and complications and cost compared to existing literature between 2010 and 2016. Results: Thirty retrospective and 30 consecutive prospective patients were recruited into the study. Overall sepsis rate was 8.3%. All septic cases had superficial sepsis of which 2 grafts were removed due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage resulting in wound breakdown. A 100% accurate implant to defect ratio was achieved leading to a high satisfaction rate. Average cost was 5 times cheaper than the closest market related product. Conclusion: Patient specific moulds using PMMA to create custom implants are safe, have excellent cosmetic results and are a very cost-effective option to manage cranial defects. Accurate planning strategies for large craniotomies, where bone will potentially be discarded, add to surgical effectiveness and cost-saving to the patient.
- ItemPredicting outcome in severe traumatic brain injury using a simple prognostic model(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2014-07) Sobuwa, S.; Hartzenberg, H. B.; Geduld, H.; Uys, C.Background. Several studies have made it possible to predict outcome in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) making it beneficial as an aid for clinical decision-making in the emergency setting. However, reliable predictive models are lacking for resource-limited prehospital settings such as those in developing countries like South Africa. Objective. To develop a simple predictive model for severe TBI using clinical variables in a South African prehospital setting. Methods. All consecutive patients admitted at two level-one centres in Cape Town, South Africa, for severe TBI were included. A binary logistic regression model was used, which included three predictor variables: oxygen saturation (SpO2), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and pupil reactivity. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was used to assess outcome on hospital discharge. Results. A total of 74.4% of the outcomes were correctly predicted by the logistic regression model. The model demonstrated SpO2 (p=0.019), GCS (p=0.001) and pupil reactivity (p=0.002) as independently significant predictors of outcome in severe TBI. Odds ratios of a good outcome were 3.148 (SpO2 ≥90%), 5.108 (GCS 6 - 8) and 4.405 (pupils bilaterally reactive). Conclusion. This model is potentially useful for effective predictions of outcome in severe TBI.
- ItemFunctional MRI in pre-surgical planning : case of study and cautionary notes(Cannon Medical Media Publication, 2012-09) Spottiswoode, Bruce S.; Du Plessis, S.; Gretschel, Armin; Lotz, Jan W.Background. Since its inception almost 20 years ago, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has greatly advanced our knowledge of human brain function. Although the clinical applications of fMRI are still limited, there have recently been encouraging advances for its use in pre-operative functional cortical mapping to identify potentially eloquent areas prior to neurosurgery. Objectives. We explore the potential use of this emerging technique by presenting a neurosurgical case study, as performed at the Cape Universities Brain Imaging Centre (CUBIC), Tygerberg, Cape Town. We conclude with a brief summary of the potential pitfalls of this technique, as well as cautionary guidelines based on our experience. Methods and results. A 22-year-old male patient from Tygerberg Hospital underwent the successful resection of an anaplastic astrocytoma after fMRI presurgical planning at our facility. The subject was able to leave the ward unassisted. Conclusion. If consideration is given to the many limitations of this emerging technique, fMRI can be useful in aiding the neurosurgeon in pre-operative planning of his surgical approach.
- ItemInfluence of road speed restrictions on the incidence and severity of head injuries(HMPG, 1974-12) Rose Innes, A. P.; Le Roux, C. J. G.A comparative survey has been made of patients with head injuries admitted to hospital in 1973 and 1974, before and after the introduction of fuel saving measures, which included road speed restrictions. The severity and incidence of injury are shown to have decreased dramatically. It is concluded from this that the main cause of the improvement has been reduced road traffic speeds. A plea is made that they be permanently maintained.
- ItemBinneaarse radio-isotoop angiografie karotis-kaverneuse fistels(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 1975) Van Heerden, P. D. R.; Rose Innes, A. P.; Klopper, J. F.The use of intravenous radio isotope angiography in 3 cases of unilateral carotid cavernous sinus fistula is described. The lesion gives a characteristic image pattern distinguishable from that of arteriovenous malformation in this region. An abnormal registration of intense radioactivity is seen in the early phases, accurately localised to the cavernous sinus, with a distinctive sigmoid shaped configuration. Rapid disappearance of this accumulation of isotope follows, accompanied by a paradoxical apparent increase in blood flow to the ipsilateral hemicranium. This is attributed to the massively arterialised venous drainage. This technique of demonstrating the cerebral circulation dynamically is considered a valuable diagnostic supplement to the static scintiscan and to conventional roentgen arteriography in this lesion.