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- ItemThe development of optimal composite multiples models for the performance of equity valuations of listed South African companies : an empirical investigation(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-10-09) Nel, Willem Soon; Bruwer, Barbara Wilhelmina; Le Roux, Niel J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Accounting.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The practice of combining single-factor multiples (SFMs) into composite multiples models is underpinned by the theory that various SFMs carry incremental information, which, if encapsulated in a superior value estimate, largely eliminates biases and errors in individual estimates. Consequently, the chief objective of this study was to establish whether combining single value estimates into an aggregate estimate will provide a superior value estimate vis-á-vis single value estimates. It is envisaged that this dissertation will provide a South African perspective, as an emerging market, to composite multiples modelling and the multiples-based equity valuation theory on which it is based. To this end, the study included 16 SFMs, based on value drivers representing all of the major value driver categories, namely earnings, assets, dividends, revenue and cash flows. The validation of the research hypothesis hinged on the results obtained from the initial cross-sectional empirical investigation into the factors that complicate the traditional multiples valuation approach. The main findings from the initial analysis, which subsequently directed the construction of the composite multiples models, were the following: Firstly, the evidence suggested that, when constructing multiples, multiples whose peer groups are based on a combination of valuation fundamentals perform more accurate valuations than multiples whose peer groups are based on industry classifications. Secondly, the research results confirmed that equity-based multiples produce more accurate valuations than entity-based multiples. Thirdly, the research findings suggested that multiples models that are constructed on earnings-based value drivers, especially HE, offer higher degrees of valuation accuracy compared to multiples models that are constructed on dividend-, asset-, revenue- or cash flowbased value drivers. The results from the initial cross-sectional analysis were also subjected to an industry analysis, which both confirmed and contradicted the initial cross-sectional-based evidence. The industry-based research findings suggested that both the choice of optimal Peer Group Variable (PGV) and the choice of optimal value driver are industry-specific. As with the initial cross-sectional analysis, earnings-based value drivers dominated the top positions in all 28 sectors that were investigated, while HE was again confirmed as the most accurate individual driver. However, the superior valuation performance of multiples whose peer groups are based on a combination of valuation fundamentals, as deduced from the crosssectional analysis conducted earlier, did not hold when subjected to an industry analysis, suggesting that peer group selection methods are industry-specific. From this evidence, it was possible to construct optimal industry-specific SFMs models, which could then be compared to industry-specific composite models. The evidence suggested that composite-based modelling offered, on annual average, between 20.21% and 44.59% more accurate valuations than optimal SFMs modelling over the period 2001 to 2010. The research results suggest that equity-based composite modelling may offer substantial gains in precision over SFMs modelling. These gains are, however, industry-specific and a carte blanche application thereof is ill advised. Therefore, since investment practitioners’ reports typically include various multiples, it seems prudent to consider the inclusion of composite models as a more accurate alternative.
- ItemGestruktureerde regsgefundeerde metodologie vir die inkomste-kapitaal riglyne en verwante subjektiwiteitsvraagstukke in die Suid-Afrikaanse inkomstebelastingreg(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2002-03) Swanepoel, Leon; Matthee, J.A.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Accountancy.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die vraagstuk wat in die studie ondersoek word, is of daar groter regsekerheid ten opsigte van die toepassing van die onderskeie inkomste-kapitaal riglyne by ontvangste in die Suid-Afrikaanse inkomstebelastingreg verkry kan word deur: i) die onderliggende gedagterigtings wat die formulering van die betrokke riglyne ten grondslag lê, te ondersoek en toe te pas; ii) die geformuleerde riglyne meer noukeurig te omskryf; iii) die toepassingsveld van die onderskeie riglyne te oorweeg: en iv) 'n psigologiese onderskeid te tref tussen die verskillende tipes subjektiewe ingesteldhede wat 'n individu kan openbaar en die tipe wat vir die inkomste-kapitaalriglyne relevant is, te identifiseer. In die oplossing van bogemelde vraagstuk word aan die volgende aspekte aandag geskenk: i) Die ontwikkeling en toepassing van die riglyne wat die howe in Australie, Nieu-Seeland en Suid-Afrika geformuleer het om 'n onderskeid te tref tussen ontvangste van 'n inkomste- en kapitale aard. Die ontwikkeling van die relevante riglyne in die Australiese en Nieu-Seelandse inkomstebelastingreg word oorweeg omdat: (a) die grondslag van inkomstebelasting in die lande wesenlik ooreenstem met Suid-Afrika; (b) die howe daar na dieselfde brongesag verwys as uitgangspunt vir die ontwikkeling van die riglyne om 'n onderskeid te tref tussen ontvangste van 'n inkomste- en kapitale aard; (c) die howe in Nieu-Seeland na gesag in Suid-Afrika verwys het by die toepassing van sekere riglyne om tussen ontvangste van 'n inkomste- en kapitale aard te onderskei; (d) die howe daar nuwe toepassings vir die bestaande riglyne ontwikkel het en die moontlikheid bestaan dat hierdie toepassings ook in Suid-Afrika aangewend kan word; en (e) die howe in die Suid-Afrikaanse inkomstebelastingregspraak al hoe meer na Australiese regspraak verwys as gesag vir hulle uitsprake. ii) Die standpunt dat die premis wat die riglynformulering deur die howe ten opsigte van die onderskeid tussen ontvangste van inkomste- of kapitale aard ten grandslag lê, inderdaad gebaseer is op 'n klassifikasie van die onderliggende transaksies wat die ontvangste genereer. iii) Die grondslag van voorgemelde riglyne, dit wil sê pas die howe die riglyne toe deur die subjektiewe ingesteldheid van die belastingpligtige in ag te neem, of word die riglyne bloot op objektief waarneembare feite gebaseer wat 'n aanduiding gee van die aard van die ontvangste, of is dit subjektief sowel as objektief. iv) Die relevante tipe subjektiewe ingesteldheid wat deurslaggewend is indien die subjektiewe ingesteldheid van die belastingpligtige 'n belangrike rol speel by die toepassing van die riglyne. 'n Samehangende metodologie word formuleer wat die howe en belastingpraktisyns kan aanwend om op 'n logiese en konsekwente wyse die relevante riglyn te identifiseer en toe te pas om die inkomste- of kapitale aard van die betrokke ontvangste te bepaal. Die aanwending van hierdie metodologie sal tot groter regsekerheid in die inkomstebelastingreg bydra omdat die identifisering en toepassing van die relevante riglyn op die feitestel in oorweging op 'n gestruktureerde en gefundeerde grondslag sal plaasvind.
- ItemA framework for the integration of information technology in the education of professional accountants at South African universities(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2006-12) Wessels, Philippus Lodewikus; Boshoff, W. H.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Accountancy.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The accountancy profession operates within an environment that is changing at a rapid pace. It is the responsibility of the profession to ensure that all its members (including future members) meet the expectations placed on them by the users of their services. Professional accountants need to stay relevant in this changing environment that may require them to change or adapt the services they offer to their clients. It is the responsibility of professional accountancy bodies to strategically plan for these changes to ensure that members that join the profession posses the required knowledge and skills to be relevant and to stay relevant within the environment they operate in. One of the key drivers of change in the environment has been identified as the advances in information and communication technologies. Information and communication technologies have an impact on the role that accountants play in the environment (i.e. what they do) as well as on how they perform their role (i.e. how they do it). The main aim of this research was to determine if, and to what extent, students, that have completed their formal education and enter the profession as trainee accountants, possess the knowledge and skills to enable them to interact with and use information technology to be regarded as competent accountants within the South African business environment. Accountants are educated in South Africa at universities that offer programmes that have been accredited by a professional accountancy body as well as through practical training offered by training organisations. During this education process, accountants are imparted with the knowledge and skills as prescribed by the professional accountancy body so that they can join the profession as competent accountants. This research showed that there are serious shortcomings in the formal education of students regarding information technology that results in students entering the profession as trainee accountants not being competent in using information technology. The reasons for students not being competent in information technology are: • the lack of clear guidance on the IT skills required of students completing their formal education because of professional accountancy bodies setting IT syllabi that are too vague and/or concise; • ignorance of the demands on trainee accountants as to the IT skills they require to be competent in the South African business environment; and • the lack of proper IT training offered by South African universities that deliver trainee accountants that possess a limited range of IT skills that may not be relevant to the environment students will function in. Through a survey the perceptions of role-players at South African universities on the strategies that universities would have to employ to ensure that the students they deliver to profession, acquire the relevant IT skills to be competent in the use of information technology, were determined.
- ItemThe development of a best practice framework for the formulation of overall audit strategies for insurance contracts and the related earnings of listed South African longterm insurers(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2005-12) Von Wielligh, Simon Petrus Johannes; Lubbe, D. S.; Leonard, H.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Accountancy.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African long-term insurance industry is currently believed to be at an important crossroads in its existence. The industry is haunted by concerns about high cost structures, a lack of transparency in disclosure to policyholders, unfulfilled expectations of policyholders and the proliferation of available investment vehicles in the market. These concerns are exerting pressure on the existing products and practices of South African long-term insurers. The audits of these insurers are of a complex and high-risk nature as a result of the complexity of their operations and, in particular, the highly complex actuarial valuation process in respect of policy liabilities. The prevailing auditing standards in South Africa require auditors to include policy liabilities in the ambit of their audit opinions. Recent investigations into failed long-term insurers and their audits, including those of local Fedsure Life, British Equitable Life Assurance Society and Australian HIH Insurance, demonstrate the high risk involved in the audits of long-term insurers. Against this background, the objective of this research was to develop a best practice framework for the formulation of overall audit strategies for policy liabilities arising under insurance contracts and the related earnings of listed South African long-term insurers. To justify the focus of the research on the abovementioned components of the financial statements of listed South African long-term insurers, a questionnaire was developed and sent to auditors of all long-term insurers listed on the JSE Securities Exchange South Africa for completion. Responses were processed to calculate a Relative Inherent Risk Index specifically developed for use in this research, ranking various industry-specific account balances and classes of transactions on the basis of their potential exposure to inherent risk. The results of this process provided significant support for the hypotheses that policy liabilities and the related earnings are potentially exposed to the highest levels of inherent risk. The remainder of the research consequently focused on these components. A further very comprehensive questionnaire was developed to collect data with respect to respondents’ views of potential best practices for the audit of various aspects relating to policy liabilities arising under insurance contracts and the related earnings of listed South African long-term insurers, on the basis of their extensive experience in the industry. This questionnaire was sent to experienced auditors responsible for the audits of the five largest listed long-term insurers in South Africa for completion. Responses were received from four of the five potential respondents, resulting in an 80% response rate, enabling meaningful analysis and interpretation of the data. Responses were analysed, interpreted and documented in the form of a detailed best practice framework for the formulation of overall audit strategies for policy liabilities arising under insurance contracts and the related earnings. The lack of a fifth response was compensated for by a review of the research findings by experienced auditors of Deloitte and the provision of their opinions thereon. Deloitte was selected for this purpose as the fact that this auditing firm is the only one of the so-called “Big Four” auditing firms that does not act as auditor of one of the selected target long-term insurers, resulted in the initial exclusion of the firm’s views from the research. The framework was updated to reflect these opinions and now incorporates input from all of the so-called “Big Four” auditing firms. The framework provides a comprehensive discussion of all possible types of audit procedures that may be relevant to the audit of all aspects of policy liabilities arising under insurance contracts and the related earnings of listed South African long-term insurers. As no such framework existed prior to this research, the development thereof made a significant contribution to existing knowledge. This contribution is the result of, inter alia, the method followed in designing the framework, resulting in it representing a synthesis of, inter alia, the following: • existing international and limited local guidance for auditors and, in particular, auditors of long-term insurers, customised for the South African environment; • best practices currently in use on the audits of listed South African long-term insurers; and • views of experienced practitioners on the abovementioned types of best practices that might not be employed at the moment, but that should, in their views, be employed in future. The valuable contribution of this research to existing knowledge is clear from the fact that numerous publications in popular professional as well as accredited academic journals, plus a paper delivered at a conference have resulted from it (refer to the source list and Appendix A). Furthermore, the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants has approved a project to update existing South African guidance for auditors of long-term insurers on the basis of the findings of this research.