Research Articles (Institute for Wine Biotechnology)

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    Effect of different extraction methods on the quality and biochemical attributes of pomegranate juice and the application of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy in discriminating between different extraction methods
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-08-23) Arendse, Ebrahiema; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Fawole, Olaniyi Amos; Linus Opara, Umezuruike
    This study investigated the effects of extraction methods on the physicochemical, phytochemical, and antioxidant properties of pomegranate juice (cv. Wonderful). In addition, the application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed mid-infrared (ATR-FT-MIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics were explored in order to discriminate between different extraction methods. Juice variants evaluated included juice extracted without crushing the seeds (arils only) using a juice extractor (JE), juice extracted by crushing the seeds using a blender (arils plus seed) (JB), and juice extracted from half fruit using a commercial hand press juicer (CH). Juice extracted from CH had higher total soluble solid (TSS) content (18.20%), TSS/TA ratio (15.83), and color properties (a* = 32.67, b* = 11.80, C* = 34.77) compared with extraction methods JE and JB. The juice extracted from JB showed the highest titratable acidity (2.17%), cloudiness (0.43), and lowest pH value (2.69). The total phenolics and anthocyanin content in the investigated juice ranged from 1.87 to 3.04 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L and 37.74–43.67 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent/L of crude juice, respectively. Juice extracted from JB and CH was significantly higher in phenolic and anthocyanin compared with JE. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for classification. Classification accuracy of 100% was achieved between the three methods. The S-line plot revealed that the corresponding wavelength bands within the following regions 1,090, 1,250, 1,750, and 3,200 cm−1 were responsible for discrimination between the different extraction methods. Our results suggest that the main contributor to the discrimination between extraction methods were TSS, TSS/TA, color attributes, and anthocyanin content. Overall, this study has demonstrated that ATR-FT-MIR spectroscopy provides a powerful way to discriminate between juice extraction methods.
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    The impact of carbohydrate-active enzymes on mediating cell wall polysaccharide-tannin interactions in a wine-like matrix
    (Elsevier, 2019-12-14) Osete-Alcaraz, Andrea; Gomez-Plaza, Encarna; Martinez-Perez, Pilar; Weiller, Florent; Schuckel, Julia; Willats, William G. T.; Moore, John P.; Ros-Garcia, Jose M.; Bautista-Ortin, Ana B.
    Tannins are present in grape skins and seeds from where they are transferred into the must-wine matrix during the maceration stages of winemaking. However, tannin transfer is often incomplete. This could be due, among other reasons, to tannins becoming bound to grape cell wall polysaccharides, including soluble polymers, which are released during vinification and are present in high concentrations in the must/wine. The use of cell wall deconstructing enzymes offers the possibility of reducing these interactions, releasing more tannins into the final wine. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal addition (individually, in combination or sequentially) of hydrolytic enzymes that would prevent tight polysaccharide-tannin associations. The use of comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP) methodology provided key insights into how the enzyme treatments impacted the grape cell wall matrix and tannin binding. The results demonstrated that poly-galacturonase + pectin-lyase promoted the highest release of tannins into solution.
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    Transcriptomics unravels the adaptive molecular mechanisms of Brettanomyces bruxellensis under SO2 stress in wine condition
    (Elsevier, 2020-03-10) Valdetara, Federica; Skalic, Miha; Fracassetti, Daniela; Louw, Marli; Compagno, Concetta; Du Toit, Maret; Foschino, Roberto; Petrovic, Uros; Divol, Benoit; Vigentini, Ileana
    Sulfur dioxide is generally used as an antimicrobial in wine to counteract the activity of spoilage yeasts, including Brettanomyces bruxellensis. However, this chemical does not exert the same effectiveness on different B. bruxellensis yeasts since some strains can proliferate in the final product leading to a negative sensory profile due to 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol. Thus, the capability of deciphering the general molecular mechanisms characterizing this yeast species’ response in presence of SO2 stress could be considered strategic for a better management of SO2 in winemaking. A RNA-Seq approach was used to investigate the gene expression of two strains of B. bruxellensis, AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499 having different genetic backgrounds, when exposed to a SO2 pulse. Results revealed that sulphites affected yeast culturability and metabolism, but not volatile phenol production suggesting that a phenotypical heterogeneity could be involved for the SO2 cell adaptation. The transcriptomics variation in response to SO2 stress confirmed the strain-related response in B. bruxellensis and the GO analysis of common differentially expressed genes showed that the detoxification process carried out by SSU1 gene can be considered as the principal specific adaptive response to counteract the SO2 presence. However, nonspecific mechanisms can be exploited by cells to assist the SO2 tolerance; namely, the metabolisms related to sugar alcohol (polyols) and oxidative stress, and structural compounds.
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    Overexpression of VviPGIP1 and NtCAD14 in tobacco screened using glycan microarrays reveals cell wall reorganisation in the absence of fungal infection
    (MDPI, 2020-07-15) Weiller, Florent; Gerber, Lorenz; Trygg, Johan; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Willats, William G. T.; Driouich, Azeddine; Vivier, Melane A.; Moore, John P.
    The expression of Vitis vinifera polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (VviPGIP1) in Nicotiana tabacum has been linked to modifications at the cell wall level. Previous investigations have shown an upregulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway and reorganisation of arabinoxyloglucan composition. This suggests cell wall tightening occurs, which may be linked to defence priming responses. The present study used a screening approach to test four VviPGIP1 and four NtCAD14 overexpressing transgenic lines for cell wall alterations. Overexpressing the tobacco-derived cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (NtCAD14) gene is known to increase lignin biosynthesis and deposition. These lines, particularly PGIP1 expressing plants, have been shown to lead to a decrease in susceptibility towards grey rot fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study the aim was to investigate the cell wall modulations that occurred prior to infection, which should highlight potential priming phenomena and phenotypes. Leaf lignin composition and relative concentration of constituent monolignols were evaluated using pyrolysis gas chromatography. Significant concentrations of lignin were deposited in the stems but not the leaves of NtCAD14 overexpressing plants. Furthermore, no significant changes in monolignol composition were found between transgenic and wild type plants. The polysaccharide modifications were quantified using gas chromatography (GC–MS) of constituent monosaccharides. The major leaf polysaccharide and cell wall protein components were evaluated using comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). The most significant changes appeared at the polysaccharide and protein level. The pectin fraction of the transgenic lines had subtle variations in patterning for methylesterification epitopes for both VviPGIP1 and NtCAD14 transgenic lines versus wild type. Pectin esterification levels have been linked to pathogen defence in the past. The most marked changes occurred in glycoprotein abundance for both the VviPGIP1 and NtCAD14 lines. Epitopes for arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and extensins were notably altered in transgenic NtCAD14 tobacco.
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    Non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria in Co-inoculated fermentations with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains : a strategy to improve the phenolic content of Syrah wine
    (MDPI, 2019) Minnaar, P. P.; Du Plessis, H. W.; Jolly, N. P.; Van Der Rijst, M.; Du Toit, M.
    Syrah must was co-inoculated with mixed cultures of Saccharomyces + O. oeni/Lb. plantarum and Saccharomyces + non-Saccharomyces + O. oeni/Lb. plantarum to evaluate the effect on phenolics and sensory attributes. Reference wines were produced by S. cerevisiae. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and phenolic acids were quantified using a RP-HPLC technique. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes were measured. Total acidity and alcohol in mixed co-inoculations were different from reference wines. The concentration of l-malic acid was 7-times less in mixed co-inoculations. Mixed co-inoculations had ca. 1.3-times more malvidin-3-O-glucoside and phenolic acids than reference wines. Flavan-3-ols and flavonols were not different between mixed co-inoculations and reference wines. Acidity and astringency were least in mixed co-inoculations. Mouthfeel and bitterness least in S. cerevisiae wines. Tasters preferred mixed co-inoculated wines. Mixed co-inoculation is a strategy to contemplate for Syrah vinification but the modalities of inoculation need further investigation. Success depends on a suitable combination of yeast/bacteria and consideration of strain variation.