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- ItemDie geskiedenis van gimnastiek in Suid-Afrika tot 1989(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1991-03) Boshoff, Andre Ludwig; Van der Merwe, F. J. G.; Van Zyl, D. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Education. Dept. of Sport Science.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Competitive gymnastics has been in existence in South Africa for more than a century. Gymnastics clubs were founded during the second half of the 19th century in various centres in the country. Such clubs were established essentially at the instance of immigrants or aliens who were in South Africa for economic, military or other reasons. The first club, the Port Elizabeth Gymnastics Club, was founded in 1876, although British soldiers spontaneously practised the sport in Cape Town prior to that date. The Cape Town Gymnastic Society and the YMCA Gymnastic Society were established in the early 80's. t the time, the discovery of South Africa's mineral wealth led to the expansion and establishment of sports activities in the interior. The Kimberley Gymnasium and the Pirates Gymnastic Club were established in 1884 and 1886 respectively on the Kimberley diamond-fields. The first gymnastic competition in South Africa took place here at the end of 1885, during the inauguration of the railway line.
- ItemPast and present perceptions surrounding mission education : a historical-metabletical overview(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 1999-12) Lewis, Andrew; Steyn, J. C.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Education. Dept. of Curriculum StudiesENGLISH ABSTRACT: Africa, education has both reflected, and has been subjected to numerous perceptions, which inevitably led to various ideas and behaviour on the part of those participating in the educative act. Perceptions of others, objects or situations remain complex. The thoughts and behaviour which emanate from such complexity depend on factors such as personality, motivation, and social context. Culture also plays a cardinal role in the perceptual process. In the Republic of South Africa, as a culturally diverse country, divergent perceptions about education, where multi-culturalism is most evident, will be inevita ble. Mission education has been variedly adjudged, because of varied perceptions. This is understandable, as Black South Africans had been educated pre-dominantly by White missionaries up until the 1950's. Generally, politicians, academics and the media tend to give one-sided viewpoints, negating other interpretations and balanced perspectives. This takes place because of ignorance, bias or self-interest. Two commonly held perceptions about missionaries, are that they were racist and that their education system promoted colonialism. The understanding of racism, colonialism and missionaries' role therein, is in turn determined by numerous factors amongst historians, academics, politicians and journalists. The perceptions of each of these groups are often determined by partisan interests, which inevitably lead to unfair generalisations and stereotypes, since the rnetabletical nature of education is denied.In order to dissertate on past educational events, they need to be read contextually, taking into account both temporal and spatial dimensions of historical reality. When analysing historical perceptions, one needs to critically evaluate diverse interpretations of the past, and attempt to present a balanced perspective, instead of presenting a biased outlook,which tends to favour a specific hypothesis. This research critically analyses the various perceptions (past and present) surrounding mission education in South Africa, according to historical-metabletical guidelines, that they may be presented within a more balanced historical perspective.
- ItemA conceptual analysis of teacher education in South Africa in relation to the norms and standards for educators(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2004-12) Waghid, Y.; Adams, Noel David; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Education. Dept. ofENGLISH ABSTRACT: Educators at schools are expected to implement education policy changes promulgated through policy frameworks by the Department of Education in South Africa. However, whether these teachers are equipped to implement education policy or whether they have interacted sufficiently with policy issues remains a contentious issue. My contention is that pre-service and in-service teachers are expected to perform certain roles and demonstrate certain competences, as required or implied by changing education policy frameworks, like the Norms and Standards for Educators (Department of Education, 2000), but might not necessarily be equipped to do so. This dissertation utilised conceptual analysis and a literature review, as research methods, to explore constitutive meanings of the concept 'education policy' in relation to teacher education transformation in post-apartheid South Africa, with reference to the Norms and Standards for Educators (Department of Education, 2000). Constitutive meanings (Fay, 1975) of post-apartheid teacher education refer to all those shared assumptions, definitions, and conceptions, which structure teacher education transformation and post-apartheid teacher education in certain definite ways. Without these constitutive meanings, according to Fay (1975: 76), social practices, like teacher education, could not exist. By revealing these constitutive meanings, in terms of the interpretive paradigm (Fay, 1975: 78), I have given a possible explanation of post-apartheid teacher education, by articulating the conceptual scheme that frames post-apartheid teacher education. These constitutive meanings, which were extracted from a literature review, were explored in relation to the main question of this dissertation: Can the new teacher education policy framework, as set out in the Norms and Standards for Educators of 2000, improve teaching and learning in South African schools? I argue that the latter process will not materialise because of question marks over the transformative potential of the Norms and Standards for Educators (Department of Education, 2000). The mentioned policy framework may be an inappropriate framework to structure and guide the transformation of existing teacher education practices because of certain conceptual gaps. These conceptual gaps are stumbling blocks to transform existing teacher education practice and improve teaching and learning in our schools in the post-apartheid era. I argue that these gaps could be bridged if the Norms and Standards for Educators are reconceptualised along the lines of Benhabib's (1994) deliberative democratic model. Deliberation is necessary because policy alone cannot lead to the transformation of post-apartheid teacher education. Deliberation is also necessary because of the limitations on the state's power to enforce its will through promulgated policy. More engagement, via deliberation, is needed between the government, educational leaders, policy-makers and the other policy actors, like teachers, bureaucrats and teacher education institutions. The arguments of Burbules (1997) and Biesta (2004) seem to substantiate my claim that education policy, alone, cannot lead to the improvement of teaching and learning in our schools. Burbules (1997) posits that teaching is a complex human endeavour that is characterised by predicaments or dilemmas, which cannot be permanently solved. I argue against the integration of the seven roles, as advocated by the Norms and Standards for Educators, because of certain dilemmas. We need the tragic perspective on teaching, of Burbules (1997), to approach teaching differently. Biesta (2004) also urges us to approach teaching differently, by advocating a new language for education.
- ItemProfessional military education in the South African national defence force : the role of the military academy(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2007-03) Esterhuyse, Abel Jacobus; Scholtz, L.; Kapp, C. A.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Education.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study represents a descriptive analysis of the tensions that drive the need for an educated military in South Africa and, more specifically the role of the South African Military Academy in the provision thereof. The purpose of the research was to demarcate the proper role of the South African Military Academy in the academic and professional preparation of officers for the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). This purpose necessitated, firstly, an analysis of the need for education in armed forces in general and in South Africa in particular, with specific reference to the tensions underpinning military education and training. It secondly called for a broad assessment of the nature of professional military education in the SANDF at large to contextualise the role and function of the South African Military Academy. These discussions are based on a literature overview, document analysis and unstructured interviews with decision makers. In the first part of the study, a framework is developed for the education of officers. The framework is based on the assumption that modern military professionalism is rooted in a need for training to develop military skills, education to understand and develop the military body of knowledge and experience as the application of skills and knowledge. It is also based on the identification of four knowledge clusters that need to be the focus of officer education, namely the external security environment within which armed forces operate, the nature of armed forces as organisations, the professional employment of armed force(s), and the physical environment within which armed forces operate. The framework highlights three levels of officer development: the making of lieutenants, the making of colonels, and the making of generals. This framework is used for the analysis of education, training and development in the SANDF. Both the positive and negative attributes as well as trends in training and education in the SANDF are discussed. The discussion serves as the departing point for an outline of the debate about the role of the Military Academy since democratisation in 1994. It is argued that there is no clarity about the role and function of the Military Academy. Critical questions are also asked about the nature of the academic programmes offered to officers at the Military Academy. The departmental level agreement between the Department of Defence and the University of Stellenbosch is pointed out as the raison d'être for many of the problems with which the Military Academy is confronted. The study finally highlights the need for education as a requirement for officership in the SANDF, a reconsideration of military socialisation at the Military Academy, the difficult position of the Faculty of Military Science, the need for a core academic programme, and structural changes that are needed at the Military Academy. It is recommended that, like many foreign military academies, the future existence of the Military Academy be assured through national legislation. The involvement of the University of Stellenbosch in the education of young officers at the Military Academy should not be terminated. However, the existence, functioning, organisation and structure of the Military Academy should not be based on a “goodwill-approach” between the University and the Department of Defence.
- Item'n Studentgesentreerde opleidingsraamwerk vir kliniese verpleegpraktisyns in Noord-Kaapse plattelandse gemeenskappe.(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2006-12) Van der Walt, Stephanie; Kapp, C. A.; Welmann, E. B.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Education. Dept. of Curriculum Studies.During the past twelve years of democracy health care services in South Africa have been influenced by political, social and economic change. As a result of the transformation of health care services and the change of political policy, the focus on primary health care increased. During the early stages of the transformation of health care services stakeholders realized that in order to provide an extensive health care service specialized training is required. Various educational institutions provided formal and informal programmes in order to meet the new challenges of the nursing profession. Although minimum requirements of the content and clinical practice have been established by the nursing council, the mode of presentation, costs, duration and type of qualification awarded to clinical nursing practitioners differed substantially. Uniformity in terms of programme content was lacking, neither were any scientifically founded attempts made to establish whether these programmes fulfilled the needs of the student in the rural community. Although a variety of training programmes exist the number of trained clinical nursing practitioners is still inadequate. In addition training is focused on the urban community. The objective of the research was to determine the opinion of the rural nurse on clinical nursing education, and to develop a training framework based on their input which would meet their needs. This research was conducted from an explanatory-descriptive paradigm. The case study was used as research design. A literature study on the development of primary health care both internationally and nationally was done. The literature study revealed the development of training programmes for clinical nurses. Chapter three of the literature study is dedicated to the theoretical aspects of the design of a student centered training framework for the adult student. A student centered training framework has created from data gathered via questionnaires completed by clinical nurses and semi-structured interviews with semi-qualified nurses. Semistructured interviews have also been conducted with the supervisors of nurses working in clinics and community health centres in the Northern Cape. The conclusion that respondents showed a positive attitude towards training in clinical nursing was encouraging. The majority of respondents indicated that they would welcome an additional qualification which will improve their knowledge and would result in better patient care. The respondents highlighted staff shortages, financial constraints and family responsibility as the main obstacles towards these qualifications. During the research it became clear that no formal training is currently available in Kimberley. This is as a result of the absence of mentors. Although the respondents have limited access to computers they indicated that they would prefer computer supported training in conjunction with physical contact sessions. The research indicated that no formal policy on the training of clinical nurses exists in the rural Northern Cape. In the absence of a training framework the research further contributed towards the development of a student centered training framework for clinical nurses in rural Northern Cape. The research succeeded in highlighting the necessity for formal policy on the training of clinical nurses in rural Northern Cape.