Research Articles (Biochemistry)

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    Supporting data on characterisation of linker switch mutants of Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 110 and canonical Hsp70
    (Elsevier Inc., 2021-05-29) Chakafana, Graham; Mudau, Pertunia T.; Zininga, Tawanda; Shonhai, Addmore
    Here, we present data on characterisation of the linker of Plasmodium falciparum Hsp110 (PfHsp70-z) relative to the linker of canonical Hsp70s in support of a co-published article [1]. The linker of PfHsp70-z was switched with that of canonical Hsp70s, represented by PfHsp70–1 (cytosolic counterpart of PfHsp70-z) and E. coli Hsp70/DnaK. The datasets represent comparative analyses of PfHsp70-z, PfHsp70–1, and E. coli DnaK, relative to their linker switch mutants; PfHsp70-zLS, PfHsp70–1LS, DnaKLS, respectively. Intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic analyses were employed to elucidate effects of the mutations on the structural features of the proteins. The structural conformations of the proteins were analysed in the absence as well as presence of nucleotides. In addition, stability of the proteins to stress (pH changes and urea) was also determined. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was employed to determine affinity of the proteins for ATP. The relative affinities of PfHsp70-z and PfHsp70–1 for the parasite cytosol localised, J domain co-chaperone, PfHsp40, was determined by SPR analysis. The effect of the linker of PfHsp70-z on the interaction of DnaKLS with DnaJ (a co-chaperone of DnaK), was similarly determined. These data could be used for future investigations involving protein-protein/ligand interactions as described in [1]. The raw data obtained using the various techniques here described are hosted in the Mendeley Data repository at [2].
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    Comparative characterization of plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-1 relative to E. coli DnaK reveals the functional specificity of the parasite chaperone
    (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2020-06-04) Lebepe, Charity Mekgwa; Matambanadzo, Pearl Rutendo; Makhoba, Xolani Henry; Achilonu, Ikechukwu; Zininga, Tawanda; Shonhai, Addmore
    Hsp70 is a conserved molecular chaperone. How Hsp70 exhibits specialized functions across species remains to be understood. Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-1 (PfHsp70-1) and Escherichia coli DnaK are cytosol localized molecular chaperones that are important for the survival of these two organisms. In the current study, we investigated comparative structure-function features of PfHsp70-1 relative to DnaK and a chimeric protein, KPf, constituted by the ATPase domain of DnaK and the substrate binding domain (SBD) of PfHsp70-1. Recombinant forms of the three Hsp70s exhibited similar secondary and tertiary structural folds. However, compared to DnaK, both KPf and PfHsp70-1 were more stable to heat stress and exhibited higher basal ATPase activity. In addition, PfHsp70-1 preferentially bound to asparagine rich peptide substrates, as opposed to DnaK. Recombinant P. falciparum adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (PfAdoMetDC) co-expressed in E. coli with either KPf or PfHsp70-1 was produced as a fully folded product. Co-expression of PfAdoMetDC with heterologous DnaK in E. coli did not promote folding of the former. However, a combination of supplementary GroEL plus DnaK improved folding of PfAdoMetDC. These findings demonstrated that the SBD of PfHsp70-1 regulates several functional features of the protein and that this molecular chaperone is tailored to facilitate folding of plasmodial proteins.
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    The carbon switch at the level of pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate in sulfolobus solfataricus P2
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-12) Haferkamp, Patrick; Tjaden, Britta; Shen, Lu; Brasen, Christopher; Kouril, Theresa; Siebers, Bettina
    Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 grows on different carbohydrates as well as alcohols, peptides and amino acids. Carbohydrates such as D-glucose or D-galactose are degraded via the modified, branched Entner–Doudoroff (ED) pathway whereas growth on peptides requires the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP) pathway for gluconeogenesis. As for most hyperthermophilic Archaea an important control point is established at the level of triosephophate conversion, however, the regulation at the level of pyruvate/phosphoenolpyruvate conversion was not tackled so far. Here we describe the cloning, expression, purification and characterization of the pyruvate kinase (PK, SSO0981) and the phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPS, SSO0883) of Sul. solfataricus. The PK showed only catabolic activity [catalytic efficiency (PEP): 627.95 mM⁻¹s⁻¹, 70°C] with phosphoenolpyruvate as substrate and ADP as phosphate acceptor and was allosterically inhibited by ATP and isocitrate (Ki 0.8 mM). The PEPS was reversible, however, exhibited preferred activity in the gluconeogenic direction [catalytic efficiency (pyruvate): 1.04 mM⁻¹s⁻¹, 70°C] and showed some inhibition by AMP and α-ketoglutarate. The gene SSO2829 annotated as PEPS/pyruvate:phosphate dikinase (PPDK) revealed neither PEPS nor PPDK activity. Our studies suggest that the energy charge of the cell as well as the availability of building blocks in the citric acid cycle and the carbon/nitrogen balance plays a major role in the Sul. solfataricus carbon switch. The comparison of regulatory features of well-studied hyperthermophilic Archaea reveals a close link and sophisticated coordination between the respective sugar kinases and the kinetic and regulatory properties of the enzymes at the level of PEP-pyruvate conversion.
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    Differential modulation of gene expression encoding hepatic and renal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes by an aspalathin-enriched rooibos extract and aspalathin
    (Thieme Gruppe, 2019) Abrahams, Sameega; Samodien, Sedicka; Lilly, Mariska; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel
    Modulation of the expression of hepatic and renal genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes by an aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was investigated in the liver and kidneys of F344 rats following dietary exposure of 28 d, as well as selected xenobiotic metabolizing genes in rat primary hepatocytes. In the liver, GRE upregulated genes (p < 0.05) encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase, glucose phosphate isomerase, and cytochrome P450 while 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (Hsd17β2) was downregulated. In primary hepatocytes, GRE lacked any effect, while aspalathin downregulated Hsd17β2, mimicking the effect of GRE in vivo, and upregulated catechol-O-methyl transferase and marginally (p < 0.1) cytochrome P450 2e1. In the kidneys, GRE upregulated (p < 0.05) genes encoding the phase II xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase mµ and microsomal glutathione-S-transferase, while downregulating genes encoding the ATP binding cassette transporter, cytochrome P450, gamma glutamyltransferase 1, and N-acetyltransferase 1. Differential modulation of the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing genes in vivo and in vitro by GRE is dose-related, duration of exposure, the tissue type, and interactions between specific polyphenol and/or combinations thereof. Aspalathin is likely to be responsible for the downregulation of estradiol and testosterone catabolism by GRE in the liver. The differential gene expression by GRE in the liver and kidneys could, depending on the duration exposure and dose utilized, determine the safe use of such an extract in humans for specific health and/or disease outcomes.
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    Degradation of proteins and starch by combined immobilization of protease, α-amylase and β-galactosidase on a single electrospun nanofibrous membrane
    (MDPI, 2019-01-31) Cloete, William J.; Hayward, Stefan; Swart, Pieter; Klumperman, Bert
    Two commercially available enzymes, Dextrozyme (α-amylase) and Esperase (protease), were covalently immobilized on non-woven electrospun poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) nanofiber mats with partial retention of their catalytic activity. Immobilization was achieved for the enzymes on their own as well as in different combinations with an additional enzyme, β-galactosidase, on the same non-woven nanofiber mat. This experiment yielded a universal method for immobilizing different combinations of enzymes with nanofibrous mats containing maleic anhydride (MAnh) residues in the polymer backbone.