- ItemProvincial dietary intake study (PDIS) : micronutrient intakes of children in a representative/random sample of 1- to <10-year-old children in two economically active and urbanized provinces in South Africa(MDPI, 2020-08) Senekal, Marjanne; Nel, Johanna; Malczyk, Sonia; Drummond, Linda; Steyn, Nelia P.In 1999, the National Food Consumption Survey found serious risk of dietary deficiency for a number of micronutrients in 1- to 9-year-old children in South Africa. To address these shortfalls, fortification with vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folic acid, iron and zinc of maize meal and bread flour was made mandatory in 2003. The aim of this study was to examine micronutrient intakes of 1- to <10-year-old children after nearly 20 years of fortification in two of the most urbanized and economically active provinces, Gauteng (GTG) and the Western Cape (WC). A multistage stratified cluster random sampling design and methodology was used. Households were visited by fieldworkers who interviewed caregivers and obtained dietary intake data by means of a multiple-pass 24-h recall. Two additional 24-h recalls were completed among a nested sample of 146 participants to adjust the single 24-h recall data of the total sample using the National Cancer Institute Method. Results show that median intake of all the fortification nutrients were above the estimated average requirement (EAR), with the only concern being folate in the WC. Between a quarter and a third of children in the WC, where maize porridge intake was significantly lower than in GTG, had a folate intake below the EAR. Nutrients that are not included in the fortification mix that remain a serious concern are calcium and vitamin D, with intake of dairy and vitamin D sources being very limited in both provinces. The improvement in micronutrient intakes of children is encouraging, however the outstanding nutrient deficiency risks need attention.
- ItemDietary practices and adolescent obesity in secondary school learners at disadvantaged schools in South Africa : urban–rural and gender differences(MDPI, 2020-08) Okeyo, Alice P.; Seekoe, Eunice; de Villiers, Anniza; Faber, Mieke; Nel, Johanna H.; Steyn, Nelia P.South Africa has a high prevalence of obesity in black female adolescents and a paucity of knowledge regarding contributing dietary practices. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary practices and weight status of male and female adolescents at secondary schools in the Eastern Cape province in urban and rural areas. Sixteen schools and grade 8–12 learners (N = 1360) were randomly selected from three health districts comprising poor disadvantaged communities. A short unquantified food frequency questionnaire was used to collect data on learners’ usual eating practices with regards to weekly meal pattern, breakfast consumption, foods taken to school, takeaways, and snacks eaten while watching television (TV). Body mass index measurements were determined for each learner. Prevalence of combined overweight and obesity differed significantly between genders, 9.9% in males versus 36.1% in females (p < 0.001). Significant gender differences were noted regarding eating practices. Females had a higher frequency of eating sugary snacks (p < 0.001) and a lower frequency of eating breakfast (p < 0.01) than males. Females ate significantly more fried fish (p < 0.05), pizza (p < 0.05) fat cakes (fried dough balls) (p < 0.05), hotdogs (p < 0.01), candy (p < 0.001), cake (p < 0.01), and crisps (p < 0.001). Compared to urban areas, the frequency of eating breakfast (p < 0.01) and sugary snacks (p < 0.05) was significantly higher in rural areas. Significantly more learners in urban areas consumed boerewors (beef sausage) rolls (p = 0.027), hamburgers (p = 0.004), and soft drinks (p = 0.019), while more learners in the rural areas consumed cordial (p = 0.001). In conclusion, a high prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was found in black female adolescents and a high prevalence of poor dietary practices was observed, with significant gender and urban–rural differences.
- ItemThe food and nutrition environment at secondary schools in the Eastern Cape, South Africa as reported by learners(MDPI, 2020-06) Okeyo, Alice P.; Seekoe, Eunice; de Villiers, Anniza; Faber, Mieke; Nel, Johanna H.; Steyn, Nelia P.Overweight and obesity are growing concerns in adolescents, particularly in females in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the food and nutrition environment in terms of government policy programs, nutrition education provided, and foods sold at secondary schools in the Eastern Cape province. Sixteen schools and grade 8–12 learners (N = 1360) were randomly selected from three health districts comprising poor disadvantaged communities. Based on age and sex specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off values, 13.3% of males and 5.5% of females were underweight, while 9.9% of males and 36.1% of females were overweight or obese. The main food items purchased at school were unhealthy energy-dense items such as fried flour dough balls, chocolates, candies, and crisps/chips. Nutrition knowledge scores based on the South African food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) were poor for 52% to 23.4% learners in Grades 8 to 12, respectively. Female learners generally had significantly higher nutrition knowledge scores compared to their male counterparts (p = 0.016). Questions poorly answered by more than 60% of learners, included the number of fruit and vegetable portions required daily, food to eat when overweight, foods containing fiber, and importance of legumes. It was noted that the majority of teachers who taught nutrition had no formal nutrition training and their responses to knowledge questions were poor indicating that they were not familiar with the FBDGs, which are part of the curriculum. Nutrition assessment as part of the Integrated School Health Program was done on few learners. Overall however, despite some challenges the government national school meal program provided meals daily to 96% of learners. In general, the school food and nutrition environment was not conducive for promoting healthy eating.
- ItemProvincial Dietary Intake Study (PDIS) : energy and macronutrient intakes of children in a representative/random sample of 1–<10-year-old children in two economically active and urbanized provinces in South Africa(2020-03) Steyn, Nelia P.; Nel, Johanna H.; Malczyk, Sonia; Drummond, Linda; Senekal, MarjanneThe double burden of malnutrition is still prevalent in South Africa, hence the importance of a dietary survey to identify risks of under- and over-nutrition. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling design was applied in two economically active provinces, Gauteng (GTG) (N = 733) and Western Cape (WC) (N = 593). Field workers completed questionnaires, and a 24 h recall with children taking part aged 1–<10-years (N = 1326). Important findings were that 71% and 74%, respectively, of 3–<6-year-olds and 6–<10-year-olds had an energy intake below the estimated energy requirement (EER), while 66% 1–<3-year-olds had intakes above the EER. The percentage of children with a total fat intake below recommended levels decreased as age increased ((51%, 40% and 5%) respectively, for the three age groups). Similarly, the percentage of those who had a total fat intake above the recommendation increased with increasing age (4%, 11% and 26%, respectively, for the three age groups). Saturated fat intake above 10%E was highest in the youngest and oldest children (33% and 32%, respectively). The percentage of children with a free sugars intake above 10%E was 47%, 48% and 52% respectively, and 98–99% had a fibre intake that was less than recommended. Overall, the diet was not healthy, with the main food items being very refined, and the diet being high in salty snacks and sugary items, and low in fruit, vegetables and legumes.
- ItemIdentifying temperature breaks in the export cold chain of navel oranges : a Western Cape case(Elsevier, 2020-11) Goedhals-Gerber, Leila Louise; Khumalo, GculisileResearch shows that significant volumes of food produced globally is wasted due to supply chain failures from farm to retail. In addition, the category of fruits, vegetables, roots and tubers has the highest loss and wastage rate of any food per annum. Temperature has the greatest influence on fresh-produce deterioration rates and potential market life. Temperature breaks that occur in the cold chain result in financial losses due to quality loss issues and deviation from export protocols as well as a loss in market opportunity. This article presents a case study on navel oranges exported from Citrusdal in the Western Cape, South Africa to the United States of America. The United States of America is a steri-market, which means citrus fruits shipped to their ports must be exported at sub-zero temperatures for phytosanitary purposes. The procedure is known as cold sterilisation treatment. The likelihood of temperature breaks occurring in a vital industry in the economy prompted further investigation. The article aims to highlight the importance of the cold chain, from the citrus farms to the port of destination, by discussing trial shipments conducted on navel oranges. The results showed that temperature spikes and temperature breaks do occur along the navel orange export cold chain from the orchards until the navels are loaded onto reefer vessels. The results also showed that no temperature breaks are experienced once the navels are loaded on-board the reefer vessels. The research benefits the South African fruit industry by identifying the need for continuous improvement of the cold chain, which would assist in minimising temperature breaks.