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- ItemGuidelines for restoring Lowland Sand Fynbos ecosystems(2022-02) Holmes, Patricia M.; Esler, Karen J.; Geerts, Sjirk; Ngwenya, Duduzile K.; Rebelo, Anthony G.; Dorse, Clifford; van der Merwe, Jacques; Retief, Jacobus; Hall, Stuart A.; Grey, Penelope; Nsikani, Mlungele N.; Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology.Lowland Sand Fynbos ecosystems are among the most threatened terrestrial systems in South Africa. Of the ten Sand Fynbos veld types, seven are Critically Endangered or Endangered according to the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. They are all either poorly protected, or not protected at all in the conservation network. Sand Fynbos ecosystems harbour unique biodiversity, but owing to their lowland locations experience extensive losses to other land uses. Some natural pockets remain scattered within agricultural or urban developments. They are, however degraded due to invasive alien plants, inappropriate fire regimes or pollution and are an urgent priority to restore. National biodiversity targets aim for a minimum proportion of an ecosystem type to be retained in a natural or near-natural state. The minimum target for Sand Fynbos ecosystems is mostly 30% of the original extent – a target no longer attainable for several of these ecosystems, such as Cape Flats Sand Fynbos. For many of these precious systems, this means a necessary focus on their restoration. The purpose of these guidelines is to assist managers and landowners of degraded Sand Fynbos vegetation to restore biodiversity and contribute to the conservation of these threatened ecosystems. The guidelines outline appropriate methods to restore degraded Sand Fynbos ecosystems, based on the latest research and field trial outcomes.