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- ItemDetermining the change in the bathymetry of Saldanha Bay due to the harbour construction in the seventies(2020-09) Henrico, Ivan; Bezuidenhout, JacquesENGLISH ABSTRACT: Bathymetry is the science to study and measure the depths of the ocean floor. The differences in water depth, underwater slope and ocean floor structure were investigated using a geographic information system (GIS). This article investigates changes to the hydrodynamic sedimentation processes in Saldanha Bay as a result of the harbour constructions that took place in the early 1970s. The construction of the harbour included the massive dredging operations and resultant relocation of 30 million m3 of soil. Bathymetric data from Saldanha Bay before (1957) and after (1977) the construction of the harbour in the early seventies were analysed and compared in ArcGIS. It was found that the overall depth of the inner part of Saldanha Bay increased with about 1.4 m and that the bottom and slopes were smoothed. The physical structure that was constructed for the harbour had a serious impact on the hydrodynamic sedimentation processes. It was found that these interventions altered the depth profile of the Bay and the article finally draws conclusions on coastal and beach formation, based on the change in the hydrodynamic sedimentation processes of Saldanha Bay.
- ItemPrisoners of geography : ten maps that tell you everything you need to know about global politics(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2020) Henrico, IvanTim Marshall is an esteemed authority on foreign affairs, with more than thirty years’ experience in broadcasting, reporting, analysis and writing about past, present and future geopolitical affairs – most of the time reporting from the front line on major world events and conflict zones that had significant geopolitical effects on global politics, such as the Balkan wars of the 1990s, the Kosovo crisis of 1999, the first Gulf War (1991), the US war in Afghanistan (2001). He also covered three US presidential elections (The What and The Why, 2016). Prisoners of geography: Ten maps that tell you everything you need to know about global politics is arguably the most successful of his books, and makes for an intriguing read by an author with such an impressive résumé.
- ItemDeveloping military environmental literacy in the South African Army through a dedicated military environmental management course(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2020) Smit, H. A. P.It is important for soldiers to be military environmentally literate to prevent unacceptable behaviour in the environment in which they conduct their missions. This is especially true during peacekeeping and disaster relief mission, but holds equally true for combat situations. Military environmental literacy is the nature and level of the attitude toward, knowledge about, and behaviour in and toward the environment in which the military operates. The construct of military environmental literacy (MEL) consists of three components, military environmental attitude (a general feeling of favour or disfavour toward the military environment, i.e. the environment in which the military operates), military environmental knowledge (the ability to identify a number of concepts and behaviour patterns related to the military environment, i.e. the environment in which the military operates), and military environmental behaviour (a demonstration of how one acts toward or in the military environment in which the military operates). The MEL of South African Army soldiers were measured in a study reported on in 2017, as well as in a test-retest survey in 2018. A specially developed valid and reliable questionnaire to test military environmental literacy was used in both surveys. This article argues that exposing soldiers to a dedicated military environmental management course can positively influence their military environmental literacy.
- ItemChemical and Lead Isotope characterisation of First World War shrapnel balls and bullets used on the Alpine Austrian–Italian Front(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2018) Laterza, Vittoria; Ros, Veronica; Turetta, Clara; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Balliana, Eleonora; Baroni, Carlo; Cristina, Salvatore Maria; Bondesan, Aldino; Barbante, CarloChemical and lead isotope characterisation was carried out on shrapnel balls and bullets dating back to the First World War (WWI). These ammunitions were widely utilised in the Alpine Austrian–Italian front located in the Italian Alps. The investigation has been performed using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS-ICP-QMS). The main goal of this work was to identify the elemental and lead isotope composition of raw materials and to discriminate between the military objects analysed. The results of multi-elemental analysis indicate that the shrapnel ball samples consisted of soft Pb or hard Pb with Sb depending on the use, the weapon type and the specific nation. The Italian shrapnel balls were made from hard Pb, as opposed to those of the Austrian–Hungarian samples. Through the investigation of lead isotope ratios, it has been possible to differentiate most of the Italian shrapnel balls from those of Austrian–Hungarian origin. Furthermore, some Italian shrapnel balls had a different lead isotope composition depending on their calibre. The elemental composition and lead isotopic signature of bullets show a clear discrimination between the external jacket and the core in relation to projectile type and nationality. The bullet cores consist of Pb–Sb alloy regardless of the region of origin. This work allowed us to investigate the potential applications of trace elements and lead isotope analyses to discriminate military artefacts of different origins
- ItemMilitary environmental literacy in the South African Army(Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Military Science (Military Academy), 2018) Smit, H. A. P.; Van der Merwe, J. H.Traditional military activities, such as fighting wars, are inherently destructive. Modern militaries undertake a diverse range of military activities, use large areas for military training and operational purposes, and are confronted with a global focus on environmentally responsible behaviour. These conditions compel militaries to ensure that soldiers display the correct attitude toward, behaviour in and knowledge about the diverse physical, social and cultural environments they occupy and on which they have an effect. Globally, and in South Africa, this is not only a moral obligation but a legal imperative too. The aim of this article is to report on the military environmental literacy (MEL) (attitude, behaviour and knowledge regarding the environment in which the military operate) of the members of the South African Army (SA Army). To achieve this aim, existing environmental questionnaires were evaluated to ascertain their suitability for use in an SA Army context. None of them was usable to appraise MEL in a SA Army context effectively. Consequently, an iterative process was initiated to develop a tailor-made, valid, reliable and organisation-specific questionnaire to assess MEL in the SA Army.