- ItemPhysical rehabilitation needs in the BRICS nations from 1990 to 2017 : cross-national analyses using data from the global burden of disease study(MDPI, 2020-06) Jesus, Tiago S.; Landry, Michel D.; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi; Kamalakannan, Sureshkumar; Britto, Raquel R.; Pogosova, Nana; Sokolova, Olga; Grimmer, Karen; Louw, QuinetteBackground: This study analyzes the current and evolving physical rehabilitation needs of BRICS nations (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China, South Africa), a coalition of large emergent economies increasingly important for global health. Methods: Secondary, cross-national analyses of data on Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Total physical rehabilitation needs, and those stratified per major condition groups are analyzed for the year 2017 (current needs), and for every year since 1990 (evolution over time). ANOVAs are used to detect significant yearly changes. Results: Total physical rehabilitation needs have increased significantly from 1990 to 2017 in each of the BRICS nations, in every metric analyzed (YLD Counts, YLDs per 100,000 people, and percentage of YLDs relevant to physical rehabilitation; all p < 0.01). Musculoskeletal & pain conditions were leading cause of physical rehabilitation needs across the BRICS nations but to varying degrees: from 36% in South Africa to 60% in Brazil. Country-specific trends include: 25% of South African needs were from HIV-related conditions (no other BRICS nation had more than 1%); India had both absolute and relative growths of pediatric rehabilitation needs (p < 0.01); China had an exponential growth in the per-capita needs from neurological and neoplastic conditions (p < 0.01; r2 = 0.97); Brazil had a both absolute and relative growth of needs coming from musculoskeletal & pain conditions (p < 0.01); and the Russian Federation had the highest neurological rehabilitation needs per capita in 2017 (over than three times those of India, South Africa or Brazil). Conclusions: total physical rehabilitation needs have been increasing in each of the BRICS nations, both in absolute and relative values. Apart from the common growing trend, each of the BRICS nations had own patterns for the amount, typology, and evolution of their physical rehabilitation needs, which must be taken into account while planning for health and physical rehabilitation programs, policies and resources.
- ItemContextualised strategies to increase childhood and adolescent vaccination coverage in South Africa : a mixed-methods study(BMJ Publishing, 2020-06-04) Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Mahasha, Phetole Walter; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Grimmer, Karen; Dizon, Janine; Burnett, Rosemary J.; Cooper, SaraIntroduction Despite the unparalleled success of immunisation in the control of vaccine preventable diseases, immunisation coverage in South Africa remains suboptimal. While many evidence-based interventions have successfully improved vaccination coverage in other countries, they are not necessarily appropriate to the immunisation needs, barriers and facilitators of South Africa. The aim of this research is to investigate barriers and facilitators to optimal vaccination uptake, and develop contextualised strategies and implementation plans to increase childhood and adolescent vaccination coverage in South Africa. Methods The study will employ a mixed-methods research design. It will be conducted over three iterative phases and use the Adopt, Contextualise or Adapt (ACA) model as an overarching conceptual framework. Phase 1 will identify, and develop a sampling frame of, immunisation stakeholders involved in the design, planning and implementation of childhood and human papillomavirus immunisation programmes in South Africa. Phase 2 will identify the main barriers and facilitators to, and solutions for, increasing vaccination coverage. This phase will comprise exploratory qualitative research with stakeholders and a review of existing systematic reviews on interventions for improving vaccination coverage. Using the findings from Phase 2 and the ACA model, Phase 3 will develop a set of proposed interventions and implementation action plans for improving immunisation coverage in South Africa. These plans will be discussed, revised and finalised through a series of participatory stakeholder workshops and an online questionnaire, conducted as part of Phase 3.
- ItemAchieving universal health coverage for people with stroke in South Africa : protocol for a scoping review(BMJ Publishing, 2020-10) Van Niekerk, Sjan-Mari; Inglis-Jassiem, Gakeemah; Kamalakannan, Sureshkumar; Fernandes, Silke; Webster, Jayne; English, Rene; Smythe, Tracey; Louw, Q. A.Introduction Stroke is the second most common cause of death after HIV/AIDS and a significant health burden in South Africa. The extent to which universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved for people with stroke in South Africa is unknown. Therefore, a scoping review to explore the opportunities and challenges within the South African health system to facilitate the achievement of UHC for people with stroke is warranted. Methods and analysis The scoping review will follow the approach recommended by Levac, Colquhoun and O’Brien, which includes five steps: (1) identifying the research question, (2) identifying relevant studies, (3) selecting the studies, (4) charting the data, and (5) collating, summarising and reporting the results. Health Systems Dynamics Framework and WHO Framework on integrated people-centred health services will be used to map, synthesise and analyse data thematically.
- ItemFalls in people living with HIV : a scoping review(BMJ Open, 2020-11) Charumbira, Maria Yvonne; Berner, Karina; Louw, Quinette AbegailObjectives: Recent research has indicated seemingly increased propensity for falls and accelerated bone demineralisation in people living with HIV (PLWH). We aim to map out the extent and nature of existing research relating to falls in PLWH and describe the relationship between bone demineralisation and falls in PLWH. Methods: A scoping review was done following Arksey & O’Malley’s methodological framework and recommendations from Joanna Briggs Institute. Four databases were searched until October 2019 for peer-reviewed studies available in English reporting on the definition, prevalence, assessment, risk factors and interventions for falls in PLWH as well as information on bone demineralisation linked to falls in PLWH. Narrative reviews were excluded. Two reviewers independently performed the extraction using a predesigned Excel sheet. A descriptive analysis of extracted information was done. Results: Fourteen studies on falls in older PLWH were identified, with all but one study conducted in high-income countries. Prevalence of falls in PLWH ranged from 12% to 41%. Variable assessment tools/tests were used to assess potential risk factors, but it remains to be determined which are more predictive and appropriate for use among PLWH. Considerable agreement existed for risk factors regarding use of medications while evidence regarding functional and cognitive impairments were variable. Few studies compared risk factors for falls in PLWH with those in age-matched and sex-matched seronegative population. There is currently no evidence for interventions to prevent or reduce falls risk in PLWH. Conclusion More research is needed on falls in younger cohorts of PLWH and in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is most prevalent and more robust clades exist. More studies need to report on data in seronegative controls to determine risk factors unique to PLWH. More intervention studies targeted at falls prevention and promotion of bone health are required. Quality clinical practice guidelines highlighting validated assessment tools and outcome measures need to be developed.
- ItemAssessment for incipient hospital-acquired deconditioning in acute hospital settings : a systematic literature review(Medical Journals Sweden AB, 2019) Gordon, Susan; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Barras, SarahObjectives: To systematically identify literature reporting on assessment instruments relevant for incipient hospital-acquired deconditioning during acute hospital admissions; evaluate their psychometric properties; and identify individual assessment items to form the basis of a comprehensive acute hospital test battery for hospital-acquired deconditioning. Design and data sources: Systematic evidence scan of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed and Google Scholar from database inception to January 2018. Study selection: Papers reporting psychometric properties of assessment instruments to detect change in body function and structure, relevant to hospital-acquired deconditioning were selected. Included instruments should assess one or more elements of hospital-acquired deconditioning, reflect the short time-frame constraints of acute hospital admissions, and be able to be applied by any healthcare provider. Quality evaluation: Evidence of psychometric properties and utility were assessed using a validated instrument. Data extraction: Hospital-acquired deconditioning assessment items. Results: Eight potentially-relevant instruments were identified, with moderate-to-good validity and utility, but limited evidence of reliability. These instruments reported a total of 53 hospital-acquired deconditioning assessment items. Seventeen items with measurement periods greater than 3 days were excluded. The remaining items measured anthropometrics, gait, balance, mobility, activities of daily living, and skin integrity. Conclusion: These assessment items provide the basis of a multifaceted evidence-based test battery to comprehensively and repeatedly assess acute hospital inpatient function for incipient hospital-acquired deconditioning.