Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Old and New Testament) by Title
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- Item'Belief' and 'Logos' in the prologue of the Gospel of John : an analysis of complex parallelism(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2009-12) Go, Byung Chan; Punt, Jeremy; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research aims to give an answer to the correlation between ‘Belief’ and the ‘Logos’, which are the fundamental themes of the Prologue, by using a ‘complex parallelism’ and to understand the literary style that is found in the Prologue and to combine previous literary methods thereby making them useful for the interpretation of the Prologue to the Gospel of John. Our hypothesis is that the Prologue should be read in line with the broader theological viewpoint of the Gospel of John, viz. the Prologue aims that all readers should believe in the ‘Logos’. Chapter 2 describes how various previous approaches presented and detected the theme and structure of the Prologue, viz. sequence reading (or a thematic approach) and literary reading (or a structural approach). The former reading presents the ‘Logos’ as the fundamental theme of the Prologue; the latter reading describes various literary figures, viz. parallelism, chiasm, and alternative/complementary literary models, and various pivotal themes of the Prologue. Their research illustrates the possibility of identifying varied and deep structures within the Prologue and suggests that the Prologue could be read from multiple angles. Chapter 3 discusses various types of parallelism and patterns of chiastic structure which constitute the basic elements of complex parallelism and the criteria for identifying the chiastic structure as an adequate methodology for the analysis of the Prologue. Among the various types of parallelism which were proposed and advanced by the previous scholars, synonymous parallelism, antithetic parallelism, synthetic parallelism, staircase parallelism, and inverted parallelism are employed and the chiastic structure, including various extended figures of chiasm, is classified into three patterns: the A-B-A' pattern, the A-B-B'-A' pattern and the A-B-C-B'-A' pattern. In addition, four criteria for identifying the chiastic structure are selected and modified for this research, among the criteria applied by the previous scholars. We discuss some textual-critical issues in Chapter 4, before embarking on analysis of the structure of the Prologue. Among them, we argue that only in the case of three verses textual variants raise debatable issues: e.g., the textual variants of punctuation of verse 3, the textual variants of the number of the relative pronoun and of the verb in verse 13, and the textual variants with regard to monogenh.j qeo,j in verse 18. Chapter 5 explores the structure of the Prologue with complex parallelism in order to reveal both ‘Belief’ and ‘Logos’ as the fundamental themes of the Prologue. In complex parallelism, complex chiastic structure and complex inverted parallelism combine structurally and semantically. Both complex structures have surface and deep structures: In complex chiastic structure, the surface structure is formulated with macro chiastic structure and each parallel section is described as various types of parallelism and chiastic patterns. This complex chiastic structure focuses on the theme of ‘Belief’. On the other hand, in complex inverted parallelism, the surface structure is formulated with macro inverted parallelism and each parallel section is illustrated as various chiastic patterns. All concepts and themes regarding the ‘Logos’ are described in the complex inverted parallelism. The final chapter sets out to reveal the correlation between ‘Belief’ and the ‘Logos’ in the concluding summary of our research. In complex parallelism, the complex chiastic structure reveals that ‘Belief’ is the pivotal theme of the Prologue, whereas, the complex inverted parallelism presents the ‘Logos’ as the only object of ‘Belief’. In other words, the former describes that the readers should believe; the latter describes what/whom they should believe in. Therefore, the Prologue focuses on both the theme of ‘Belief’ and the ‘Logos’.
- ItemThe centralization of the worship of Yahweh according to the Jewish and Samaritan Pentateuchs : a textual and theological study(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-12) Paulo, Bonifacio; Jonker, Louis C.; Kotze , Gideon; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is, firstly, to understand the theological implications of the phenomenon of centralization of worship in Deuteronomy 12 according to the Jewish and Samaritan Pentateuchs; secondly, to investigate the different wording between the two readings and the possible factors that contributed to their development; and thirdly, given these different sectarian readings, to understand what might be the place of the Samaritan Pentateuch in the enterprise of Bible translation. To address these objectives, the researcher chose to use an integrated method, which gives him the freedom to bring different approaches, such as historical-scientific, textual/literary, and theological, into conversation. It is through this method that the outcome of this study is outlined as follows: From a historical-scientific viewpoint, it is most likely that the origin of ancient Israel is to be placed in the context of the Mediterranean region in the Iron Age I period. Furthermore, despite their belligerent relations, both Judean and Samaritan populaces are likely to be genetically related and, therefore, from the same ancestral origins. Theologically, the centralization of worship had, to some extent, contributed significantly to the shaping of the ideologies of the Jerusalem temple and Davidic/Israel’s election. In response to these ideologies, the Samaritans rejected any tradition related to Jerusalem temple and to Davidic kingship and put an exclusive claim on the Mosaic tradition as the only authoritative script. Addressed from a textual/literary approach, the two Pentateuchs share the same roots – the Mosaic tradition – and the differences between them are mainly due to editorial activities, where editors acted in favour of their respective site of worship. Lastly, with regard to the place of the Samaritan Pentateuch in the work of Bible translation, it is noted that, despite the different emphases on the place of worship, it has much in common not only with the Jewish Pentateuch but also with other textual witnesses such as the Septuagint and the Dead Seas Scrolls. Moreover, like other textual witnesses, the Samaritan Pentateuch held a significant level of authority over ancient Israeli communities, including Qumran and the early church. If this is the case, then the place of the Samaritan Pentateuch in the enterprise of Bible Translation needs to be reconsidered.
- ItemChurch and Culture? : exploring the reception of women’s ministries in the Reformed Church in Zambia in view of 1 Corinthians 14:26-40(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-03) Phiri, Jackson; Mouton, Elna, 1952-; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) was established in 1899 through the missionary work of the Dutch Reformed Church of the Orange Free State in South Africa. After its establishment, the church maintained its ministries through the leadership of male deacons, elders and ministers/reverends who served in all the (official) ministries of the church. This was mainly because of how the Bible was understood and interpreted (literally). In the process, the socio-cultural context of the Bible was mostly disregarded. One example of such a one-sided history of interpretation in the RCZ is that of 1 Corinthians 14:26-40, according to which women were not allowed to take up leadership roles in the church. However, things changed when the Synod of the RCZ took a decision (during its 1989, 1998 and 2000 synod meetings) to allow women into all the ministries of the church – as deaconesses, elders and reverends. This went along with serious challenges to understanding the Bible in new ways. A major implication was that biblical texts were now to be read from different perspectives, which included taking into account the socio-cultural world behind these texts. This inevitably led to questions regarding the authority of the Bible. This research explores the RCZ general membership‘s reception of the Synod‘s decision, in view of the members‘ understanding of 1 Corinthians 14:26-40. Through a multidimensional analysis of the text, the study argues that the ban on women speaking in church in 14:34 has to be understood primarily within the Greco-Roman socio-cultural and political contexts as well as the value systems of the first-century Mediterranean world. It concludes by saying that Paul was addressing a context-specific issue in the Corinthian faith community which prevailed at the time, and that it was not meant to serve as a general ban on all subsequent generations of women in every time and place. The challenge of interpreting the Bible (specifically with regard to women‘s leadership in the RCZ) is, however, not only about reading the Bible in context, but also about accounting for the contexts within which the Bible has been and is still being received. In the case of the RCZ, the challenge concerns how (patriarchal) indigenous cultural traditions and values have been upheld for a long time, thereby oppressing and marginalising women as baptised members of the church, created equally and affirmed by God. While the RCZ is challenged to appreciate these traditions and values, it is called to bring its entire life, including its culture, under the Lordship of Jesus Christ. In this way, cultural traditions and values are profoundly challenged to be liberated, healed and transformed by Christ, and should not be allowed to dictate or dominate the ethos of a Christian community. In the end, the study challenges the RCZ to account for, and take responsibility for, their interpretation of this text when appropriating it in today‘s context. In the final analysis, it seems that 1 Corinthians 14:26-40 may be seen as a text of terror unless one applies a multidimensional exegetical reading to it and identifies the aspects that are socio-culturally defined. Once these aspects have been identified, this text can be read as a text that radically calls Christian believers, men and women, to the unity of the body of Christ while recognising that they are equally gifted and empowered to carry out all the ministries of the church – for the purpose of its edification, strengthening and growth as the ekklēsia of God in the world.
- ItemThe City in Isaiah 24-27 : a theological interpretation in terms of judgment and salvation(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-12) Kim, Jin-Hak; Bosman, Hendrik; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.As the title indicates, our study is focused on a theological interpretation of the city in Isaiah 24-27 from the point of view of God’s judgment and salvation. The main reason for the study is that in Isaiah 24-27, the city plays a very significant role. The research therefore employs the socio-rhetorical approach which is a method that explores a multi-dimensional way of dealing with the text. Applying Robbins’ (1966a & b) textural analysis to the text of Isaiah 24-27, the inner and inter textures are examined in order to demonstrate the narrator’s rhetorical strategy. Through the prophetic genre of judgement and salvation, the narrator challenges the audience/reader to change their minds and attitudes, especially about the city. The challenge is that the fortified city alone would never provide safety and peace but rather bring God’s judgment. In contrast, God alone provides salvation and protection through God’s reign on Mount Zion/Jerusalem. It is shown that this rhetorical strategy is deeply embedded in the social and cultural context. The expectation was that the historical and political chaos which was triggered by international pressures and Israel’s unfaithfulness and injustice might cause Israel to reflect on what happened and what would happen to the city in God’s eschatological time. The rhetorical strategy also highlights the eschatological-apocalyptic character of the text and the author of Isaiah 24-27 uses it to focus on the ideological and theological textures by means of which he warned that “Zion theology” could become “Zion ideology” if it became located beyond prophetic voice and criticism. Furthermore, it is shown that the theological texture highlights God’s theological viewpoint that is symbolized by subjects such as universalism and the restoration of Zion/Jerusalem through judgment and salvation both of which are dialectically reflected in the destiny of the city of Zion/Jerusalem. At a deeper level, this theological engagement is based on God’s steadfast covenant love and justice, through which, God as husband and king, makes a demand on the city Jerusalem/Zion, the wife and the faith community. We have attempted to show from Isaiah 24-27 that God’s kingship is expressed in an apocalyptic manner which is beyond human power and intervention in order to emphasize God’s absolute sovereignty in controlling human destiny, especially the city. In line with the odd literary genre of the text, there still exist traditional prophetic thoughts which demand human responsibility on issues such as repentance, execution of social justice and righteousness in life.
- ItemCosmogonic presuppositions in Hebrews and its first-century philosophical context(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-12) Rojas Yauri, Benjamin; Punt, Jeremy; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation aims to consider the relationship between Hebrews’ cosmogonic presuppositions and its first-century philosophical context. It is a multimethodological research focusing on the historic-grammatical, socio-rhetorical, and content analysis methodologies applied to biblical studies. In addition, this research develops a methodology that allows the discovery of a document’s position on topics other than its main topic, i.e. a methodology that could be termed a “Text-linguistic exclusion” and which consists of four steps. This dissertation comprises eight chapters: Chapters I–III tackle the problem of some of the introductory issues pertaining to Hebrews and analyse the cosmogonic presuppositions found in first-century philosophy. Chapters IV and V analyse Hebrews’ text and provide the foundational analysis of the Greek text upon which the cosmogonic presuppositions in Hebrews were established, i.e. it displays the mechanics of the Greek text, as well as its grammatical, textual, and literary issues. Chapter VI presents the cosmogonic presuppositions in Hebrews, and Chapter VII compares these with the cosmogonic presuppositions present in first-century philosophy by focusing on four main aspects: 1) the literary component; 2) the Creator; 3) the procedure of creating; and 4) the creation itself. Chapter VIII follows as both a comprehensive summary and conclusion of this research. The main finding of this dissertation is that Hebrews embraces a new cosmogonic perspective for its time, built on coherent presuppositions developed mostly in its reading of Jewish literature, among which the Old Testament, and particularly Genesis 1-3, takes a predominant place. This new perspective stands apart from firstcentury cosmogonic presuppositions which were a plethoric mixture of thoughts.
- ItemCovenant in relation to justice and righteousness in Isaiah 42:1-9(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-03) Muutuki, Joseph Mwasi; Bosman, Hendrik; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study focuses on covenant in relation to justice and righteousness in Isaiah 42:1-9. The main purpose of the study is to grapple with the idea of whether the Old Testament scholarly research on covenant is relevant for the theological-ethical understanding of covenant amongst African believing communities in general and in particular the Kamba community of Kenya. The research employs the socio-rhetorical approach, a method used to explore textures in a multi-dimensional way. In applying Robbins‘ (1996a, 1996b) textual analysis to the text of Isaiah 42:1-9, both the intra and intertextures are examined in order to gain the narrator‘s rhetorical strategy. It is possible to demonstrate that the mission of the Servant of the Lord was to establish justice and righteousness on earth. We show these terms are relational and ethical in nature. Justice restores damaged relationships in order for a community to have peace with itself. Righteousness on the other hand governs moral relationships and demands each member of the community acts right. These demands are required in order to regulate a cohesive social and cultural community that takes each other‘s social needs into account. Moreover, we show through intertexture in chapter three that texts reconfigure themselves either explicitly or implicitly. It is shown that three concepts, justice, righteousness and covenant exhibit moral characteristics when used together. Within covenant framework they have to do with taking care of the needs of the oppressed. Furthermore, in chapter four through social and cultural texture we show how the Israelites and Judah later are unable to fulfill their obligations to the poor because of the moral decay, which affected all spheres of their life. The Servant of YHWH is promised to usher in a new era of social justice. Additionally, in chapter five it is shown that the ideological texture highlights God‘s theological viewpoint characterized by the tension between the two covenants. We have attempted to show from Isaiah 42:1-9 that the theological-ethical understanding of covenant accommodates the Akamba covenant.
- ItemThe crucifixion and death of Jesus in Mark 15:21-41, from the perspective of its redaction history in the New Testament gospels(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-03-02) Hombana, Mphumezi; Nel, Marius Johannes; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation investigates how the passion narrative tradition (crucifixion and death) of Jesus is redacted in the four New Testament gospels. In other words, how Matthew, Luke, and John interpreted the Markan passion narrative for their unique contexts. To answer this research question adequately, the issue of the four gospels’ relationships has been researched extensively. This study accepts Markan priority as the credible position in the synoptic puzzle. It also assumes that the Fourth Gospel has some form of a relationship with Mark, unlike Matthew and Luke. In this regard the question is seen to be not if John used the Synoptic Gospels as a literary source but if he responded to them or the tradition that had arisen from them. Hence, this study first attempted to investigate how the passion narrative developed from tradition into the Markan narrative account. The goal of this exercise was to provide the background for the entire study. Since Mark was the first canonical gospel that was written, this study shows how Matthew, Luke, and John redacted Mark 15:21-41. The research methodology employed in this study is redaction criticism. It is guided by the notion that a redaction-critical examination of Matthew, Luke, and John (the first existing sources to interpret Mark) can provide key details about how Jesus’ disciples read Mark 15:21-41 in the first century. As a result, this in-depth examination of these events (i.e., Jesus’ crucifixion and death) may yield a plausible understanding of Mark 15:21-41. This project contributes to the ongoing debate about the relationship between John and the Synoptic Gospels that is central to the fourth quest for the historical Jesus. Even though the study largely reaffirms the findings of various studies that have worked on segments of the text analysed, the approached is novel in that it combines the analysis of three canonical Gospels as redactors of Mark 15:21-41. It is hoped that this study, which has been undertaken on African soil by an African scholar will encourage other African scholars to work on the Greek text itself.
- ItemDie interpretasie van die vervullingsitate in Matteus aan die hand van ironie as pragmatiese taalkomponent(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-12) Conradie, Jacobus Petrus; Nel, Marius Johannes; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sien dokument vir opsomming
- ItemEmbracing vulnerability : a drama analysis of the Johannine prologue and crucifixion scenes(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2018-11) Van Deventer, Cornelia; Mouton, Elna, 1952-; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The author of the Fourth Gospel introduces Jesus’ life as a display of glory (δόξα), communally witnessed (θεάομαι) by its audience (1:14). Moreover, the same author testifies of an experience of the divine (which was heard, seen with the eyes, looked upon, and touched with the hands – 1 Jn. 1:1), and which asks for a response from its audience (Jn. 20:30-31). Various scholars have speculated about the possible link between the Fourth Gospel and drama, arguing that its structure, characterisation, dialogue, plotline, and many other elements mimic the ancient Greek drama to strengthen its rhetorical impact on the audience. If such a connection is valid, there ought to be a methodological lens with which one could read the Fourth Gospel to explore and enhance its dramatic elements and their rhetorical impact. While the exegetic field of biblical performance criticism has done much to bring the performative and oral elements of biblical texts into the conversation, an attempt to formulate a methodology for a drama analysis of the text still needs to be made. Moreover, while the Johannine prologue identifies the protagonist as the one who will reveal God through the drama (1:18) and display his glory (1:14b), the narrator also describes his entrance into the earthly realm with the word σάρξ (flesh – 1:14a): a term denoting frailty and vulnerability. This peculiar marrying of σάρξ and δόξα seems to play itself out through the life of Jesus and climaxes at his death on a Roman cross. The Fourth Gospel was probably composed in a milieu where a glorious and divine display would have been marked by honour, power, strength, masculinity, health, resilience, control, and prosperity. Considering this, the use of σάρξ, how it plays into the plot and divine performance of the protagonist, and the effect thereof on a first-time hypothetical audience’s satisfaction and understanding of the drama, could make for a rhetorically powerful analysis. This study, therefore, sets out to read the Fourth Gospel’s prologue (as beginning) and crucifixion (as climax) through a drama lens in order to explore its point of view on vulnerability and the rhetorical effect thereof on a first-time hypothetical audience immersed in the first-century Mediterranean culture of honour, power, and dominance. The appropriation of biblical drama criticism holds the potential to illuminate the audience’s own journey of vulnerability with the performance, and to instil hope in various vulnerable audiences, including the Johannine community and contemporary communities, as it affirms that vulnerability is included in the good and abundant life (Jn. 10:10; 20:30-31) and that the glory of God is revealed in vulnerable vessels.
- ItemEncountering the female voice in the Song of Songs : reading the Song of Songs for the dignity of Kenyan women(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Juma, Dorcas Chebet; Claassens, L. Juliana M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New TestamentENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates one of the central aspects of a Kenyan woman’s identity, namely the notion of sexuality, which unfortunately also underlies numerous socio-economic and developmental challenges currently confronting Kenyan women. The research shows that in Kenya, patriarchal ideologies are used to control the sexuality of women in the name of ‘our culture’. Thus, it is and has been difficult for many Kenyan women to live with dignity as beings equally created in the image and likeness of God. The study, therefore, sought to identify, expose, criticize, destabilize and to deconstruct patriarchal ideologies that deny Kenyan women the right to live with dignity. Patriarchal ideologies that have been used to mute the voices of Kenyan women on matters of sex and sexuality are challenged by introducing the voices of Kenyan women. The latter is done with reference to poetry that reflects the voices and experiences of Kenyan women as a means of expressing who they really are in the midst of a society that silences them. It is shown that, by means of poetry, the full power and energy of these women may be mobilized. Moreover, the voices and experiences of Kenyan women offer a contextual re-reading of the Song of Songs for their dignity. The study presents the female voice in the Song of Songs (a text from a male pen) as responding in a new way to the patriarchal Old Testament society on matters of sex and sexuality. In the process, a twofold strategy is proposed with which negative perceptions of the sexuality of women in the worldview of Kenya may be addressed: First, this study proposes that it is important to purposefully steer conversations regarding issues of sex and sexuality. The latter is done in the conviction that this is one way of creating a platform for addressing other gender-based injustices that deny Kenyan women the right to live with dignity. Second, by focusing on Kenyan poetry, as well as on the female voice in the Song of Songs, there is a possibility of reconstructing positive aspects of the sexuality of Kenyan women, which may allow them to live with dignity. To achieve the aim of this study, to re-read the Song of Songs for the dignity of Kenyan women, an African Women’s Theological approach is used within the broader context of feminist and womanist approaches to the Song. Through an African Women’s approach to the Song of Songs, the study asks how the female voice that spoke boldly in the patriarchal setting of the Old Testament can also be liberating in the Kenyan patriarchal setting. The female voice in Song of Songs presents issues of sex and sexuality in a new way. As such, it is proposed that the latter voice, read through the hermeneutical lens of Kenyan women’s poetry or poetry on Kenyan women, has the potential to inform and therefore to transform the patriarchal setting of the Kenyan society. It is only if Kenyan women are empowered to negotiate safe sex and to express their sexuality on their own terms and conditions, that this will be fully realized.
- ItemEsther as the new Moses : deliverance motifs in the Book of Esther(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-12) Nkhonjera, Lapani Langford Sankhani; Jonker, Louis C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study aims to compare the figures of Moses in the Exodus narratives and Queen Esther in the Esther narratives. The study will proceed to argue that Esther, a remarkable Jewish deliverer figure in the Persian period can be viewed as a reinterpretation of the Moses figure in the Exodus narratives. Within a broad analysis of these narratives, the researcher investigates how Esther fits into the Old Testament deliverance motifs. Commonalities between Moses and Esther and their parallels and characterization as Old Testament deliverer figures assist in drawing a comparative analysis between the two. The study proceeds to prove that Esther is a new Moses figure, arguing that the Esther narratives are presented deliberately in such a way that they reinterpret the Moses narratives. A survey of previous studies that investigated the two narratives provides further evidence for the view that the Esther narratives are reinterpreting the Moses narratives, and hence that Esther can be regarded as a new Moses in the Old Testament deliverance motifs. This study argues that Esther stands within the same category of Old Testament deliverer figures like Moses and that female figures like Esther are not ignored in the deliverance of God’s people. The concluding part of this study investigates what implications the Old Testament narratives of Moses and Esther as deliverer figures may have for the modern-day context of African leadership. The focus is on investigating whether biblical models of leadership and deliverance offer anything to the discourse on African leadership. In the last section, the models of Moses and Esther are applied to modern-day ethical problems of leadership in African societies. It is postulated that Old Testament ethical reflections on biblical characters such as Moses and Esther may inform modern-day reflection on responsible leadership.
- ItemExclusivity and variety : a typological study towards the integration of exegetical methodologies in Old Testament studies(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1993-02) Jonker, Louis C.; Olivier, J. P. J.; Van der Kooij, A.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Department of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The present state of the exegetical discipline is characterized in this dissertation by the exploration of the concepts exclusivity and variety. There is variety not only in the numerous methods and approaches, but also in variants in methodological application, hermeneutical presuppositions, confessional and dogmatic views, specialization areas and the increasing volume of scholarly literature. To escape the abyss of variety, exegetes often turn to making exclusivistic claims, sometimes deliberately. The main interest of this dissertation is a methodological one, with the implication that the discussion is limited to the variety of exegetical methodologies. The working hypothesis is that a multidimensional and/or integrational approach to exegesis can evade the dangers of exclusivity and variety. Various theoretical guidelines, which should be taken into consideration in this discussion, are filtered out from previous attempts in this regard. Two methodologies, namely a historical-critical one and a narrative one, are used as examples in this investigation. In order to investigate the implementation of these methodologies in practice, the Samson Cycle (Judges 13-16) is analyzed. Subsequently, both methodologies are evaluated according to the theoretical guidelines which are formulated earlier. The multidimensional and/or integrational possibilities of these methodologies are then scrutinized. The investigation leads to the formulation of three models which may serve as guidelines for further discussion on this topic. Preference is given to an adapted communication model which serves as a hermeneutical framework in which exegetical methodologies function multidimensionally and interactively. It is proposed that the operative factor of such a communication model is a reading strategy which consists of two components, namely (i) a specialized reading and (ii) a competent reading of the text.
- ItemExodus in 2 Chronicles 10-36 : an exegetical study on inner-biblical allusion(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-02-04) Hutchison, Daniel Allen; Jonker, Louis C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A shift in scholarly studies on Chronicles has occurred in the last forty years, from primarily historical examinations to assessments of its literary features. With this shift has come a focus on how Chronicles refers to other biblical books. The primary biblical source for Chronicles is Samuel-Kings, but Chronicles refers to other biblical texts as well. However, a systematic examination of the author’s allusions to a pentateuchal book has not yet been published. This study’s contribution to scholarship is a systematic evaluation of how Chronicles alludes to the book of Exodus in 2 Chr 10-36 and how those allusions impact the rhetorical arguments of that portion of the book. Additionally, this study reveals exegetical insights at specific points in 2 Chr 10-36 (including allusions not previously noted in the scholarship reviewed). The combination of three elements set this study apart from previous studies of inner-biblical allusion in the Hebrew Bible: (1) a systematic approach to finding inner-biblical allusions to one particular source, (2) a subsequent evaluation of those allusions with a robust methodology, and (3) a comparison of those allusions’ rhetorical uses to a narrative analysis of the alluding text. The study identifies sixteen inner-biblical allusions to Exodus in 2 Chr 10-36 with an additional fourteen recurrences of those allusions. Chronicles uses an assortment of lexical, conceptual, and structural markers to indicate its allusions to Exodus in 2 Chr 10-36, though shared language is the primary method. Each of the allusions to Exodus has one or more of the following uses: Moral Evaluation, Elevate the Temple and Priesthood, Establish and Reaffirm a Standard or Truth, Exegesis, and Encouragement. The study also situates the allusions in their narrative context for rhetorical investigation and comparison. The study observes in Chronicles the importance of the Davidic kingship and how the people of Israel can relate to YHWH, their God, through the proper operation of the cult. The significance of the temple and its location in Jerusalem are paramount. The centrality of the temple is not in its grandeur but in its emphasis on a relationship with the God who dwells there. The kings following David succeed or fail (or both) based on how they relate to YHWH. Those who relate well to YHWH and care for his temple receive God’s blessing. Those who spurn YHWH and disrupt or damage his temple receive his judgment. Chronicles uses allusions to Exodus in 2 Chr 10-36 to support at least three of that section’s rhetorical aims: (1) to evaluate the moral character of its characters, (2) to highlight and elevate the status of the temple and its attendants, the Levites, and (3) to establish and reaffirm the standards by which the text evaluates its characters.
- ItemAn experiment in Bible translation as transcultural communication : the translation of [berith] 'covenant' into Lomwe, with a focus on Leviticus 26(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2005-04) Foster, Stuart Jeremy; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; Wendland, E. R.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old & New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The narrow question is how best to translate into Lomwe the biblical Hebrew term [berith] 'covenant'. But this question draws in many other issues when the contextual nature of communication is taken into account. Using Leviticus 26 as a focus text, this study sketches a complete arc from the impact at world view level of covenant concepts in the original to impact at worldview level among present-day Lomwe-speakers in northern Mozambique. This study defends a definition of covenant in its ancient Near Eastern context as a chosen relationship of mutual obligation guaranteed by oath sanctions. A close reading of Leviticus 26 in its literary contexts highlights the integrating role of covenant in the Old Testament. Used for Yahweh and his people, covenant language stressed that the relationship was exclusive, secure, accountable and purposeful. However, Lomwe-speakers are traditionally matrilineal with no adequate analogs to ancient covenantal customs. Protestant Christians among them, who have not had the Old Testament in their language, show by their songs that they do not have a covenantal sense of their relationship to God, but see life as a journey of escape to heaven while under the threat of divine judgment. For the present experiment, volunteers preached from a translation of Leviticus 26 to their congregations. In the resulting recorded sermons, the covenant concepts emphasized were relationship and obligation (but not chosenness or oath sanctions), and exclusivity and accountability (but not security or purpose). To compensate, the study proposes specific steps for Bible translators and those involved in the broader teaching task of the churches, especially dwelling on the potential of using muloko wa Muluku, 'people of God' as an integrating framework.
- ItemFor king and country: an ideological critical study of covenant in Jeremiah 11:1-17 and Kingship in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 as examples of cultural violence(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-12) Gertzen, Marius; Claassens, L. Juliana M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study offers an ideological critical investigation of the notion of covenant in Jeremiah 11:1-17 and kingship in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 as examples of cultural violence. Employing the theoretical framework of Johan Galtung with reference to direct, structural and cultural violence, the ideological-literary aspects and ideological-contextual aspects of the world in, behind and in front of these texts are explored. In Chapter 2 of this study the theoretical framework of Galtung pertaining to direct, structural and cultural violence is critically discussed. Cultural violence as exemplified by, for instance, religion and ideology is shown by Galtung to justify or legitimise direct or structural violence. Cultural violence makes direct and structural violence look, even feel, right – or at least not wrong. Cultural violence thus plays a crucial role in legitimising acts of direct violence, and rendering the fact of structural violence acceptable in society. In Chapter 3, the world of Jeremiah is investigated. Textual aspects of structure, genre and the Deuteronomistic source informing Jeremiah are brought into conversation with the historical, social and religious aspects of the world of Jeremiah. In Chapter 4 the notion of covenant is defined and interrogated. After offering a diachronic as well as a synchronic analysis of covenant in the Hebrew Bible in its Ancient Near Eastern (ANE) context, this chapter addresses the way in which covenant features in Jeremiah 11:1-17. This includes the ideological-literary manifestation of judgement; the text’s close affinity to the Deuteronomistic ideological worldview; and Jeremiah 11’s correspondence with the temple sermon of Jeremiah 7. These aspects are then used to investigate the ways in which the temple in Jerusalem can be perceived as an example of structural violence and the process of the centralisation of the cult as an example of direct violence. Thereafter, covenant as cultural violence is explored in terms of the covenantal ideology of election; the covenantal ideology of Zion; and the covenantal ideology of the Deuteronomistic. Lastly, it is demonstrated how the direct, structural and cultural violence of covenant in Jeremiah 11:1-17 are closely related to each other by utilising the violence triangle and violence strata image of Galtung. In Chapter 5 of this study the notion of kingship is defined and interrogated. The monarchical state is identified as a theoretical vehicle that is useful for investigating kingship in Israel. The synchronic focus of kingship on divine election and the upholding of justice in the ANE and Israel is investigated, where after diachronic aspects of the divine election and the upholding of justice of selected kings of Israel are explored in conjunction with aspects of direct and structural violence pertaining to the monarchical states during the reign of these kings. The direct violence of the monarchical state of Jehoiakim is discussed in terms of the practise of corvée labour, as well as the structural violence of the monarchical state pertaining to functions of the state as introduced by Solomon but continuing to the time of Jehoiakim. The theology of kingship is discussed especially with reference to the way in which the future promise of a just king is used in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 to save the institution of kingship. Mention is also made of how the royal psalms can be seen as the popular discourse that kept the elective position of the king before YHWH alive, even if the prophets saw this relationship as a thing of the past. Lastly, the direct, structural and cultural violence of kingship in Jeremiah 22:1-23:8 are once again brought into conversation with each other by employing the violence triangle and violence strata image of Galtung. Finally, the study shows how an understanding of the theoretical framework of Galtung regarding violence may help one to better understand the direct, structural and cultural violence of the ideology of Apartheid in a contemporary South African context. The study concludes by showing the dangers of an inerrant view of Scripture, but also cautions against limiting the violence of Scripture to only texts that contain visible direct violence.
- Item‘From beyond the rivers of Cush’ : negotiating ethnic identity and Cushite-Israelite interrelations in the Hebrew Bible(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2018-11) Burrell, Kevin; Jonker, Louis C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is almost axiomatic that the impetus to study the past is occasioned by contemporary paradigms and circumstances. In recent years the steady flow of critical investigations of ethnic sentiments in the biblical literature can be directly correlated to the salience of ethnic dynamics in our modern, multicultural context. It is reasonable to assert then that the biblical scholar’s primary purpose for studying ethnic dynamics in Israel’s past is to inform, in one way or another, the contemporary struggle for identity in an ethnically and racially fractured social landscape. The primary objective of this work is to investigate representations of Cushites in the Hebrew Bible, and as such it is a study of the past. But relevant to the present, one of the main goals of this project is to provide a more balanced view of Cushite ethnographic representations in the biblical literature by consciously departing from accepted stereotypes of Africa and people of African descent which are largely a feature of the modern age. Varying degrees of racial stereotyping expressed in otherwise competent biblical interpretation tend to emphasize unfavourable portraits of the people the biblical writers called Cushites. Such views are revealed, for example, through a tacit assumption of the slave status of certain Cushites who appear in the pages of the Hebrew Bible. It is a working assumption of this study that modern notions of race and ethnicity were understood differently in the ancient and biblical contexts. Thus, in contrast to racial assumptions, this work seeks to comprehend the biblical view of Cushites first by undertaking a comprehensive examination of comparative representations of Cushites in ancient Egypt and the Mediterranean, and second by a critical examination of the theological outlook of the biblical authors who wrote about them. This study contributes to a clearer understanding of the theological, historical, and ethnic dynamics underpinning representations of Cushites in the Hebrew Bible.
- ItemFrom the exile to the Christ : exile, restoration and the interpretation of Matthew's gospel(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12) Eloff, Mervyn; Combrink, H. J. B.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate by critical interaction with four key areas of Matthean research that 'restoration from exile' provides a valid and valuable hermeneutical prism for the interpretation of Matthew's gospel. The investigation is undertaken from a Reformed and Evangelical perspective and an inclusive approach is adopted with regard to hermeneutics, viz that interpretation should take note of the historical and literary and theological aspects of Matthew's gospel. The four key areas of investigation were chosen because they involve both particular texts and the gospel as a whole and are, respectively, Matthew's genealogy, Matthew's concept of Salvation History, the Plot of Matthew's gospel and Matthew's Use of the Old Testament. Each of these areas has already received extensive attention in Matthean scholarship, though in each case the question of'restoration from exile' has been almost entirely neglected. In each area, a brief critical survey of current scholarship is provided, both in terms of content and methodology. This survey is then followed by a discussion ofthe relevant texts and topics, demonstrating both the presence and the hermeneutical importance of the 'restoration from exile' theme. In this way, the thesis thus shows that 'restoration from exile' does indeed provide a valid though not exclusive, hermeneutical prism for the interpretation of Matthew's gospel and that such an interpretation casts fresh light on both familiar and more troublesome texts and topics of investigation. The final section of the thesis comprises a brief survey of the theme of 'restoration from exile' within the Hebrew Scriptures and a representative selection of early Jewish texts. On the basis of this survey, the conclusion is reached that despite the very real diversity within early Judaism, it is possible to conclude that perhaps the majority of Jews of the Second Temple Period saw themselves as still 'in exile', at least in theological and spiritual terms. This in turn suggests that Matthew's presentation of Jesus as the one, who by his death and resurrection brings the exile to an end, both for Israel and for the human race at large, is designed to meet a very real spiritual and theological need. Furthermore, the pervasive interest in 'restoration from exile' within representative texts from Second Temple Judaism, and Matthew's clear interest in this same theme, further support claims for the Jewish-Christian setting of Matthew 's gospel and its dual function of legitimization for the Matthean communities and evangelistic appeal to outsiders.
- ItemGenesis 12-25 in die lig van grafgebruike en grafvertellinge gedurende die Ystertydperk in Palestina(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-12) Oosthuizen, Rudolph De W.; Bosman, Hendrik; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old & New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Apart from the literature of Ancient Israel itself, and contemporary literature from the ancient Near East, archaeological data continue to be an important source for the historian seeking to elucidate a history of ancient Israel or certain aspects of that history. Notwithstanding certain developments in the field of Biblical scholarship as well as archaeology, the discipline of Biblical archaeology continues to survive as the framework in which these two disciplines join forces, and, quite possibly, may enter into the historical discourse in meaningful dialogue with each other. The historical discourse of course, is multidimensional, that is to say, the insights deriving from a diversity of methodological approaches are being integrated and related to each other in order to gain an improved understanding of the Old Testament (or certain aspects thereof), and the cultural-historical context from which the Old Testament came to be. Of decisive importance for Biblical archaeology is the foundation on which this dialogue takes place, after all, the basis on which the dialogue takes place has a determining influence on the collection and interpretation of archaeological data; and the use of them, similarly, on the understanding and interpretation of the Bible. The title of this dissertation suffices to indicate that the focus is on burial stories and burial customs in Palestine during the Iron Age. The dissertation then proceeds to show how a certain aspect of Old Testament views of death and dying, that is the coherence between posterity (the living) and the ancestors (those who have died) - which, among other things surface in the genealogical presentation of burial stories - can be understood from the burial customs in Syro-Palestine. In that respect the archaeological data contributes to an understanding of the death notices (presenting themselves as genealogical material in family burial stories) within the culturalhistorical milieu in which they appear. The coherence between religious documents and their cultural embeddedness contributes to a bettter understanding of the theological significance of the relevant texts. In addition to the fact that archaeology expands the database of historical discourse, important aspects of the Old Testament world of experience and historical context come to the fore that have so far been ignored in this discipline. An important aspect of burial customs, in terms of both the archaeological record (family graves) and the literary legacy of Ancient Israel (death notices and genealogies in the Old Testament) is the continuing relationship between the preceeding generations (the ancestors that have passed on) and the posterity (the community of those still living). The connection established in family burial stories between genealogical material (death notices) and the family burial customs highlights an important perspective, that is, the relation between the preceeding generations and the community still living as an element of the expectation of the future, or the future-directedness of Ancient Israel. The expectation of the future, with specific reference to the grave, is defined in terms of continuity in the generational community of familial relations.
- ItemGod en hoop in Jesaja 5:1-7 aan die hand van parallelismes in die boek Jesaja(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-03) Daniels, Andries; Bosman, Hendrik; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation is an attempt to address the problem of the relationship between Yahweh and Hope in Isaiah 5:1-7 in the light of parallelism in the book Isaiah. It is an attempt to prove that our hypothesis, that hope in the book Isaiah can be explained theologically in a special manner by means of parallelism (synonymous, antithetical and synthetical); that hope can also not only theologically be understood in concordance (synonymous and synthetical), but also in contradiction (antithetical); that Isaiah 5:1-7 can be used as a good example of antithetical parallelism and that the social, cultural and ideological texture give cause to the different accents of the theological understanding of hope in Isaiah. For this study we used the socio-rhetorical approach of Vernon Robbins. In Chapter 1 we look more closely at the socio-rhetorical approach, we look for possible flaws and make some suggestions. For the clarification of the concepts "hope" and "parallelism" we focus on the meaning of these concepts as included in the hypothesis of this dissertation. An overview of the research of Isaiah 5:1-7 is given and how the history of interpretation has been characterised by three approaches, namely the historical-critical, literary and theological approaches. By the use of the socio-rhetorical approach we attempt to study more fully "God and Hope in Isaiah 5:1-7 in the light of parallelism in the book Isaiah". In Chapter 2 we are focusing on the inner texture of Isaiah 5:1-7. We are looking to the following: - The repetitive texture and pattern; we are looking for the occurrence of words and phrases more than once in a unit. - The progressive texture and pattern; there is a progressive building up from verse 1 to verse 7 in words and phrases. - The narrational texture and pattern; Isaiah 5:1-7 has been characterised by two structural forms, namely a love song and a juridical case. - The opening-middle-closing texture and pattern; the exposition looks as follows: - opening: vv. 1-2d; - middle: vv. 2e-4; - closing: vv. 5-7. - The argumentative texture and pattern; Yahweh is building up an argument. He is using the example of a vineyard and court terms to explain and build up His case. - The sensory-aesthetic texture and pattern; the relationship between Yahweh and his people become sour and we are talking of contradicting emotions and acts, namely excitement and disappointment, pressing (of the grapes) and judgement. In Chapter 3 we are focussing on the intertexture of Isaiah 5:1-7 and its connection with hope. We are looking to the dating of Isaiah 5:1-7. The possible intertextual connections between Isaiah 5:1-7 and the other texts in Isaiah are "recitation", "recontextualization" and "thematic elaboration". Considering that "parallelism" is part of the theme of this dissertation, we are taking antithetical parallelism as point of departure to concentrate on four focus texts, namely Isaiah 5:1-7 (main focus texts), Isaiah 27:2-6, Isaiah 40:27-31 and Isaiah 59:1-21. In terms of parallelism and dating we typify the four texts as follows: - Isaiah 5:1-7: antithetical parallelism; late post-exilic. - Isaiah 27:2-6: late pre-exilic. - Isaiah 40:27-31: antithetical parallelism; exilic. - Isaiah 59:1-21: antithetical parallelism; post-exilic. that play a role in how hope is understood are: "viticulture", "dwellers in Jerusalem", "men of Judah", "house of Israel", "Jacob/Israel" and "Zion". In Chapter 5 we are focussing on the ideological and sacred texture of Isaiah 5:1-7 and its connection with hope. The following issues cast light on how hope must be understood in terms of the ideological texture, namely "the conflict between communities", "the ideological conflict concerning Zion theology", "the people circumstances in the exile" and "class conflict". In terms of the theme, "God and Hope in Isaiah 5:1-7 in the light of parallelism in the book Isaiah", the role of Yahweh is crucial in in the way hope must be understood. In the sacred texture of Isaiah 5:1-7 Yahweh plays the following roles: "Gardener-Viticulturist", "Creator", "King", "Judge", "Warrior" and "Husband". In Chapter 6 we summarise our study and also give a conclusion to the study, the contribution of the dissertation to the field of study in comparison with existing research and suggestions with reference to further research. Therefore, the answer on the question, "How can hope been theologically understood in the book Isaiah in consideration of the literary and historical textures of Isaiah 5:1-7?" is as follows: Hope with parallelisms as point of departure in the book of Isaiah can be theologically understand on how Isaiah 5:1-7 is socio-rhetorically been investigated.
- ItemThe Hesed and Rahamim of God as resources of hope in contexts of individual and communal loss : a multi-dimensional reading of Lamentations(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-03) Muriwo, Golden; Jonker, Louis C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Theology. Dept. of Old and New Testament.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation argues for the existence of hope in the book of Lamentations. Although on the surface the picture presented seems to be that of gloom, an analysis of the literary features points to the central part of the book as the peak of the theology of Lamentations. In that central part four Hebrew words are used to express this hope. Once this ray of hope has been lit, it is not quenched by the incessant agony of suffering. It shines throughout the entire remaining laments. This hope is based on a reflection of the hesed and rahamim of God. The hesed and rahamim of God, which are taken as resources for the generation of hope, are studied diachronically and synchronically. It is revealed in this study that the hesed and rahamim of God are social, active and enduring. This is then contrasted to the anger of God, which is temporal. Through a multidimensional analysis of the text of Lamentations, it is also revealed in this dissertation that the book is atemporal and ahistorical. The atemporal and ahistorical nature of Lamentations enhances its portability to other contexts of suffering beyond that of its inception. However, in order to do this responsibly, the author advocates for an analogous reading that recognises the continuities and discontinuities within the various contexts. This work finally brings the Judean context of suffering into dialogue with the Zimbabwean context of suffering. Some useful parallels are then drawn with the aim of offering lasting hope, healing, and identity and dignity construction to victims of Gukurahundi, Murambatsvina and Hondo yeminda.