Browsing Masters Degrees (Institute for Wine Biotechnology) by Subject "Carotenoids"
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- ItemCarotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) of grape(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-12) Dockrall, Samantha; Young, Philip R.; Vivier, Melane A.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology. Institute for Wine Biotechnology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids and/or apocarotenoids. Carotenoids are synthesised in plastids (primarily chloroplasts and chromoplasts), where they are involved in light-harvesting and protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-oxidation. The carotenoid-derived apocarotenoids fulfil a number of roles in plants such as phytohormones, pollinator attractants and flavour and aroma compounds. Due to the floral and fruity characteristics that apocarotenoids contribute to wine, these C13 compounds have received interest in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). The CCD gene family in Arabidopsis consists of nine members, all encoding for enzymes that catalyse the cleavage of carotenoids. The enzymes in this family include 9-cis-epoxydioxygenases (NCEDs) and four classes of CCD. NCEDs and CCD7 and CCD8 are involved with plant hormone synthesis, e.g. abscisic acid (ABA) through cleavage by NCED and strigolactone (SL) through the sequential cleavage of carotenoids by CCD7 and CCD8, respectively. SLs are a fairly new class of plant hormone which are involved in several aspects of plant growth and development. The most extensively characterised role of SLs is their involvement in the inhibition of shoot-branching. CCD1 and CCD4 cleave a variety of carotenoids to form pigments and aroma compounds. For example, CCD1 forms β-ionone and β-damascenone, which are important varietal flavours of wine, and CCD4 is involved in synthesis of the pigment and aroma compounds of saffron and annatto. CCD1 enzymes symmetrically cleave the 9,10 (9’,10’) double bonds of multiple carotenoids to produce a C14 dialdehyde and two C13 products. Additional CCD1 cleavage activity at 5,6 (5’,6’) double bonds of lycopene has been reported. Previous studies have shown that CCD1 isolated from V. vinifera (VvCCD1) was able to cleave multiple carotenoid substrates in vitro, namely zeaxanthin, lutein and β-carotene at 9,10 (9’,10’) double bonds and both the 5,6 (5’,6’) and 9,10 (9’,10’) double bonds of lycopene. None of the other VvCCDs, except VvCCD4a have been isolated (but no functionality was illustrated) and characterised yet. CCD4 enzymes also cleave carotenoids at the 9,10 (9’,10’) double bond positions. The presence of plastid-target peptides implies that the CCD4 enzymes have continuous access to carotenoids. Therefore it is suggested that CCD4s are responsible for carotenoid maintenance, where CCD1s contribute towards volatile production. To test this hypothesis VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b were isolated from V. vinifera (cv Pinotage) cDNA and cloned into a pTWIN1 protein expression vector. Substrate specificity of each VvCCD was tested by co-transforming a carotenoid accumulating E. coli strain with a CCD expression vector. Carotenoids synthesized by the bacteria were identified and quantified by UPLC-analysis, while the concentration of the apocarotenoids, were measured in the headspace of the bacterial cultures using HS-SPME-GC-MS. Several optimisations were done to minimize the natural degradation of the carotenoids; to ensure that the apocarotenoid formation is predominantly due to the enzymatic cleavage by the VvCCDs and not due to oxidation or other non-enzymatic degradation. The HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis indicated that all isoforms cleaved phytoene, lycopene and ε-carotene. Additionally VvCCD1 cleaved a carotenoid involved in photosynthesis, namely β-carotene, while VvCCD4a cleaves neurosporene and VvCCD4b cleaves neurosporene and ζ-carotene, carotenoids not involved in photosynthesis. This study has illustrated that VvCCD1 cleave carotenoids necessary for photosynthesis and VvCCD4s cleave carotenoids which were not present in berry tissue, suggesting their role in carotenoid maintenance. Therefore in planta substrates for CCD1 could possibly be C27 apocarotenoids generated from enzymatic cleavage through CCD4 (role in carotenoid maintenance), CCD7 and/or photo-oxidation, which are then transported from the plastid to the cytosol or possibly C40 carotenoids that are released during senescence or when the plastid membrane is damaged, thus releasing important aroma compounds. Thus the identification of the in vivo substrates has contributed to the understanding the in planta functions of these enzymes